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Can Congress Regulate Intrastate Endangered Species Under The Commerce Clause?, Bradford Mank Jan 2004

Can Congress Regulate Intrastate Endangered Species Under The Commerce Clause?, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

In Spring 2003, both the 5th Circuit and the D.C. Circuit agreed that Congress has the authority under the Commerce Clause to protect intrastate endangered species on private lands under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), but used completely opposite reasoning to reach the same result. The 5th Circuit in GDF Realty v. Norton rejected the government's argument that the economic impact of the commercial development regulated under the statute was the appropriate focus for whether the statute has a substantial effect on interstate commerce. Instead, the 5th Circuit concluded that intrastate spiders and beetles, which have no economic ...


Are Anti-Retaliation Regulations In Title Vi Or Title Ix Enforceable In A Private Right Of Action: Does Sandoval Or Sullivan Control This Question?, Bradford Mank Jan 2004

Are Anti-Retaliation Regulations In Title Vi Or Title Ix Enforceable In A Private Right Of Action: Does Sandoval Or Sullivan Control This Question?, Bradford Mank

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Recently, the federal circuit courts of appeal have divided in addressing to what extent either Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects those who complain about racial or gender discrimination from retaliation by their employers or schools. Neither Title VI nor Title IX explicitly prohibits retaliation by recipients. However, various federal agencies have issued specific Title VI or IX regulations that explicitly prohibit retaliation by recipients. Title IX "was modeled after Title VI . . ., which is parallel to Title IX except that it prohibits race discrimination, not sex discrimination ...