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The Hidden Rise Of Efficient (De)Listing, Zachary A. Bray Jan 2014

The Hidden Rise Of Efficient (De)Listing, Zachary A. Bray

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

What is the value of the gray wolf, and what might be the costs of including a tiny desert lizard on the list of endangered species? For decades, Congress has formally excluded questions about the economic value of species and the costs of their protection from agency decisions about whether a species should be listed under the Endangered Species Act. Recently, however, a number of federal legislators have sought to incorporate their own ad hoc views about the value of individual species in peril, and the costs of protecting such species, into listing decisions. This goal has been accomplished through ...


The Supreme Court And The Ppl Montana Case: Examining The Relationship Between Navigability And State Ownership Of Submerged Lands, Richard C. Ausness Jan 2013

The Supreme Court And The Ppl Montana Case: Examining The Relationship Between Navigability And State Ownership Of Submerged Lands, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The United States Supreme Court held in PPL Montana v. Montana held that the State of Montana did not own the beds beneath certain rivers and, therefore, rejected the State's claim that the power company owed it millions of dollars in "back rent" for the use of the riverbeds as sites for ten of its hydroelectric power plants. The Montana Supreme Court, which had ruled in favor of the State, declared that even if portions of a river were not navigable for commercial purposes because of physical conditions, the entire river would be treated as navigable if commercial traffic ...


The Sustainable Development Principle In United States Environmental Law, Michael P. Healy Jul 2011

The Sustainable Development Principle In United States Environmental Law, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The American public perceives the principle of sustainable development and sustainability, the shorthand nomenclature, through green-tinted lenses. Whether the user of the term is academic, corporate, or governmental, the advocate of sustainability is understood as an advocate of protecting the environment. The international legal understanding of the principle of sustainable development, however, is more ambiguous than this popular American understanding.

Part II of this Article describes the important principle of sustainable development in modern international environmental law. It discusses how the sustainable development principle has evolved from its initial appearance in the 1987 Brundtland Commission Report through its central position ...


20th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law Mar 2005

20th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law

Continuing Legal Education Materials

Materials from the 20th Annual Environmental Law Institute held by UK/CLE in March 2005.


Law, Policy, And The Clean Water Act: The Courts, The Bush Administration, And The Statute's Uncertain Reach, Michael P. Healy Apr 2004

Law, Policy, And The Clean Water Act: The Courts, The Bush Administration, And The Statute's Uncertain Reach, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The development of the jurisdictional reach of the Clean Water Act ("CWA") reflects a hybrid of the judicial determination of the clear legal requirements of the CWA and the exercise of discretionary agency policymaking in the form of legal requirements that are binding on both agency and regulated party. This distinction in the content of administrative law was not altogether clear prior to the Supreme Court's 1984 decision in Chevron U.S.A. v. Natural Resources Defense Council. Today, the distinction is fundamental to administrative law and important to assessing the evolution of the scope of CWA jurisdictional waters ...


19th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law Nov 2003

19th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law

Continuing Legal Education Materials

Materials from the 19th Annual Environmental Law Institute held by UK/CLE in November 2003.


18th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law May 2002

18th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law

Continuing Legal Education Materials

Materials from the 18th Annual Environmental Law Institute held by UK/CLE in May 2002.


Information Based Regulation And International Trade In Genetically Modified Agricultural Products: An Evaluation Of The Cartagena Protocol On Biosafety, Michael P. Healy Jan 2002

Information Based Regulation And International Trade In Genetically Modified Agricultural Products: An Evaluation Of The Cartagena Protocol On Biosafety, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article considers the regulation of international trade in genetically modified agricultural products. Specifically, it addresses both products released into the environment as seeds and products intended for consumption as food. The first part of the Article describes the significance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modem agriculture, especially agriculture in the United States. This discussion summarizes the risks and potential benefits associated with the use of agricultural GMOs, especially the risks and benefits related to biodiversity. The Article then briefly describes the approaches to the regulation of these products adopted in the

Cartagena Protocol to the Convention on Biological ...


