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Dispute Resolution and Arbitration

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Sexual Harassment Ndas: Privacy, Complicity, And The Paradox Of Blackmail, Scott Altman Aug 2019

Sexual Harassment Ndas: Privacy, Complicity, And The Paradox Of Blackmail, Scott Altman

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Harvey Weinstein and the #MeToo movement focused public attention on both sexual predation and the non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) that help it to persist. NDAs help repeat perpetrators avoid detection and punishment, increasing the risk of harm to future victims. At the same time, NDAs are thought to have benefits. They protect informational privacy interests of both perpetrators and victims, facilitate dispute settlement, and provide victims with larger settlement awards.

This article offers moral arguments against the supposed virtues of NDAs. Guilty perpetrators are not entitled to informational privacy about their wrongs. It might be thought that NDAs protect perpetrators from ...


Frand And Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Aug 2019

Frand And Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper considers when a patentee’s violation of a FRAND commitment also violates the antitrust laws. It warns against two extremes. First, is thinking that any violation of a FRAND obligation is an antitrust violation as well. FRAND obligations are contractual, and most breaches of contract do not violate antitrust law. The other extreme is thinking that, because a FRAND violation is a breach of contract, it cannot also be an antitrust violation.

Every antitrust case must consider the market environment in which conduct is to be evaluated. SSOs operated by multiple firms are joint ventures. Antitrust’s role ...


Supporting Party Autonomy In The Enforcement Of Cross-Border Mediated Settlement Agreements: A Brave New World Or Unchartered Territory?, Dorcas Quek Anderson Jul 2019

Supporting Party Autonomy In The Enforcement Of Cross-Border Mediated Settlement Agreements: A Brave New World Or Unchartered Territory?, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

The last decade has seen a palpable rise of domestic and international instruments tofacilitate the enforcement of cross-border mediated settlement agreements. The EU MediationDirective required member states to provide for enforcement of such agreements. Common lawjurisdictions including Singapore, Ireland and Ontario have enacted legislation to allowmediated settlement agreements to be recorded as court judgments. Other countries haveprovided for such agreements to be akin to arbitral awards for enforcement purposes. Mostrecently, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has agreedto create multilateral convention and to amend the Model Law on International CommercialConciliation to facilitate cross-border enforcement of commercial disputes ...


Singapore As A Centre For International Commercial Litigation: Party Autonomy To The Fore, Adeline Chong, Man Yip Jun 2019

Singapore As A Centre For International Commercial Litigation: Party Autonomy To The Fore, Adeline Chong, Man Yip

Research Collection School Of Law

This article considers two recent developments in Singapore private international law: the establishment of the Singapore International Commercial Court and the enactment of the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements 2005 into Singapore law. These two developments are part of Singapore’s strategy to promote itself as an international dispute resolution hub and are underscored by giving an enhanced role to party autonomy. This article examines the impact of these two developments on the traditional rules of private international law and whether they achieve the stated aim of positioning Singapore as a major player in the international litigation arena.


Old Ethics In New Wineskins? Examining The Ethical Difficulties In Court Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson May 2019

Old Ethics In New Wineskins? Examining The Ethical Difficulties In Court Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This post is based on a presentation made at the National Mediation Conference, Canberra, April 2019. The presentation has been drawn from two articles, Ethical Concerns in Court-Connected Online Dispute Resolution (2018) 1-2 International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution 20, and The Convergence of ADR and ODR within the Courts: The Impact on Access to Justice (2019) 38(1) Civil Justice Quarterly 126.


The Constitutionality Of Ouster Clauses: Nagaenthran A/L K Dharmalingam V Attorney-General [2018] Sghc 112, Benjamin Joshua Ong May 2019

The Constitutionality Of Ouster Clauses: Nagaenthran A/L K Dharmalingam V Attorney-General [2018] Sghc 112, Benjamin Joshua Ong

Research Collection School Of Law

Section 33B(4) of Singapore’s Misuse of Drugs Act purportedly partly ousts judicial review of the Public Prosecutor’s determination of whether a drug trafficker has substantively assisted the anti-drug enforcement agency. This paper argues that Singapore’s High Court erred in holding this provision constitutionally valid. Ouster clauses are unconstitutional vis-à-vis Articles 12(1) and 93 of the Constitution; the High Court’s view does not accord with the law on non-justiciability and is premised on a flawed theory of legislative intention. It is no answer that judicial power is subject to a ‘balance’ which renders a partial ...


