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Indian and Aboriginal Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Beyond Constitutional Frontiers: Tribal Rights, Resources, And Reform, Monte Mills Sep 2019

Beyond Constitutional Frontiers: Tribal Rights, Resources, And Reform, Monte Mills

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

The current era arguably poses the most complex and challenging environmental dilemmas in human history. With climate change, increasingly scarce resources, and exponentially expanding demand, traditional legal notions of standing, harm, and liability are being stretched and reshaped to accommodate a shifting set of values regarding natural resources and potentially respond to the moment. While these novel and innovative approaches are modestly reshaping the fields of natural resources and environmental law, however, the historical and time-honored claims of Indian tribes are also presenting avenues for rethinking the foundations of those areas of law. Arising both within and outside of the ...


Celebrating 30 Years Of The Indigenous Blacks & Mi’Kmaq Initiative: How The Creation Of A Critical Mass Of Black And Aboriginal Lawyers Is Making A Difference In Nova Scotia, Naiomi Metallic Jun 2019

Celebrating 30 Years Of The Indigenous Blacks & Mi’Kmaq Initiative: How The Creation Of A Critical Mass Of Black And Aboriginal Lawyers Is Making A Difference In Nova Scotia, Naiomi Metallic

Articles & Book Chapters

Drawing on my own experience as alumni of the Indigenous Blacks & Mi’kmaq Initiative at the Schulich School of Law at Dalhousie University—one of the only dedicated access program in a Canadian law school for Black and Aboriginal students—I argue that such programs create optimal conditions for fostering greater awareness of critical race issues within the legal profession. The reason for this is that such programs create a critical mass of Black and Aboriginal law students and alumni, who support and encourage each other and, as a result, acquire confidence and skill in raising, and educating others about ...


Red River, White Law, Laura Spitz Jun 2019

Red River, White Law, Laura Spitz

Faculty Scholarship

No matter how well-intended, advocates reaching for personhood on behalf of rivers in the United States must think carefully about how to meaningfully engage the Indigenous peoples directly affected, or risk continuing practices of colonization. In that sense, the Colorado River case was a missed opportunity to contextualize the claim in terms of local Indigenous laws and cultures. Its dismissal provides an opportunity to reset and reach out before moving forward again.


'Race, Racism, And American Law ': A Seminar From The Indigenous, Black, And Immigrant Legal Perspectives, Monte Mills, Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries Jun 2019

'Race, Racism, And American Law ': A Seminar From The Indigenous, Black, And Immigrant Legal Perspectives, Monte Mills, Eduardo R.C. Capulong, Andrew King-Ries

Faculty Law Review Articles

The events of fall 2016 exploded the myth of a post-racial America that some believed had been ushered in by Barack Obama’s presidency.1With the U.S. presidential campaign in full swing, soon-to-be President Donald Trump disparaged Muslims as terrorists, Mexicans as rapists and murderers, and African Americans as poor.2 Trump’s racist demagoguery came amidst the momentum of the Black Lives Matter,Standing Rock, and Dreamer movements—mass mobilizations that sought to end the police killings of Black people, protect Native American treaty rights, and grant immigrant minors legal status.3 Once again, the racial divide that ...


Native American Cultural Dissonance & Dark Heritage Solutions, Victoria Parker Mar 2019

Native American Cultural Dissonance & Dark Heritage Solutions, Victoria Parker

Student Scholarship

This paper argues that public institutions have an obligation to consider the weight of their responsibility to educate and inform the public about all forms of American history and heritage. Moreover, public institutions should embrace controversy, engage discourse and proactively work on exhibiting balanced representations by re-working or removing antiquated and false narratives surrounding Native American history. In this paper, I proffer solutions from case studies, examples, models, and my own perspective as a Native American tribal member, as to what public institutions and curators can do in the future to deal with cultural dissonance and creating awareness of (Native ...


