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Lessons Learned From The Evolution Of Evolving Standards, Corinna Barrett Lain Jan 2010

Lessons Learned From The Evolution Of Evolving Standards, Corinna Barrett Lain

Law Faculty Publications

In the discussion that follows, I explore the evolution of the "evolving standards" doctrine to make a point about its legitimacy and Supreme Court decisionmaking under the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause more generally. In Part I, I trace the origins of the doctrine to its present state. In Part II, I turn to lessons learned from the evolution of "evolving standards," questioning the textual defense of the doctrine and the constraining power of law itself. I conclude that while the "evolving standards" doctrine is problematic, it is not the crux of the problem. Supreme Court decisionmaking in the death ...


Criminal Law And Procedure: An Overview, 3rd Edition, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 2009

Criminal Law And Procedure: An Overview, 3rd Edition, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

Criminal Law and Procedure: An Overview, third edition, covers the essentials of both substantive criminal law and criminal procedure. Covering both subjects makes this book suitable for a single course designed to provide an overview of the entire criminal justice system, or it can be used in separate courses covering substantive and procedural law. The first part defines criminal responsibility and addresses the major felonies recognized in most, if not all jurisdictions. The second half covers the procedural aspects of the entire criminal justice system from arrest to appeal and habeas corpus. Particular emphasis is placed on the fourth, fifth ...


Did The Court Kill The Treason Charge?: Reassessing Cramer V. United States And Its Significance, Paul T. Crane Jan 2009

Did The Court Kill The Treason Charge?: Reassessing Cramer V. United States And Its Significance, Paul T. Crane

Law Faculty Publications

This Article has two main objectives. First, I will analyze the Court's decision in Cramer v. United States. Based on internal court documents, such as draft opinions and private memoranda, it is clear that the Justices had more on their minds than the specific legal question at hand. Second, I will reassess the relationship between Cramer and the lack of treason charges after 1954 and offer an explanation for the disappearance of treason prosecutions until the indictment of Gadahn in 2006. Specifically, I will highlight the significance of a traditionally underappreciated portion of the Cramer decision: the Court's ...


Can Prosecutors Bluff? Brady V. Maryland And Plea Bargaining, John G. Douglass Apr 2007

Can Prosecutors Bluff? Brady V. Maryland And Plea Bargaining, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

The author discusses the symbolic value of the Brady rule in the pretrial context in the U.S. criminal justice system. Brady's symbolic power remains stronger than its corrective power in post-trial motions. It serves as a constitutional reminder to prosecutors because they cannot serve as architects of unfairness. Most prosecutors disclose more Brady material in pretrial discovery than the constitutional rule actually demands. This indicates that prosecutors can bluff.


"True Threats" And The Issue Of Intent, Paul T. Crane Jan 2006

"True Threats" And The Issue Of Intent, Paul T. Crane

Law Faculty Publications

This Note will proceed in five Parts. Part I will serve as a short introduction to the category of true threats and its place within First Amendment jurisprudence. Part II will examine the history of true threats and intent leading up to Virginia v. Black, highlighting the foundational opinion of Watts v. United States and the various intent approaches that became available in its wake. Part III will discuss the potential interpretations of the language in Black, and Part IV will explain how lower courts have treated the Court's definition of true threats in Black. Finally, Part V will ...


Confronting Death: Sixth Amendment Rights At Capital Sentencing, John G. Douglass Nov 2005

Confronting Death: Sixth Amendment Rights At Capital Sentencing, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

The Court's fragmentary approach has taken pieces of the Sixth Amendment and applied them to pieces of the capital sentencing process. The author contends that the whole of the Sixth Amendment applies to the whole of a capital case, whether the issue is guilt, death eligibility, or the final selection of who lives and who dies. In capital cases, there is one Sixth Amendment world, not two. In this Article, he argues for a unified theory of Sixth Amendment rights to govern the whole of a capital case. Because both Williams and the Apprendi-Ring-Booker line of cases purport to ...


