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Environmental Law

2013

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Articles 151 - 179 of 179

Full-Text Articles in Law

Contested Shore: Property Rights In Reclaimed Land And The Battle For Streeterville, Joseph D. Kearney, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 2013

Contested Shore: Property Rights In Reclaimed Land And The Battle For Streeterville, Joseph D. Kearney, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

Land reclaimed from navigable waters is a resource uniquely susceptible to conflict. The multiple reasons for this include traditional hostility to interference with navigable waterways and the weakness of rights in submerged land. In Illinois, title to land reclaimed from Lake Michigan was further clouded by a shift in judicial understanding in the late nineteenth century about who owned the submerged land, starting with an assumption of private ownership but eventually embracing state ownership. The potential for such legal uncertainty to produce conflict is vividly illustrated by the history of the area of Chicago known as Streeterville, the area of ...


Getting Ahead Of The Curve: Supporting Adaptation To Long-Term Climate Change And Short-Term Climate Variability Alike, Alexis Saba, Michela Biasutti, Michael B. Gerrard, David B. Lobell Jan 2013

Getting Ahead Of The Curve: Supporting Adaptation To Long-Term Climate Change And Short-Term Climate Variability Alike, Alexis Saba, Michela Biasutti, Michael B. Gerrard, David B. Lobell

Faculty Scholarship

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been meeting since 1995, and in recent years, it has increasingly focused on facilitating and funding climate change adaptation in developing countries. Other sources of financing, from multilateral development banks to bilateral and multilateral agreements among countries, are also providing resources for adaptation. Simultaneously, climate scientists around the world are updating their forecasts on the nature of future climate change. This article seeks to examine the scope of funding available for climate change adaptation and how climate change forecasts are used to plan for and evaluate climate change adaptation. We ...


Endangered Species In The Oil Patch: Challenges And Opportunities For The Oil And Gas Industry, Gabriel Eckstein, Jesse Snyder Jan 2013

Endangered Species In The Oil Patch: Challenges And Opportunities For The Oil And Gas Industry, Gabriel Eckstein, Jesse Snyder

Faculty Scholarship

Tension among competing interests is nothing new in environmental law. Even among the most tenacious adversaries, the ability to find common ground can serve as an impetus to further the aims of both industry and environmental proponents. Broadly speaking, advocates of the oil and gas industry prefer few restraints, if any, on exploration, development, and production. Comparatively, champions of biological and ecological preservation favor regulatory protections to conserve these interests. Cutting across these often disparate objectives, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) presents a not-so-obvious opportunity for both sides to receive a share of the pie through cooperation and forward planning ...


Shifting Paradigms Transform Environmental And Land Use Law: The Emergence Of The Law Of Sustainable Development, John R. Nolon Jan 2013

Shifting Paradigms Transform Environmental And Land Use Law: The Emergence Of The Law Of Sustainable Development, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

We began these two decades reacting to the market’s interest in developing greenfields and coastal property and end it wondering how to prepare more urbanized places for a growing population of smaller households who seek the amenities of urban living and some protection from the storms ahead. This essay discusses this and nine other fundamental paradigm shifts in environmental and economic conditions that are reshaping the law and changing the way state and local governments control land use and order human settlements.


Hard, Soft & Uncertain: The Guarani Aquifer And The Challenges Of Transboundary Groundwater, David N. Cassuto Jan 2013

Hard, Soft & Uncertain: The Guarani Aquifer And The Challenges Of Transboundary Groundwater, David N. Cassuto

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article begins with an overview of the ecology of the Guarani Aquifer region before turning to the legal and ecological problems it faces. Because the majority of the Guarani Aquifer underlies Brazil (with the rest residing below Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay), the laws and policies of Brazil have a significant managerial impact. Consequently, the Brazilian legal regime forms the focus of the first Part of the Article. The Article then analyzes the international transboundary framework before turning to the recently enacted Agreement on the Guarani Aquifer. This Agreement, signed but not yet ratified by four countries, represents a major ...


Dynamic Governance Innovation, Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2013

Dynamic Governance Innovation, Elizabeth Burleson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article frames environmentally sound innovation in the context of transnational network theory with the goal of setting forth a preliminary framework for international legal policy coherence. I consider how network dynamics can facilitate broad diffusion of environmentally sound technologies, concluding that what appears to be fragmented trade, environment, and human rights regimes are indeed sustainable development building blocks with which to achieve dynamic governance. Collaborative environmentally sound innovation networking may be able to shepherd whole renewable energy sectors across the innovation valley of death and help turn a global responsibility to ramp up green technology into a global initiative ...


