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Full-Text Articles in Law

Conundra Of The Berne Convention Concept Of The Country Of Origin, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2021

Conundra Of The Berne Convention Concept Of The Country Of Origin, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

This essay explores one of the most important, but occasionally intractable, issues under the Berne Convention, the concept of Country of Origin. Article 5(4) of that treaty defines a work’s country of origin, but leaves out several situations, leaving those who interpret and apply the treaty without guidance in ascertaining the country of origin. I will call those situations the “Conundra of the country of origin,” and will explore two of them here. First, what is the country of origin of an unpublished work whose authors are nationals of different countries? Second, what is the country of origin ...


Crash Goes Icann's Multistakeholder Model, Kathryn Kleiman Feb 2020

Crash Goes Icann's Multistakeholder Model, Kathryn Kleiman

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

In 1995, the Internet was becoming a global phenomenon and users needed "domain names"--the street signs of Internet addresses--for an array of commercial and noncommercial speech. A small community of "multistakeholders"--business, civil society, governments, technologists, intellectual property and non-government organization representations--began to write rules for Internet addresses largely on behalf of a global population that had yet to be connected to the Internet. I had the privilege of being part of that group. Since then, Internet use has skyrocketed from 70 million users (1.7% of the world population) in 1995 to over 4.5 billion users (58 ...


Liability For Providing Hyperlinks To Copyright-Infringing Content: International And Comparative Law Perspectives, Jane C. Ginsburg, Luke Ali Budiardjo Jan 2017

Liability For Providing Hyperlinks To Copyright-Infringing Content: International And Comparative Law Perspectives, Jane C. Ginsburg, Luke Ali Budiardjo

Faculty Scholarship

Hyperlinking, at once an essential means of navigating the Internet, but also a frequent means to enable infringement of copyright, challenges courts to articulate the legal norms that underpin domestic and international copyright law, in order to ensure effective enforcement of exclusive rights on the one hand, while preserving open communication on the Internet on the other. Several recent cases, primarily in the European Union, demonstrate the difficulties of enforcing the right of communication to the public (or, in US copyright parlance, the right of public performance by transmission) against those who provide hyperlinks that effectively deliver infringing content to ...


Extended Collective Licenses In International Treaty Perspective: Issues And Statutory Implementation, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2017

Extended Collective Licenses In International Treaty Perspective: Issues And Statutory Implementation, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

National legislation establishing extended collective licenses (ECLs) “authoriz[es] a collective organization to license all works within a category, such as literary works, for particular, limited uses, regardless of whether copyright owners belong to the organization or not. The collective then negotiates agreements with user groups, and the terms of those agreements are binding upon all copyright owners by operation of law.” Albeit authorized under national laws, collective coverage of non-members’ works may pose issues of compatibility with international norms. For example, if non-members must opt-out in order to preserve the individual management of their rights, is the opt-out a ...


Intellectual Property In News? Why Not?, Sam Ricketson, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2016

Intellectual Property In News? Why Not?, Sam Ricketson, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

This Chapter addresses arguments for and against property rights in news, from the outset of national law efforts to safeguard the efforts of newsgathers, through the various unsuccessful attempts during the early part of the last century to fashion some form of international protection within the Berne Convention on literary and artistic works and the Paris Convention on industrial property. The Chapter next turns to contemporary endeavors to protect newsgatherers against “news aggregation” by online platforms. It considers the extent to which the aggregated content might be copyrightable, and whether, even if the content is protected, various exceptions set out ...


Technology And Judicial Reason: Digital Copyright, Secondary Liability, And The Problem Of Perspective, Jonathon Penney Jan 2010

Technology And Judicial Reason: Digital Copyright, Secondary Liability, And The Problem Of Perspective, Jonathon Penney

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

Theories abound about how to understand and explain the development copyright law. Few, however, have focused specifically on the development of secondary liability in digital copyright law. Fewer still have analyzed or theorized the factors that may have driven or influenced that development, particularly judicial reasoning, beyond the obvious point that technology or the Internet has played a role. This essay aims to help fill this gap by investigating the nature of judicial reasoning about technology in secondary liability and digital copyright cases. I will argue that two underlying and competing approaches to technology have deeply influenced judicial reasoning and ...