Law School News: Meet Maine's New Ag, Aaron Frey '08 01-11-2019, Michael M. Bowden Jan 2019

Law School News: Meet Maine's New Ag, Aaron Frey '08 01-11-2019, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Environmental Justice And The Possibilities For Environmental Law, Sarah Krakoff Jan 2019

Environmental Justice And The Possibilities For Environmental Law, Sarah Krakoff

Articles

Climate change and extreme inequality combine to cause disproportionate harms to poor communities throughout the world. Further, unequal resource allocation is shot through with the structures of racism and other forms of discrimination. This Essay explores these phenomena in two different places in the United States, and traces law’s role in constructing environmental and economic vulnerability. The Essay then proposes that solutions, if there are any to be had, lie in expanding our notions of what kinds of laws are relevant to achieving environmental justice, and in seeing law as a possible tactic for instigating broader social change but ...


Privatizing The Reservation?, Kristen A. Carpenter, Angela R. Riley Jan 2019

Privatizing The Reservation?, Kristen A. Carpenter, Angela R. Riley

Articles

The problems of American Indian poverty and reservation living conditions have inspired various explanations. One response advanced by some economists and commentators, which may be gaining traction within the Trump Administration, calls for the “privatization” of Indian lands. Proponents of this view contend that reservation poverty is rooted in the federal Indian trust arrangement, which preserves the tribal land base by limiting the marketability of lands within reservations. In order to maximize wealth on reservations, policymakers are advocating for measures that would promote the individuation and alienability of tribal lands, while diminishing federal and tribal oversight.

Taking a different view ...


If There Can Only Be ‘One Law’, It Must Be Treaty Law. Learning From Kanawayandan D’Aaki, Dayna Nadine Scott, Andrée Boisselle Jan 2019

If There Can Only Be ‘One Law’, It Must Be Treaty Law. Learning From Kanawayandan D’Aaki, Dayna Nadine Scott, Andrée Boisselle

Articles & Book Chapters

The paper stems from a research collaboration with the Anishini community of Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug (KI), known as the people of Big Trout Lake in the far north of Ontario. In the face of renewed threats of encroachment by extractive industries onto their homelands, our research team visited the community on the invitation of leadership in 2017. The community was engaged in strategic planning and reflection on the work that they have done in recent years to articulate and record their own laws for the territory, and to gain recognition for those laws from settler governments. Between 2008 and 2018, the ...


Supreme Court Of Canada Cases Strengthen Argument For Municipal Obligation To Discharge Duty To Consult: Time To Put Neskonlith To Rest, Angela D’Elia Decembrini, Shin Imai Jan 2019

Supreme Court Of Canada Cases Strengthen Argument For Municipal Obligation To Discharge Duty To Consult: Time To Put Neskonlith To Rest, Angela D’Elia Decembrini, Shin Imai

Articles & Book Chapters

Can municipalities infringe Aboriginal or treaty rights without consulting the affected Indigenous group? In Neskonlith Indian Band v. Salmon Arm (City), the British Columbia Court of Appeal answered this question in the affirmative, finding that the city of Salmon Arm did not need to consult the Neskonlith First Nation about impacts from the construction of a shopping mall. In what was technically obiter dicta, the Court permitted the municipal project to proceed, and told the First Nation that its only recourse was to complain to the provincial government in a separate proceeding.


From Foundational Law To Limiting Principles In Federal Indian Law, Alexander Tallchief Skibine Nov 2018

From Foundational Law To Limiting Principles In Federal Indian Law, Alexander Tallchief Skibine

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, I am arguing that one of the reasons animating the Court’s move away from Justice Marshall’s exceptionalism is its fear that under traditional foundational principles of federal Indian law, Indian tribes may gain what the court subjectively perceives to be “unfair” advantages over non-Indians. Therefore, the Court has been looking for limiting principles tending to achieve level playing fields between tribal and non-tribal actors. This Article also argues, however, that while looking for a level playing field may sound like a worthwhile goal, there are many pitfalls involved in this process that may end up ...