Textualism’S Limits On The Administrative State: Of Isolated Waters, Barking Dogs, And Chevron, Michael P. Healy Aug 2001

Textualism’S Limits On The Administrative State: Of Isolated Waters, Barking Dogs, And Chevron, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Supreme Court recently held that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) does not have authority under the Clean Water Act (the Act or the CWA) to regulate the filling of “other waters.” This decision demonstrates a major shift in the Court's approach to statutory interpretation, particularly in the context of reviewing an agency’s understanding of a statute. The significance of the case is best gauged by contrasting it with United States v. Riverside Bayview Homes, Inc ...


Standing In Environmental Citizen Suits: Laidlaw’S Clarification Of The Injury-In-Fact And Redressability Requirements, Michael P. Healy Jun 2000

Standing In Environmental Citizen Suits: Laidlaw’S Clarification Of The Injury-In-Fact And Redressability Requirements, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In its first week of business during the new millennium, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services (TOC), Inc., and provided important clarifications about the law of standing in environmental citizen suits. Specifically, the Court rejected the narrow view of environmental injury-in-fact advocated by Justice Scalia and instead adhered to the broader view of injury-in-fact established in a nonenvironmental context by the Court's decision in Federal Elections Commission v. Akins. As importantly, the Court also addressed the redressability requirement of Article III standing in Laidlaw. Here too, the Court did not ...


16th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law, Christopher R. Fitzpatrick, Carl W. Breeding, Timothy J. Hagerty, Marc S. Murphy, Wanda Ballard Repasky, Clinton J. Elliott, Thomas W. Fitzgerald, Dennis J. Conniff, Laura D. Keller, W. Blaine Early, Eric A. Braun, Michael P. Healy, Glenna Jo Curry, James L. Dickinson, W. Patrick Stallard, Richard H. Underwood May 2000

16th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law, Christopher R. Fitzpatrick, Carl W. Breeding, Timothy J. Hagerty, Marc S. Murphy, Wanda Ballard Repasky, Clinton J. Elliott, Thomas W. Fitzgerald, Dennis J. Conniff, Laura D. Keller, W. Blaine Early, Eric A. Braun, Michael P. Healy, Glenna Jo Curry, James L. Dickinson, W. Patrick Stallard, Richard H. Underwood

Continuing Legal Education Materials

Materials from the 16th Annual Environmental Law Institute held by UK/CLE in May 2000.


Overview Of Environmental Regulations That Affect Coal Combustion, Cortland F. Eble Jan 2000

Overview Of Environmental Regulations That Affect Coal Combustion, Cortland F. Eble

Kentucky Geological Survey Information Circular

Environmental regulations have had, and continue to have, an effect on the combustion of coal. These regulations largely affect the electric utility industry, the largest consumer of domestic coal, but they ultimately affect everyone, because we all use electricity, and the cost of compliance is usually passed on to the consumer, resulting in higher electric bills.


15th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law, W. Blaine Early Iii, Timothy J. Hagerty, E. Allen Kyle, Lee Colten, Tom C. Van Arsdall, John R. Leathers, Clinton J. Elliott, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Jeffrey M. Sanders, Richard H. Underwood, Bradley E. Diillon, Henry L. Stephens, Lauren Anderson, David A. Smart Mar 1999

15th Annual Environmental Law Institute, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law, W. Blaine Early Iii, Timothy J. Hagerty, E. Allen Kyle, Lee Colten, Tom C. Van Arsdall, John R. Leathers, Clinton J. Elliott, Thomas J. Fitzgerald, Jeffrey M. Sanders, Richard H. Underwood, Bradley E. Diillon, Henry L. Stephens, Lauren Anderson, David A. Smart

Continuing Legal Education Materials

Materials from the 15th Annual Environmental Law Institute held by UK/CLE in March 1999.