Challenges To China's Natural Resources Conservation And Biodiversity Legislation, Jason J. Czarnezki Jan 2013

Challenges To China's Natural Resources Conservation And Biodiversity Legislation, Jason J. Czarnezki

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Despite China's legislative attempts to conserve its natural resources and in turn protect biodiversity, Chinese law in many aspects remains ineffective in pursuit of these goals due to struggles with implementation, enforcement, and insufficient public participation, as well as legislative prioritization of economic values over ecological ones. This Article provides an overview of biodiversity and conservation legislation in China, and suggests that China can improve this legislation by increasing the public's role in conservation efforts, increasing liability and enforcement mechanisms, and improving administrative coordination.


Missouri Oil And Gas Update, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2013

Missouri Oil And Gas Update, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The State of Missouri has untapped potential for the development of oil and natural gas resources. While the Missouri courts were quiet this past year on interpreting oil and gas rules and regulations, the legislature was active in amending laws governing storage tanks. The state has experienced a tremendous upsurge in oil and gas production in the past two fiscal years. Missouri is poised to ramp up its conventional oil and gas production in the coming years, so increased legislative actions and court activity will likely occur in the near future. Missouri's energy resources include coal bed methane, oil ...


Global Environmental Law: Food Safety & China, Jason J. Czarnezki Jan 2013

Global Environmental Law: Food Safety & China, Jason J. Czarnezki

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article makes the case for food security law and policy as a component of global environmental law in recognition of the global economy, trade liberalization, and concerns for food safety and environmental harm. It further describes rule of law as a significant force in mitigating food safety concerns and pollution in China. Part II explores global food safety concerns in the context of United States-China relations, while Part III discusses the U.S. Food & Drug Administration's on-the-ground presence in China as an example of the emergence of cooperative agreements in global environmental governance. Part IV shows how increased ...


Land Use And Climate Change: Lawyers Negotiating Above Regulation, John R. Nolon Jan 2013

Land Use And Climate Change: Lawyers Negotiating Above Regulation, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Sea level rise requires a new paradigm for controlling the development of coastal lands that are in harm’s way, calling for adjustments in the law, legal practice, and legal education. This article discusses the historical tendency of the law to adjust to changes in society and the recent emergence of new legal institutions and strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change, particularly sea level rise. It illustrates how the lack of certainty about the extent and pace of sea level rise collides with the total takings doctrine of the Lucas case to frustrate the application of traditional land ...


Hydrofracking: State Preemption, Local Power, And Cooperative Governance, John R. Nolon Jan 2013

Hydrofracking: State Preemption, Local Power, And Cooperative Governance, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Advocates for the gas drilling technology known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, argue that it will bring significant economic benefits to the private and public sectors. Its opponents dispute these claims and point to significant environmental and public health risks associated with fracking—risks that must be considered in adopting government regulations needed to protect the public interest. One of the many issues raised by fracking is which level of government should regulate which aspects of the practice. This debate is complicated by the fact that the risks associated with fracking raise concerns of federal, state, and local importance and ...


The Importance Of Information And Participation Principles In Environmental Law In Brazil, David N. Cassuto, Romulo S.R. Sampaio Jan 2013

The Importance Of Information And Participation Principles In Environmental Law In Brazil, David N. Cassuto, Romulo S.R. Sampaio

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article explores the two different kinds of uncertainty, ‘hard’ uncertainty (unknown unknowns) and ‘soft’ uncertainty (known unknowns), in the context of environmental law decision making. First, the authors argue that these different categories should not be treated the same when facing decisions under uncertainty. To deal with these different uncertainties, a tiered risk analysis process is called for, using participatory techniques to turn hard uncertainty into (more manageable) soft uncertainty as well as to increase the legitimacy of environmental decision making, even in cases of hard uncertainty. This methodology can and should apply to all instances of domestic, transnational ...


Changes Spark Interest In Sustainable Urban Places: But How Do We Identify And Support Them?, John R. Nolon Jan 2013

Changes Spark Interest In Sustainable Urban Places: But How Do We Identify And Support Them?, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Changes in climatic and demographic trends are sparking renewed interest in cities generally and sustainable communities particularly. On the one hand, residents and workers in denser, mixed-use neighborhoods served by transit have half the carbon footprint of those in spread-out suburban areas. On the other hand, many of the smaller households that characterize the nation’s growing population prefer to live in precisely those compact, mixed-use neighborhoods. In New York, these changes align with several new state policies that encourage cities and towns to reduce carbon emissions, reduce vehicle travel, create sustainable buildings and neighborhoods, and preserve the landscapes that ...