Ethical Concerns In Court-Connected Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson Apr 2019

Ethical Concerns In Court-Connected Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This article examines the burgeoning trend of creating court ODR systems, focusing on the design aspects that are likely to raise ethical challenges. It discusses four salient questions to be considered when designing a court ODR system, and the resulting ethical tensions that are brought to the fore. As a fourth party, the ODR system not only replaces existing court functions, but enlarges the scope of the courts’ intervention in disputes and increases the courts’ interface with the user. Furthermore, certain ethical principles such as transparency, accountability, impartiality and fairness take on greater significance in the court context than in ...


Judicial Mediation: From Debates To Renewal, Jean-Francois Roberge, Dorcas Quek Anderson Mar 2019

Judicial Mediation: From Debates To Renewal, Jean-Francois Roberge, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

Judicial mediation involving a judge actingas a mediator in a court dispute has been implemented in many jurisdictionsworldwide as a way to overcome access to justice challenges. This innovationhas raised many debates on the changing role of the judge built on either its congruence with or divergence from judicial adjudication. Over the years, thesedebates have become increasingly stagnant. The evolving vision on access tojustice brings an opportunity to draw from the earlier debates and forge adifferent way forward. This paper argues that a coequality approach to understanding judicial mediation is a betterway to design the process in a way that ...


Singapore Convention Series: Why Is There No ‘Seat’ Of Mediation?, Shouyu Chong, Nadja Alexander Feb 2019

Singapore Convention Series: Why Is There No ‘Seat’ Of Mediation?, Shouyu Chong, Nadja Alexander

Research Collection School Of Law

For dispute resolution practitioners familiar with the concept of the seat of arbitration, it may come as a surprise that the new UN Convention on International Settlement Agreement Resulting from Mediation does not include provisions in relation to the ‘seat’ of mediation. Why, you may ask? The Convention includes no provisions on ‘seat’ simply because there has never been the need for a ‘seat’ of mediation when cross-border disputes are brought before a mediator, and this remains the case. In this blog post, we will develop a hypothetical scenario to explore the issues.


The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: The Current Landscape Of Mandatory Arbitration Clause Enforcement In Domestic Arbitration, Virginia Neisler Feb 2019

The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: The Current Landscape Of Mandatory Arbitration Clause Enforcement In Domestic Arbitration, Virginia Neisler

Law Librarian Scholarship

There is nothing new about arbi­tration, a method of alternative dispute resolution designed to settle disputes more efficiently, cheaper, and faster than litigation. Today, mandatory arbitration clauses are ubiquitous in commercial contracts, social media terms and conditions, employment contracts, and more. These contracts, where one party in the weaker position (often a consumer or an employee) must either accept or reject the terms as written with no power to negotiate, are known as contracts of adhesion. The widespread use of arbitration clauses—specifically, pre­dispute, forced arbitration agreements, often including class­action waiv ers found in adhesion contracts—has ...


An Implied Ground For Refusal To Enforce Imsas Under The Singapore Convention On Mediation: The Effect Of Article 6, Shouyu Chong, Nadja Alexander Feb 2019

An Implied Ground For Refusal To Enforce Imsas Under The Singapore Convention On Mediation: The Effect Of Article 6, Shouyu Chong, Nadja Alexander

Research Collection School Of Law

This post is part of a series on the UN Convention on Mediated Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation (the Singapore Convention on Mediation). In previous posts we have outlined the conventional view that Article 5 of the Singapore Convention establishes exhaustively all the possible exceptions to the enforcement of iMSAs that have otherwise have complied with the requirements set out under Article 4. In this post we question this initial position and ask whether there is an implied ground for refusal to enforce iMSAs under the Singapore Convention made available through an application of Article 6.


Surveying The Scene: How Representatives’ Views Informed A New Era In Irish Workplace Dispute Resolution, Brian Barry Feb 2019

Surveying The Scene: How Representatives’ Views Informed A New Era In Irish Workplace Dispute Resolution, Brian Barry

Articles

The Workplace Relations Act 2015 introduced a major overhaul of workplace dispute resolution bodies in Ireland, streamlining a complicated system for resolving workplace disputes comprising multiple fora into a two-tier structure. The article describes and analyses the results of two surveys undertaken by the author of the views of employment law and industrial relations practitioners and other representatives in Ireland before the reforms in 2011 and after the reforms in 2016. This article describes the purpose, methodology and considers the results of both surveys. The 2011 survey informed the agenda for reforming the Irish workplace dispute resolution system in 2015 ...