Book Review Of Policy Making In An Era Of Global Environmental Change (R. E. Munn, J. W. M. La Riviere & N. Van Lookeren Campagne Eds., 1996), Michael P. Healy Jan 1999

Book Review Of Policy Making In An Era Of Global Environmental Change (R. E. Munn, J. W. M. La Riviere & N. Van Lookeren Campagne Eds., 1996), Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In this book review, Michael P. Healy examines Policy Making in an Era of Global Environmental Change (R. E. Munn, J. W. M. la Riviere & N. van Lookeren Campagne eds., 1996).


England's Contaminated Land Act Of 1995: Perspectives On America's Approach To Hazardous Substance Cleanups And Evolving Principles Of International Law, Michael P. Healy Jan 1998

England's Contaminated Land Act Of 1995: Perspectives On America's Approach To Hazardous Substance Cleanups And Evolving Principles Of International Law, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

An important contemporary problem in environmental regulation concerns the cleanup of property that is an unfortunate legacy of the modem industrial age—acres of land affected by past inadequate disposals of toxic substances. The United States began to address this problem in 1980 with the enactment of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA establishes both a liability regime for assigning the costs of cleaning up lands contaminated by the release of hazardous substances and regulatory requirements defining how those cleanups are to be pursued. In 1995, England enacted the Contaminated Land Act (alternatively referred to as ...


Still Dirty After Twenty-Five Years: Water Quality Standard Enforcement And The Availability Of Citizen Suits, Michael P. Healy Jan 1997

Still Dirty After Twenty-Five Years: Water Quality Standard Enforcement And The Availability Of Citizen Suits, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

When Congress enacted the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly known as the Clean Water Act, it established a pollution control regime that imposed a baseline level of technology-based pollution control, and was designed to ensure that water quality would not fall below certain standards. Twenty-five years after the enactment of the Clean Water Act, success may be claimed with regard to technology-based controls. Achieving water quality standard (WQS) compliance has proved much more difficult. Indeed, evaluated from a variety of perspectives, the enforcement of the water quality-based system of pollution control must be viewed as a failure.

In light ...


Book Review Of Joel A. Mintz, Enforcement At The Epa: High Stakes And Hard Choices (1995), Michael P. Healy Oct 1996

Book Review Of Joel A. Mintz, Enforcement At The Epa: High Stakes And Hard Choices (1995), Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In this book review, Michael P. Healy discusses Enforcement at the EPA: High Stakes and Hard Choices by Joel A. Mintz.


The Effectiveness And Fairness Of Superfund's Judicial Review Preclusion Provision, Michael P. Healy Jan 1996

The Effectiveness And Fairness Of Superfund's Judicial Review Preclusion Provision, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article examines the effectiveness and fairness of section 113(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund). That broadly-worded provision forecloses judicial review of Superfund cleanups prior to enforcement or cleanup completion by requiring that any review action fall within several narrowly-defined exceptions.

After providing an overview of the statute, its enforcement mechanisms, and a context for considering section 113(h), the article summarizes how courts have applied CERCLA's timing of review provision, focusing principally on recent interpretations of the provision. Finally, the article evaluates the effectiveness and fairness of CERCLA review preclusion ...


The Attraction And Limits Of Textualism: The Supreme Court Decision In Pud No. 1 Of Jefferson County V. Washington Dep't Of Ecology, Michael P. Healy Jan 1996

The Attraction And Limits Of Textualism: The Supreme Court Decision In Pud No. 1 Of Jefferson County V. Washington Dep't Of Ecology, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

During its 1993 Term, the Supreme Court had the opportunity to consider the interaction between two federal statutory schemes: the Federal Power Act (FPA), which provides that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has the authority to regulate and license hydropower projects, and the Clean Water Act (CWA), which provides that states have the authority to adopt water quality standards and that federal law will impose and enforce those standards in regulating emissions into, and the quality of, waters of the United States. The tension created by these two statutes lies not only between federal agencies, but more importantly, between ...