A "Blunt Withdrawal"? Bars On Citizen Suits For Toxic Site Cleanup, Margot J. Pollans Jan 2013

A "Blunt Withdrawal"? Bars On Citizen Suits For Toxic Site Cleanup, Margot J. Pollans

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Throughout the history of federal statutory environmental law, citizen suits have played a key role in enforcement. Through statutory interpretation, however, courts have narrowed the circumstances under which citizens can sue. This Article explores one such restraint: Courts have severely limited citizen suits under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) by reading very broadly a jurisdiction-stripping provision of RCRA's companion statute, the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”). This Article argues that courts have read that provision too broadly, not only violating traditional principles for resolving inter-statutory conflict but also undermining the purposes of both statutes ...


Environment, Ethics, And The Factory Farm, David N. Cassuto Jan 2013

Environment, Ethics, And The Factory Farm, David N. Cassuto

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Transcript of Symposium: Ethical Implications of the Commercial Use of Animals.

What are the ethics behind factory farming? What are the ethical implications? Specifically, I'd like to focus on the environmental implications. But I define environmental implications a little differently than a lot of folks because I teach animal law.


The Tropics Exploited: Risk Preparedness And Corporate Social Responsibility In Offshore Energy Development, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2013

The Tropics Exploited: Risk Preparedness And Corporate Social Responsibility In Offshore Energy Development, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Soaring energy demands and increasing technological innovation have led to the rapid exploitation of offshore oil and gas exploration and development. This Article seeks to examine elements of risk preparedness and corporate social responsibility in the context of the underwater natural gas pipeline in the Eastern Caribbean and the exploration of Florida's potential offshore energy reserves. I discuss these two case studies to illustrate the prevalence of emerging regional energy corridors in previously unfathomable tropical and subtropical locales known for tourism-intensive commercial activity. While images of environmental degradation of the 2010 BP oil spill remain entrenched in the collective ...


The Global Land Rush: Markets, Rights, And The Politics Of Food, Smita Narula Jan 2013

The Global Land Rush: Markets, Rights, And The Politics Of Food, Smita Narula

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In the past five years, interest in purchasing and leasing agricultural land in developing countries has skyrocketed. This trend, which was facilitated by the 2008 food crisis, is led by state and private investors, both domestic and foreign. Investors are responding to a variety of global forces: Some are securing their own food supply, while others are capitalizing on land as an increasingly promising source of financial returns. Proponents argue that these investments can support economic development in host states while boosting global food production. But critics charge that these “land grabs” disregard land users' rights and further marginalize already ...


Increasing Privatization Of Environmental Permitting, Jessica Owley Jan 2013

Increasing Privatization Of Environmental Permitting, Jessica Owley

Journal Articles

This article examines the increasing privatization of environmental law by taking a close look at mitigation measures in permitting programs. As mitigation has become an increasingly important element of permitting programs, permitting agencies have looked for outside organizations to help design, monitor, and enforce the mitigation projects. Thus, compensatory mitigation projects provide a good lens for examining the role of private organizations in environmental law. There are good reasons for drawing on the power of private organizations. They can provide flexibility and expertise as well as increased capacity. However, concerns regarding democracy and accountability arise when government agencies hand off ...


What Exactly Are Exactions?, Jessica Owley, Stephen J. Tulowiecki Jan 2013

What Exactly Are Exactions?, Jessica Owley, Stephen J. Tulowiecki

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Do Good To Get Barred: The New Empire State Pro Bono Requirement’S Potential Impact On Environmental Law Practitioners, Kim Diana Connolly Jan 2013

Do Good To Get Barred: The New Empire State Pro Bono Requirement’S Potential Impact On Environmental Law Practitioners, Kim Diana Connolly

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Hydraulic Fracturing: Sources Of Law And Information, Barbara H. Garavaglia Jan 2013

Hydraulic Fracturing: Sources Of Law And Information, Barbara H. Garavaglia

Articles

Hydraulic fracturing—also known as fracking—has become increasingly controversial in the United States over the past several years, especially in states such as Michigan with large shale gas deposits that were previously unextractable. In 2012, a Michigan fracking ban initiative failed to make it onto the November statewide ballot, but citizens groups are presently collecting signatures in an attempt to get the initiative onto the November 2014 ballot as an “initiated state statute.” And, more recently, state auctions of drilling permits have been the scenes of citizen protests driven by concerns about the potential environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing.