The Singapore Convention On Mediation - A Brighter Future For Asian Dispute Resolution, Eunice Chua Jan 2019

The Singapore Convention On Mediation - A Brighter Future For Asian Dispute Resolution, Eunice Chua

Research Collection School Of Law

On 26 June 2018, the UnitedNations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) approved, largelywithout modification, the final drafts of the Convention on International SettlementAgreements Resulting from Mediation (the Singapore Convention) and amendmentsto the Model Law on International Commercial Mediation prepared by WorkingGroup II. These instruments aim to promote the enforceability of internationalcommercial settlement agreements reached through mediation in the same way thatthe New York Convention facilitates the recognition and enforcement ofinternational arbitration awards. This paper provides a critical analysis of theSingapore Convention and some commentary from an Asian perspective.


The Fair Labor Standards Act At 80: Everything Old Is New Again, Kati L. Griffith Jan 2019

The Fair Labor Standards Act At 80: Everything Old Is New Again, Kati L. Griffith

Articles and Chapters

On the 80th anniversary of the federal wage and hour statute, the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), critics warn that it cannot keep pace with shifting business trends. More and more individuals engage in “contract work,” some of which takes place in the much publicized “gig economy.” These work arrangements raise questions about whether these workers are “employees,” covered by U.S. labor and employment law, or “independent contractors.” Subcontracting arrangements, or what some call domestic outsourcing, are also expanding. Indeed, more and more workers in the U.S. economy engage with multiple businesses, raising questions of which ...


European Decision Could Have Killed Investment Treaties, Affecting Arbitration And Investments, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Amanda W. Newton Jan 2019

European Decision Could Have Killed Investment Treaties, Affecting Arbitration And Investments, Peter B. Rutledge, Katherine M. Larsen, Amanda W. Newton

Popular Media

A dramatic upheaval in investor-state arbitration last year recently led to the apparent demise of investment treaties throughout Europe and could have broad implications for both international arbitration and foreign investments in the European Union. In May 2018, the Court of Justice of the European Union found in Achmea v. Slovak Republic that the bilateral investment treaty between the Netherlands and the Slovak Republic (a so-called intra-EU BIT) contained an arbitration clause that was incompatible with European law.


Expanding The Scope Of Dispute Resolution And Access To Justice, Masood Ahmed, Dorcas Quek Anderson Jan 2019

Expanding The Scope Of Dispute Resolution And Access To Justice, Masood Ahmed, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This note considers recent civil justice reforms in England and Singapore in enhancing the role of ADR, in particular mediation, as a means of increasing access to justice. The English and Singaporean civil justice reforms reflect the continual efforts to encourage the greater utilisation of ADR for appropriate cases. The current range of mechanisms may be charted along a “continuum of madatoriness”, ranging from compulsory attendance at mediation orientation sessions; the utilisation of costs sanctions; having an opt-out system; and mandating mediation with no exemptions. However, the English and Singaporean experiences illustrate some of the drawbacks in penalising parties for ...


The Singapore Convention On Mediation - A Brighter Future For Asian Dispute Resolution, Eunice Chua Jan 2019

The Singapore Convention On Mediation - A Brighter Future For Asian Dispute Resolution, Eunice Chua

Research Collection School Of Law

On 26 June 2018, the UnitedNations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) approved, largelywithout modification, the final drafts of the Convention on International SettlementAgreements Resulting from Mediation (the Singapore Convention) and amendmentsto the Model Law on International Commercial Mediation prepared by WorkingGroup II. These instruments aim to promote the enforceability of internationalcommercial settlement agreements reached through mediation in the same way thatthe New York Convention facilitates the recognition and enforcement ofinternational arbitration awards. This paper provides a critical analysis of theSingapore Convention and some commentary from an Asian perspective.


Mediation In The Singapore Family Justice Courts: Examining The Mandatory Mediation Model Under The Judge-Led Approach, Eunice Chua Jan 2019

Mediation In The Singapore Family Justice Courts: Examining The Mandatory Mediation Model Under The Judge-Led Approach, Eunice Chua

Research Collection School Of Law

In orderto reduce acrimony and the adversarial quality of family litigation, theSingapore family justice framework went through an overhaul in 2014. Chiefamong the changes was the creation of the Family Justice Rules (“FJR”) uniqueto the newly constituted Family Justice Courts. The FJR are meant to reflect anew judicial philosophy for family law disputes, with a “judge-led” approachmandated by Rule 22 of the FJR. As part of the directions a court may give inthe exercise of this “judge-led” approach, Rule 22(3)(a) introduces a new,express power for the court to direct that parties attend mediation orcounselling. This paper seeks ...