Current Issues In Environmental Law, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law, W. Henry Graddy Iv, Jack C. Bender, Thomas W. Fitzgerald, Carl W. Breeding, Marcus P. Mcgraw, Phillip J. Shepherd, David J. Smart, Dennis J. Conniff, Lloyd R. Cress Jr., E. Douglas Stephan, James L. Dickinson, Todd E. Leatherman, Elizabeth U. Natter, W. Patrick Stallard, Rick L. Thomas, Bradley E. Dillon, Vanessa M. Berge, Ronald R. Van Stockum Jr. Apr 1995

Current Issues In Environmental Law, Office Of Continuing Legal Education At The University Of Kentucky College Of Law, W. Henry Graddy Iv, Jack C. Bender, Thomas W. Fitzgerald, Carl W. Breeding, Marcus P. Mcgraw, Phillip J. Shepherd, David J. Smart, Dennis J. Conniff, Lloyd R. Cress Jr., E. Douglas Stephan, James L. Dickinson, Todd E. Leatherman, Elizabeth U. Natter, W. Patrick Stallard, Rick L. Thomas, Bradley E. Dillon, Vanessa M. Berge, Ronald R. Van Stockum Jr.

Continuing Legal Education Materials

Materials from the Current Issues in Environmental Law seminar held by UK/CLE in April 1995.


Regulatory Takings And Wetland Protection In The Post-Lucas Era, Richard C. Ausness Jan 1995

Regulatory Takings And Wetland Protection In The Post-Lucas Era, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In June 1992, the United States Supreme Court decided Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council. The case involved a claim for compensation against the State of South Carolina by a landowner who was prohibited from placing structures on two of his beachfront lots. The Court declared that the landowners must be compensated when government regulations deprive them of all economically beneficial or productive uses of their property unless the proscribed uses were not permitted as part of their original titles.

Although some legal commentators have praised the Lucas decision, others have strongly condemned it. A common criticism of Lucas is ...


The Preemption Of State Hazardous And Solid Waste Regulations: The Dormant Commerce Clause Awakens Once More, Michael P. Healy Apr 1993

The Preemption Of State Hazardous And Solid Waste Regulations: The Dormant Commerce Clause Awakens Once More, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Last term, for the first time since its watershed decision in Philadelphia v. New Jersey, the Supreme Court considered the extent to which the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution constrains a state's ability to regulate the disposal of hazardous and solid waste within its borders. In two cases, Chemical Waste Management, Inc. v. Hunt and Fort Gratiot Sanitary Landfill, Inc. v. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, the Supreme Court acted to limit substantially states’ ability to respond independently to the crisis of solid and hazardous waste disposal. The Article describes the harmful impact of the Court's ...


Judicial Review And Cercla Response Actions: Interpretive Strategies In The Face Of Plain Meaning, Michael P. Healy Jan 1993

Judicial Review And Cercla Response Actions: Interpretive Strategies In The Face Of Plain Meaning, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article examines the role courts play under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) in cleaning up releases of hazardous substances. Congress intended the courts to have an important role in implementing the cleanup process-particularly in defining the scope of liability for CERCLA cleanups. But Congress also included a broadly-worded provision that forecloses federal judicial review of CERCLA cleanups unless the review action falls within several narrowly-defined exceptions.

Notwithstanding the terms of the provision foreclosing review, litigants have turned to the courts, asserting that immediate review should be available in cases beyond those exceptional proceedings. Those asserting ...


Direct Liability For Hazardous Substance Cleanups Under Cercla: A Comprehensive Approach, Michael P. Healy Jan 1992

Direct Liability For Hazardous Substance Cleanups Under Cercla: A Comprehensive Approach, Michael P. Healy

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In enacting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation & Liability Act (CERCLA), Congress intended to impose liability for hazardous substance cleanups on all parties responsible for a site's use and contamination. However, in implementing the CERCLA liability scheme, courts have issued opinions offering unclear and misguided explanations of their decisions. The author suggests that, to properly assure CERCLA's proper operation, the basis for the imposition of liability must be clarified. To this end, the author examines the prescribed liability for individuals, parent corporations and secured creditors and explains the appropriate grounds for the responsibility of each.