What We Don't See When We See Copyright As Property, Jessica Litman Nov 2018

What We Don't See When We See Copyright As Property, Jessica Litman

Articles

For all of the rhetoric about the central place of authors in the copyright scheme, our copyright laws in fact give them little power and less money. Intermediaries own the copyrights, and are able to structure licenses so as to maximise their own revenue while shrinking their pay-outs to authors. Copyright scholars have tended to treat this point superficially, because – as lawyers – we take for granted that copyrights are property; property rights are freely alienable; and the grantee of a property right stands in the shoes of the original holder. I compare the 1710 Statute of Anne, which created statutory ...


Welcome From The Chair Of The Indian Law Section, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely Sep 2018

Welcome From The Chair Of The Indian Law Section, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely

Articles

No abstract provided.


Tenth Anniversary Of The University Of Idaho's Native Law Program, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely Sep 2018

Tenth Anniversary Of The University Of Idaho's Native Law Program, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely

Articles

No abstract provided.


Brief For Southwest Indian Law Clinic As Amici Curiae, United States V. Smith, Veronica C. Gonzales-Zamora, Barbara L. Creel Mar 2018

Brief For Southwest Indian Law Clinic As Amici Curiae, United States V. Smith, Veronica C. Gonzales-Zamora, Barbara L. Creel

Faculty Scholarship

Prior cases, have assumed, without analysis that the ACA applies to Indian Country. This review of the ACA failed to consider and incorporate clearly established Indian law principles and foundational tenets of criminal law in the analysis of its applicability to Indians and Indian Country. Most importantly, the precedent and the Court below failed to understand the racial component involved in the analysis. These failures to understand the principles of Indian law and criminal law, have rendered haphazard and incoherent decisions.

Amici seek to bring clarity to the complex jurisdictional interplay and provide a practical framework for the proper analysis ...


Indigenous Law In Central America: A Key To Improving Life And Justice, Julie A. Davies Jan 2018

Indigenous Law In Central America: A Key To Improving Life And Justice, Julie A. Davies

McGeorge School of Law Scholarly Articles

Indigenous law provides accessible and expeditious dispute resolution in certain regions of Central and South America. Its focus is achieving solutions to a wide variety of problems through consultation and consensus in a manner that restores the harmony of the community. Sanctions, where applicable, seek to reintegrate and reorient the recipient to living a life that is consistent with the community’s values. The formal justice systems of the Northern Triangle countries—Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras—face major challenges in providing their people with access to justice. However, unlike countries with significant indigenous populations in South America, they have ...


"At Bears Ears We Can Hear The Voices Of Our Ancestors In Every Canyon And On Every Mesa Top": The Creation Of The First Native National Monument, Charles Wilkinson Jan 2018

"At Bears Ears We Can Hear The Voices Of Our Ancestors In Every Canyon And On Every Mesa Top": The Creation Of The First Native National Monument, Charles Wilkinson

Articles

No abstract provided.


To Sue And Be Sued: Capacity And Immunity Of American Indian Nations, Richard B. Collins Jan 2018

To Sue And Be Sued: Capacity And Immunity Of American Indian Nations, Richard B. Collins

Articles

Can American Indian nations sue and be sued in federal and state courts? Specific issues are whether tribes have corporate capacity to sue, whether a Native group has recognized status as a tribe, and whether and to what extent tribes and their officers have governmental immunity from suit. Tribal capacity to sue is now well established, and federal law has well-defined procedures and rules for tribal recognition. But tribal sovereign immunity is actively disputed.

This Article reviews retained tribal sovereignty in general and summarizes past contests over tribal capacity to sue and their resolution into today’s settled rule. Next ...


A Human Right To Self-Government Over First Nation Child And Family Services And Beyond: Implications Of The Caring Society Case, Naiomi Metallic Jan 2018

A Human Right To Self-Government Over First Nation Child And Family Services And Beyond: Implications Of The Caring Society Case, Naiomi Metallic

Articles & Book Chapters

On January 26, 2016, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) released a watershed decision in a complaint spearheaded by the First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada, headed by Dr. Cindy Blackstock, and the Assembly of First Nations (the “Caring Society” decision). The complaint alleged that Canada, through its Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs (“INAC” or the “Department”), discriminates against First Nations children and families in the provision of child welfare services on reserve. In its decision, the Tribunal found that INAC’s design, management and control of child welfare services on reserve, along with its ...