Religious Courts In Secular Jurisdictions: How Jewish And Islamic Courts Adapt To Societal And Legal Norms, Rabea Benhalim Jan 2019

Religious Courts In Secular Jurisdictions: How Jewish And Islamic Courts Adapt To Societal And Legal Norms, Rabea Benhalim

Articles

At first glance, religious courts, especially Sharia courts, seem incompatible with secular, democratic societies. Nevertheless, Jewish and Islamic courts operate in countries like the United States, England, and Israel. Scholarship on these religious courts has primarily focused on whether such religious legal pluralism promotes the value of religious freedom, and if so, whether these secular legal systems should accommodate the continued existence of these courts. This article shifts the inquiry to determine whether religious courts in these environments accommodate litigants’ popular opinions and the secular, procedural, and substantive justice norms of the country in which they are located. This article ...


Digital Accessibility And Disability Accommodations In Online Dispute Resolution: Odr For Everyone, David Larson Jan 2019

Digital Accessibility And Disability Accommodations In Online Dispute Resolution: Odr For Everyone, David Larson

Faculty Scholarship

Court systems are exploring and beginning to adopt online dispute resolution (ODR) systems, and it is critical that they make digital accessibility a priority. Even though we need to pay close attention to ODR developments in court systems, we cannot overlook the fact that there are ODR providers in the private sector whose systems also must be accessible for persons with disabilities. Plaintiffs filed more ADA Title III website accessibility lawsuits in federal court for the first six months of 2018 than in all of 2017. There were at least 1053 such lawsuits in the first six months of 2018 ...


Dispute Resolution Neutrals' Ethical Obligation To Support Measured Transparency, Nancy A. Welsh Jan 2019

Dispute Resolution Neutrals' Ethical Obligation To Support Measured Transparency, Nancy A. Welsh

Faculty Scholarship

In 2016, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued proposed rules that would have brought substantial transparency to mandatory pre-dispute consumer arbitration. In particular, the CFPB proposed to require regulated providers of financial products and services to report to the CFPB regarding their use and the outcomes of arbitrations conducted pursuant to arbitration clauses, and further, the CFPB proposed to make such information public (with appropriate redactions). Although Congress and the President ultimately annulled the CFPB’s proposed rule, its introduction revealed the need for dispute resolution neutrals to support bringing “measured transparency” to private dispute resolution. To place the ...


Mandatory Arbitration Stymies Progress Towards Justice In Employment Law: Where To, #Metoo?, Jean R. Sternlight Jan 2019

Mandatory Arbitration Stymies Progress Towards Justice In Employment Law: Where To, #Metoo?, Jean R. Sternlight

Scholarly Works

Today our employment law provides workers with far more protection than once existed with respect to hiring, firing, salary, and workplace conditions. Despite these gains, continued progress towards justice is currently in jeopardy due to companies’ imposition of mandatory arbitration on their employees. By denying their employees access to court, companies are causing employment law to stultify. This impacts all employees, but particularly harms the most vulnerable and oppressed members of our society for whom legal evolution is most important. If companies can continue to use mandatory arbitration to eradicate access to court, where judges are potentially influenced by social ...


Mediator Burnout, Lydia Nussbaum Jan 2019

Mediator Burnout, Lydia Nussbaum

Scholarly Works

Being a mediator is hard work Mediators must make meaningful connections with individuals without over-stepping bounds of impartiality, manage emotions without becoming emotionally invested, and empower decision-making without undermining self-determination. Decades of research into occupational stress, also known as "burnout," indicates that mediators not only are susceptible to burnout, but also that the symptoms of burnout undermine fundamental principles of quality mediation. For example, a burned-out mediator may exhibit narrow and uncreative thinking, diminished capacity to regulate emotions, compromised decision-making, and deficits in attention and memory.

The prospect of mediator burnout not only threatens the quality of mediation, but it ...