The Relationship Of Federal Income Taxes To Toxic Wastes: A Selective Study, Richard A. Westin Jan 1989

The Relationship Of Federal Income Taxes To Toxic Wastes: A Selective Study, Richard A. Westin

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

More demanding federal regulation, universal local opposition to waste treatment and disposal facilities, and increased long-term liabilities for waste sites have substantially restricted the supply of licensed waste handlers and have sharply increased the costs of waste disposal. As a result of increased costs and downstream liabilities for cleanup, industrial generators have begun to examine more closely their waste management practices and opportunities they may have to reduce the amount of hazardous waste they generate.

The urgent need to marshal the full range of industrial strategies to achieve significant reduction in the amount and toxicity of hazardous waste and the ...


Water Rights, The Public Trust Doctrine, And The Protection Of Instream Uses, Richard C. Ausness Jan 1986

Water Rights, The Public Trust Doctrine, And The Protection Of Instream Uses, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Our society uses water for a variety of productive purposes, including domestic, agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and energy development. Most of these uses require physical removal of water from watercourses or ground water aquifers. Water can also serve useful purposes, however, when it remains a lake or stream. Flowing water helps to maintain water quality and furthers other uses such as recreation, aesthetic values, and ecological interests—referred to as “instream uses.”

Large quantities of water must remain in place to safeguard instream uses. At the same time, the increasing demands of consumptive water users are significantly reducing streamflows and lake ...


Surface Mining In Kentucky, Carolyn S. Bratt Jan 1983

Surface Mining In Kentucky, Carolyn S. Bratt

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In 1977, Congress enacted the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. The Act, designed to protect the environment and society from the adverse effects of surface coal mining and to insure uniform minimum nationwide regulatory standards, established a comprehensive regulatory scheme for surface mining and reclamation operations of both federal and non-federal lands within the United States.

The Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation within the Department of the Interior, is charged with administering and implementing the Act. Implementation is divided into two stages. During the initial, or interim phase, all surface mining ...


Kentucky Law Survey: Environmental Law, Carolyn S. Bratt, Carolyn M. Brown Jan 1982

Kentucky Law Survey: Environmental Law, Carolyn S. Bratt, Carolyn M. Brown

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Under the rubric of environmental law, this Survey addresses three separate topics: air quality control, water conservation and development, and zoning. In the exploration of these three topics, relevant decisions from the Kentucky courts and the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, as well as opinions from the Kentucky Attorney General, are analyzed.


The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act Of 1978: Regulating Nonfederal Property Under The Property Clause, Eugene R. Gaetke Jan 1981

The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act Of 1978: Regulating Nonfederal Property Under The Property Clause, Eugene R. Gaetke

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In an effort to resolve the nagging controversy over the management of more than one million acres of public forests, lakes, and streams in northeastern Minnesota, Congress enacted the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act of 1978 (BWCA Act). Despite its objective, the Act has engendered further controversy. Particularly troublesome are several provisions that regulate the use of motorboats on lakes within and partly within the area. Those provisions test the scope of congressional power over nonfederal property under the property clause of article IV of the United States Constitution.

This Article examines the aged Supreme Court cases under which ...


Reclaiming Coal Surface Mines In Central Appalachia: A Case Study Of The Benefits And Costs, Richard C. Ausness, Alan Randall, Oren Grunewald, Sue Johnson, Angelos Pagoulatos Nov 1978

Reclaiming Coal Surface Mines In Central Appalachia: A Case Study Of The Benefits And Costs, Richard C. Ausness, Alan Randall, Oren Grunewald, Sue Johnson, Angelos Pagoulatos

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Regulatory alternatives for the surface mining industry have come under intense public and political scrutiny in recent years. Recent studies have found that the impacts of federal surface mine reclamation regulations' will be noticeable, but perhaps not as substantial as some had expected. Nationwide, coal production from surface mines would be reduced by about five percent, with a similar increase in underground coal production. The federal reclamation legislation, depending on the regulations eventually adopted for its implementation, is unlikely to be a major disruptive influence in the coal industry or a substantial impediment to the long-run national goal of increased ...