The Broad Implications Of The First Nation Caring Society Decision: Dealing A Death-Blow To The Current System Of Program Delivery On-Reserve & Clearing The Path To Self-Government, Naiomi Metallic Jan 2018

The Broad Implications Of The First Nation Caring Society Decision: Dealing A Death-Blow To The Current System Of Program Delivery On-Reserve & Clearing The Path To Self-Government, Naiomi Metallic

Articles & Book Chapters

On January 26, 2016, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) released a watershed decision in a complaint spearheaded by the First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada, its Executive Director, Dr. Cindy Blackstock, and the Assembly of First Nations (the “Caring Society” decision). The complaint alleged that Canada, through its Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs (“INAC” or the “Department”), discriminates against First Nations children and families in the provision of child welfare services on reserve. In its decision, the Tribunal found that INAC’s design, management and control of child welfare services on reserve, along with ...


Indigenous Water Justice, Barbara Cosens Jan 2018

Indigenous Water Justice, Barbara Cosens

Articles

Indigenous Peoples are struggling for water justice across the globe. These struggles stem from centuries-long, ongoing colonial legacies and hold profound significance for Indigenous Peoples’ socioeconomic development, cultural identity, and political autonomy and external relations within nation-states. Ultimately, Indigenous Peoples’ right to self- determination is implicated. Growing out of a symposium hosted by the University of Colorado Law School and the Native American Rights Fund in June 2016, this Article expounds the concept of “indigenous water justice” and advocates for its realization in three major trans- boundary river basins: the Colorado (U.S./Mexico), Columbia (Canada/U.S.), and Murray-Darling ...


Responsible Resource Development: A Strategic Plan To Consider Social And Cultural Impacts Of Tribal Extractive Industry Development, Carla F. Fredericks, Kate Finn, Erica Gajda, Jesse Heibel Jan 2018

Responsible Resource Development: A Strategic Plan To Consider Social And Cultural Impacts Of Tribal Extractive Industry Development, Carla F. Fredericks, Kate Finn, Erica Gajda, Jesse Heibel

Articles

This paper presents a strategic, solution-based plan as a companion to our recent article, Responsible Resource Development and Prevention of Sex Trafficking: Safeguarding Native Women and Children on the Fort Berthold Reservation, 40 Harv. J.L. Gender 1 (2017). As a second phase of our work to combat the issues of human trafficking and attendant drug abuse on the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation (MHA Nation), we developed a strategic plan to better understand the time, scale, and capacity necessary to address the rising social problems accompanying the boom of oil and gas development there. During our process, we discovered ...


Public Lands, Conservation, And The Possibility Of Justice, Sarah Krakoff Jan 2018

Public Lands, Conservation, And The Possibility Of Justice, Sarah Krakoff

Articles

On December 28, 2016, President Obama issued a proclamation designating the Bears Ears National Monument pursuant to his authority under the Antiquities Act of 1906, which allows the President to create monuments on federal public lands. Bears Ears, which is located in the heart of Utah’s dramatic red rock country, contains a surfeit of ancient Puebloan cliff-dwellings, petroglyphs, pictographs, and archeological artifacts. The area is also famous for its paleontological finds and its desert biodiversity. Like other national monuments, Bears Ears therefore readily meets the statutory objective of preserving “historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or ...


Standing Rock, The Sioux Treaties, And The Limits Of The Supremacy Clause, Carla F. Fredericks, Jesse D. Heibel Jan 2018

Standing Rock, The Sioux Treaties, And The Limits Of The Supremacy Clause, Carla F. Fredericks, Jesse D. Heibel

Articles

The controversy surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline (“DAPL”) has put the peaceful plains of North Dakota in the national and international spotlight, drawing thousands of people to the confluence of the Missouri and Cannonball Rivers outside of Standing Rock Sioux Reservation for prayer and peaceful protest in defense of the Sioux Tribes’ treaties, lands, cultural property, and waters. Spanning over 7 months, including the harsh North Dakota winter, the gathering was visited by indigenous leaders and communities from around the world and represents arguably the largest gathering of indigenous peoples in the United States in more than 100 years.