Do You Know What's On Your Plate?: The Importance Of Regulating The Processes Of Food Production, Martha Dragich Jan 2013

Do You Know What's On Your Plate?: The Importance Of Regulating The Processes Of Food Production, Martha Dragich

Faculty Publications

This article argues that the current regulatory approach-focusing on the supposed equivalence of new foods to traditional ones-is unduly narrow, particularly given the characteristics of the modem food system. To achieve the broad objectives of the FDCA in the context of the industrialized, highly processed, and global food supply of the twenty-first century requires adopting a broader understanding of consumer protection needs with respect to food. The FDCA itself is written in very broad terms and provides much of the authority needed today. The FDA's enforcement capacity, however, already is severely strained.52 Moreover, the scientific basis for some ...


Putting A Price On Whales To Save Them: What Do Morals Have To Do With It?, Hope M. Babcock Jan 2013

Putting A Price On Whales To Save Them: What Do Morals Have To Do With It?, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The author explores the moral implication of a proposal to create an international market in whale shares as an alternative to the dysfunctional International Whaling Commission. She finds the proposal amoral because whales, like humans, have an intrinsic right to life. Since this leaves whales vulnerable to whale hunting nations, she suggests that international environmental organizations might help a whale preservation norm emerge in whaling nations by using education and interventionist activities that focus on whaling’s cruelty to ultimately encourage the citizens and governments of those nations to change their self-image as whale eating cultures.


Why Changing Norms Is A More Just Solution To The Failed International Regulatory Regime To Protect Whales Than A Trading Program In Whale Shares, Hope M. Babcock Jan 2013

Why Changing Norms Is A More Just Solution To The Failed International Regulatory Regime To Protect Whales Than A Trading Program In Whale Shares, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Whales capture the public's imagination like no other wild animal. They have played a central role in "the social construction of modern ecological thought." Indeed, the survival of whales has been a symbol of the environmental movement since the latter quarter of the twentieth century, when the "slogan 'save the whales' was a call to arms to save the planet from humanity's folly. " Stories about whale conservation implicate cultural clashes, interspecies morality, and global politics. They offer lessons in how not to manage a natural resource, and simultaneously show how both governmental and individual activism can overcome this ...


The Rebirth Of The Neighborhood, J. Peter Byrne Jan 2013

The Rebirth Of The Neighborhood, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay argues that new urban residents primarily seek a type of community properly called a neighborhood. “Neighborhood” refers to a legible, pedestrian-scale area that has an identity apart from the corporate and bureaucratic structures that dominate the larger society. Such a neighborhood fosters repeated, casual contacts with neighbors and merchants, such as while one pursues Saturday errands or takes children to activities. Dealing with independent local merchants and artisans face-to-face provides a sense of liberation from large power structures, where most such residents work. Having easy access to places of sociability like coffee shops and bars permits spontaneous “meet-ups ...


The Sad Story Of The Northern Rocky Mountain Gray Wolf Reintroduction Program, Hope M. Babcock Jan 2013

The Sad Story Of The Northern Rocky Mountain Gray Wolf Reintroduction Program, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A reflection on the past, present and future of environmental law in this 20th Anniversary Edition offers an opportunity to revisit the Endangered Species Act, particularly the Northern Rocky Mountain States federal wolf reintroduction program. Environmental programs that depend on public support for their effectiveness are problematic when the government fails to understand and compensate for this fact. This essay explores the proposition that the federal government's failure to anticipate and respond to the negative reaction of people adversely affected by proposed solutions to environmental problems is contributing to a lack of progress despite great strides in our scientific ...


0809: John Taylor Collection, 1969-2007, Marshall University Special Collections Jan 2013

0809: John Taylor Collection, 1969-2007, Marshall University Special Collections

Guides to Manuscript Collections

Mr. Taylor is an attorney from Charleston, WV that fought for the legal and labor rights of workers across the United States. The majority of the people that Taylor represented were members of unions, including both the United Auto Workers [UAW] and the United Mine Workers of America [UMWA]. Taylor's clients fought to secure access to health benefits and the improvement of working conditions. A large portion of the collection centers on Black Lung cases in West Virginia. In 1982, Taylor and his colleagues organized a group of clients to travel to Washington, D.C. in order to attend ...


Drafting Model Laws On Indoor Pollution For Developing And Developed Nations Workshop, July 12-13, 2012, Boulder, Colorado: Introduction, Lakshman Guruswamy Jan 2013

Drafting Model Laws On Indoor Pollution For Developing And Developed Nations Workshop, July 12-13, 2012, Boulder, Colorado: Introduction, Lakshman Guruswamy

Articles

No abstract provided.


Situating Sarnia: Unimagined Communities In The National Energy Debate, Dayna Scott Jan 2013

Situating Sarnia: Unimagined Communities In The National Energy Debate, Dayna Scott

Articles & Book Chapters

No abstract provided.