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Title Vi And The Warren County Protests, Bradford Mank Jan 2007

Title Vi And The Warren County Protests, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

One part of the 1982 civil rights struggle against building a Polychlorinated Biphenyls ("PCB") landfill in Warren County, North Carolina, was a suit by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ("NAACP") under Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Although the suit was unsuccessful, the Warren County protests led to a 1983 General Accounting Office study and a 1987 United Church of Christ's Commission on Racial Justice (CRJ) study, both of which found that hazardous waste facilities were more likely to be located in minority communities. The Warren County protests and the two studies helped ...


After Gonzales V. Raich: Is The Endangered Species Act Constitutional Under The Commerce Clause?, Bradford Mank Jan 2007

After Gonzales V. Raich: Is The Endangered Species Act Constitutional Under The Commerce Clause?, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

In both its 1995 decision United States v. Lopez and in its 2000 decision United States v. Morrison, the Supreme Court had adopted a narrow economic interpretation of congressional authority to regulate intrastate activities under the Commerce Clause. In four separate cases, three circuit courts (the District of Columbia, Fourth, and Fifth Circuits) struggled with deciding whether Congress may still protect endangered and threatened species that have little commercial value under the Commerce Clause after Lopez and Morrison. In each case, the court concluded that Congress did have the authority to protect endangered species under the Commerce Clause, including small ...


Implementing Rapanos - Will Justice Kennedy's Significant Nexus Test Provide A Workable Standard For Lower Courts, Regulators And Developers?, Bradford Mank Jan 2007

Implementing Rapanos - Will Justice Kennedy's Significant Nexus Test Provide A Workable Standard For Lower Courts, Regulators And Developers?, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

In 2001, the Supreme Court in SWANCC v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers held that the Corps lacked authority under the 1972 Clean Water Act to regulate wetlands isolated from navigable waters. The Court held that the CWA's jurisdiction is limited to non-navigable waters that have a significant nexus to navigable waters. SWANCC did not address the Corps' regulation of wetlands near non-navigable tributaries. The courts of appeals are divided over if the Corps may regulate tributary wetlands. Mank, The Murky Future of the Clean Water Act After SWANCC, 30 ECOLOGY LAW QUARTERLY 811-891 (2003).

In 2006, the ...


Are Public Facilities Different From Private Ones?: Adopting A New Standard Of Review For The Dormant Commerce Clause, Bradford Mank Jan 2007

Are Public Facilities Different From Private Ones?: Adopting A New Standard Of Review For The Dormant Commerce Clause, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

On September 26, 2006, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in United Haulers Association Inc. v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority to decide the important issue of whether local governments may require that all waste in their jurisdiction be sent to a publicly-owned waste facility and thereby discriminate equally against both local and out-of-state private firms. The dormant Commerce Clause doctrine (DCCD) grants federal courts authority to invalidate state/local laws that discriminate against foreign goods/firms. The Court has adopted an overly broad per se test that invalidates any local law that theoretically discriminates against foreign firms, even if there ...


Can Plaintiffs Use Multinational Environmental Treaties As Customary International Law To Sue Under The Alien Tort Statute?, Bradford Mank Jan 2007

Can Plaintiffs Use Multinational Environmental Treaties As Customary International Law To Sue Under The Alien Tort Statute?, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

The Alien Tort Statute (ATS) provides that the district courts shall have original jurisdiction over any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States. Several decisions have rejected environmental claims under the ATS because they read the ATS narrowly to protect only the most fundamental international human rights such as those prohibiting torture or war crimes and have been unwilling to accept broader claims to a right to life or a healthy environment. In 2002, in Sarei v. Rio Tinto PLC, the District Court ...