At ...


Human "Being", Laura Spitz Jan 2018

Human "Being", Laura Spitz

Faculty Scholarship

In this summary, Professor Spitz discusses how the Douglas Treaties acknowledged Aboriginal title when negotiations with Indigenous populations when purchasing land. She looks at how what the definition of “human being” is during the 18th century and how Douglas’ respect of Aboriginal land title also indicated he was these people as people. This diverges from categorizations surrounding the term Indian, and its implication that populations were subhuman and/or a different species.

Douglas is still embedded in a larger social and legal structure even as he understands indigenous populations as human when it comes to resources and allocations. Where the ...


Revisiting Seminole Rock, Jeffrey A. Pojanowski Jan 2018

Revisiting Seminole Rock, Jeffrey A. Pojanowski

Journal Articles

The rule that reviewing courts must defer to agencies’ interpretations of their own regulations has come under scrutiny in recent years. Critics contend that this doctrine, often associated with the 1997 Supreme Court decision Auer v. Robbins, violates the separation of powers, gives agencies perverse regulatory incentives, and undermines the judiciary’s duty to say what the law is.

This essay offers a different argument as to why Auer is literally and prosaically bad law. Auer deference appears to be grounded on a misunderstanding of its originating case, the 1945 decision Bowles v. Seminole Rock. A closer look at Seminole ...


Indigenous Rights To Water & Environmental Protection, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2018

Indigenous Rights To Water & Environmental Protection, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

This article examines the rights of Indian nations in the United States to adequate water supplies and environmental protection for their land and associated resources. Part I of this article provides a brief background on the history of federal-tribal relations and the source and scope of federal obligations to protect tribal resources. Part II reviews the source and nature of the federal government’s moral and legal obligations to Indian tribes, which are generally referred to as the trust responsibility. Indian reserved water rights and the difficulty tribes experience in protecting habitat needed for healthy treaty resources is discussed in ...


Resilience And Native Girls: A Critique, Addie C. Rolnick Jan 2018

Resilience And Native Girls: A Critique, Addie C. Rolnick

Scholarly Works

The term resilience is often used with reference to Indigenous women and Indigenous youth. Native girls are included in each of these categories but are rarely the main focus of a campaign. Their triple vulnerability (gender, indigeneity, and age), however, means that the focus on resilience is often greatest when applied to them. This Article centers them. It traces the development of resilience in the (non-Native) ecological and psychological literature. Although resilience is used across many different disciplines, it is especially prominent in ecological literature about resilient institutions, such as communities and cities, and in psychological literature about resilient individuals ...


Chapter 8: Indigenous Belonging: Membership And Identity In The Undrip: Articles 9, 33, 35, And 36, Shin Imai, Kathryn Gunn Jan 2018

Chapter 8: Indigenous Belonging: Membership And Identity In The Undrip: Articles 9, 33, 35, And 36, Shin Imai, Kathryn Gunn

Articles & Book Chapters

The recognition of Indigenous peoples' right to determine their own membership is crucial for their ability to meaningfully exercise their right to self-determination. The Declaration addresses rights of membership directly in Article 9 (right to belong), 33 (right to determine membership), 35 (right to determine responsibilities of members), and 36 (right to maintain relations across borders). Together, these provisions reinforce the right of Indigenous peoples to define themselves, both in terms of membership and geographic scope.


The Source, Nature, And Content Of The Crown’S Underlying Title To Aboriginal Title Lands, Kent Mcneil Jan 2018

The Source, Nature, And Content Of The Crown’S Underlying Title To Aboriginal Title Lands, Kent Mcneil

Articles & Book Chapters

The highest courts in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have consistently held that the Crown has the underlying title to Aboriginal title lands. The United States Supreme Court has likewise concluded that either the federal or state governments have the underlying title to Indian lands. However, the source, nature, and content of this title remain obscure. This article will examine the relevant case law and contend that, in Canada, the Crown’s underlying title is a purely proprietary interest that does not amount to a current beneficial interest and does not entail any jurisdictional authority. It is sourced in the ...