Hey, Big Spender: Ethical Guidelines For Dispute Resolution Professionals When Parties Are Backed By Third-Party Funders, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

Hey, Big Spender: Ethical Guidelines For Dispute Resolution Professionals When Parties Are Backed By Third-Party Funders, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

This first-of-its-kind paper introduces ethical guidelines and suggested practices for dispute resolution providers and neutrals when third-party funders provide financial backing for parties in U.S. domestic arbitrations and mediations. Sophisticated third-party funders have realized that litigation and dispute resolution are fast-growing, unregulated investment opportunities. Seizing these opportunities, third-party funders are now making billions of dollars in profits through their strategic investments in domestic and global litigation and dispute resolution with few ethical rules or regulations to curtail their investment behavior.3 Preferring to be secretive about the terms of their funding contracts and invisible in their work, third- party ...


Taming Blockbuster Punitive Damages Awards, W. Kip Viscusi, Benjamin J. Mcmichael Jan 2019

Taming Blockbuster Punitive Damages Awards, W. Kip Viscusi, Benjamin J. Mcmichael

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Blockbuster punitive damages awards, i.e., those awards exceeding $100 million, attract attention based on their sheer size. While there have been fewer such awards in the last decade, they remain an important presence in the legal landscape. Taking notice of these and other large punitive damages awards, courts and state policymakers have taken steps to both constrain them and render them more predictable. States have enacted punitive damages caps to limit the amount of punitive damages courts can award, but these caps often contain a number of exceptions and apply only to damages under a specific state’s law ...


Expanding Access To Remedies Through E-Court Initiatives, Amy J. Schmitz Jan 2019

Expanding Access To Remedies Through E-Court Initiatives, Amy J. Schmitz

Faculty Publications

Virtual courthouses, artificial intelligence (AI) for determining cases, and algorithmic analysis for all types of legal issues have captured the interest of judges, lawyers, educators, commentators, business leaders, and policymakers. Technology has become the “fourth party” in dispute resolution through the growing field of online dispute resolution (ODR), which includes the use of a broad spectrum of technologies in negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and other dispute resolution processes. Indeed, ODR shows great promise for expanding access to remedies, or justice. In the United States and abroad, however, ODR has mainly thrived within e-commerce companies like eBay and Alibaba, while most public ...


Online Dispute Resolution For Smart Contracts, Amy J. Schmitz, Colin Rule Jan 2019

Online Dispute Resolution For Smart Contracts, Amy J. Schmitz, Colin Rule

Faculty Publications

Smart contracts built in the blockchain are quietly revolutionizing traditional transactions despite their questionable status under current law. At the same time, disputes regarding smart contracts are inevitable, and par-ties will need means for dealing with smart contract issues. This Article tackles this challenge, and proposes that parties turn to online dispute resolution (“ODR”) to efficiently and fairly resolve smart contract disputes. Furthermore, the Article acknowledges the benefits and challenges of current blockchain ODR start-ups, and proposes specific ideas for how designers could address those challenges and incorporate ODR to provide just resolutions that will not stymie efficiencies of smart ...


Burning Down The House? The Appellate Body In The Centre Of The Wto Crisis, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2019

Burning Down The House? The Appellate Body In The Centre Of The Wto Crisis, Bernard Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

In December 2019 the WTO Appellate Body (AB) will cease to operate unless the United States stops blocking new appointments. The US argues the AB has exceeded its mandate and has indicated it wants to ensure that the AB performs the role originally assigned to it in 1995. This paper discusses the Uruguay round negotiating history with the view to establish what “going back to 1995” entails. It concludes that this should not be difficult assuming a willingness of the WTO membership to seriously consider the US concerns and acceptance by the US of a commitment by the membership to ...


Final Report And Collaborative Action Plan, Maryland Commission On The School-To-Prison Pipeline And Restorative Practices Dec 2018

Final Report And Collaborative Action Plan, Maryland Commission On The School-To-Prison Pipeline And Restorative Practices

C-DRUM Publications

Report to the Maryland Governor and General Assembly Pursuant to House Bill 1287 (2017).


Arb-Med-Arb In Cross-Border Disputes, Janet C. Checkley, Nadja Alexander Dec 2018

Arb-Med-Arb In Cross-Border Disputes, Janet C. Checkley, Nadja Alexander

Research Collection School Of Law

To satisfy the needs of an increasingly diverse set of legal cultures meeting in the global marketplace today, dispute resolution mechanisms must continually evolve. One of the recent solutions to arise out of the blending of legal cultures is evolutionary rather than revolutionary, because it is in fact not new at all: multi-tiered dispute resolution.