To (C) Or Not To (C)? Copyright And Innovation In The Digital Typeface Industry, Jacqueline D. Lipton Jan 2009

To (C) Or Not To (C)? Copyright And Innovation In The Digital Typeface Industry, Jacqueline D. Lipton

Articles

Intellectual property rights are often justified by utilitarian theory. However, recent scholarship suggests that creativity thrives in some industries in the absence of intellectual property protection. These industries might be called IP's negative spaces. One such industry that has received little scholarly attention is the typeface industry. This industry has recently digitized. Its adoption of digital processes has altered its market structure in ways that necessitate reconsideration of its IP negative status, with particular emphasis on copyright. This article considers the historical denial of copyright protection for typefaces in the United States, and examines arguments both for and against ...


Celebrity In Cyberspace: A Personality Rights Paradigm For Personal Domain Name Disputes, Jacqueline D. Lipton Jan 2008

Celebrity In Cyberspace: A Personality Rights Paradigm For Personal Domain Name Disputes, Jacqueline D. Lipton

Articles

When the Oscar-winning actress, Julia Roberts, fought for control of the domain name, what was her aim? Did she want to reap economic benefits from the name? Probably not, as she has not used the name since it was transferred to her. Or did she want to prevent others from using it on either an unjust enrichment or a privacy basis? Was she, in fact, protecting a trademark interest in her name? Personal domain name disputes, particularly those in the space, implicate unique aspects of an individual's persona in cyberspace. Nevertheless, most of the legal rules developed for these ...


Should Property Or Liability Rules Govern Information?, Mark A. Lemley, Philip J. Weiser Jan 2007

Should Property Or Liability Rules Govern Information?, Mark A. Lemley, Philip J. Weiser

Articles

This Article focuses on an unappreciated and significant aspect of the debate over property rules in the technology law context. In particular, it argues that the classic justification for legal entitlements protected by a property rule - i.e., a right to injunctive relief - depends on the ability to define and enforce property rights effectively. In the case of many technology markets, the inability to tailor injunctive relief so that it protects only the underlying right rather than also enjoining noninfringing conduct provides a powerful basis for using a liability rule (i.e., awarding the relevant damages to the plaintiff) instead ...


The Ghost Of Telecommunications Past, Philip J. Weiser Jan 2005

The Ghost Of Telecommunications Past, Philip J. Weiser

Articles

Paul Starr's The Creation of the Media presents modern policymakers with an important opportunity to consider the historical lessons of the telecommunications industry. This Book Review underscores how Starr's book richly explains some key components of U.S. information policy - such as relying on an integrated strategy of intellectual property, antitrust law, and telecommunications policy - and that some historical lessons are misplaced as to today's environment - such as a categorical skepticism of vertical integration. Moreover, Starr's account of telecommunications history explains that the U.S.'s success in promoting innovation in the information industries reflects our ...


Disruptive Technology And Common Law Lawmaking: A Brief Analysis Of A&M Records, Inc. V. Napster, Inc., Michael W. Carroll Jan 2002

Disruptive Technology And Common Law Lawmaking: A Brief Analysis Of A&M Records, Inc. V. Napster, Inc., Michael W. Carroll

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This symposium Article analyzes the Ninth Circuit's decision in A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc. After setting the stage with a comparison to the rise of cable television, and a description of the technologies underpinning Napster's service, the Article analyzes the doctrinal developments in the Ninth Circuit's opinion. The principal analytical points are that: (1) the court's definitions of "sampling" and "space-shifting" were overbroad, leading to oversimple fair use analysis; (2) the court's treatment of vicarious liablility for copyright infringement is doctrinally incoherent because it suggests that liability depends on whether a third party has "turn[ed] a blind eye" toward infringement or has exercised its supervisory power over the infringer to the "fullest extent"; and (3) the court's choice to sidestep analysis of the "service provider" safe harbors in Section 512 of the Copyright Act should have been better explained but was understandable given the state of the record.