Countermajoritarian Hero Or Zero - Rethinking The Warren Court's Role In The Criminal Procedure Revolution, Corinna Barrett Lain Jan 2004

Countermajoritarian Hero Or Zero - Rethinking The Warren Court's Role In The Criminal Procedure Revolution, Corinna Barrett Lain

Law Faculty Publications

With last fall marking the fiftieth anniversary of Earl Warren's appointment as Chief Justice, enough time has passed to place the criminal procedure revolution in proper historical perspective and rethink the Court's role there as countermajoritarian hero. In the discussion that follows, I aim to do that by examining five of the revolution's most celebrated decisions: Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v. Wainwright, Miranda v. Arizona, Katz v. United States, and Terry v. Ohio. In none of these cases, I argue, did the Supreme Court act in a manner truly deserving of its countermajoritarian image. To be clear ...


Admissibility As Cause And Effect: Considering Affirmative Rights Under The Confrontation Clause, John G. Douglass Jan 2003

Admissibility As Cause And Effect: Considering Affirmative Rights Under The Confrontation Clause, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

In this essay, I first examine some of the strategic choices spawned by the Supreme Court's "microscopic" focus on reliability in confrontation-hearsay cases. Rather than promoting the value at the core of the Confrontation Clause-the adversarial testing of prosecution evidence-the Court's approach leads to choices that ignore that value. While the Court scrutinizes hearsay under the microscope of reliability, it leaves the parties free to ignore and even to avoid available opportunities for effective confrontation of the hearsay declarant. At the same time, the Court's constitutional definition of reliability-which it equates with "firmly rooted" hearsay exceptions -has ...


Virtual Cross-Examination: The Art Of Impeaching Hearsay, John G. Douglass Jan 2003

Virtual Cross-Examination: The Art Of Impeaching Hearsay, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

Trial lawyers and judges are quite accustomed to courtroom battles over the admissibility of hearsay. But relatively few have much experience at challenging the credibility of hearsay. Once hearsay is admitted in evidence, even the ablest advocates typically proceed as if the hearsay battle were over, at least until the appeal. Few lawyers take advantage of the opportunities available to impeach the hearsay declarant. Consider the perspective of one experienced trial judge: I sometimes wonder at what seems to me the passing up of golden opportunities by the able advocate. Foremost among these lost opportunities is the virtual total neglect ...


Accuracy Where It Matters: Brady V. Maryland In The Plea Bargaining Context, Corinna Barrett Lain Jan 2002

Accuracy Where It Matters: Brady V. Maryland In The Plea Bargaining Context, Corinna Barrett Lain

Law Faculty Publications

Professor Lain argues that the role of Brady v. Maryland in protecting the innocent from wrongful conviction is just as essential in the plea bargaining context as it is at trial, and that therefore even defendants who plead guilty should be entitled to Brady's protections. However, she concludes that Brady's application in the plea bargaining context is destined to provide only a shadow of the protection Brady provides at trial because of the materiality standard currently used to judge post-plea Brady claims. In making both points, she employs a model of the plea bargaining defendant's decision-making process ...


Fatal Attraction? The Uneasy Courtship Of Brady And Plea Bargaining, John G. Douglass Jan 2001

Fatal Attraction? The Uneasy Courtship Of Brady And Plea Bargaining, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this Article discusses the natural attraction between Brady-a rule requiring disclosure of evidence favorable to a defendant-and plea bargaining-a practice where such information is at a premium for defendants. Part II describes how an increasing number of courts have adapted Brady to fit in the world of a plea bargain, in the process changing Brady's point of reference from the jury's verdict to the defendant's tactical decision to plead guilty. Part ill argues that this change in focus narrows Brady's substantive coverage and renders the rule practically unenforceable following most guilty pleas. Part ...


Confronting The Reluctant Accomplice, John G. Douglass Jan 2001

Confronting The Reluctant Accomplice, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court treats the Confrontation Clause as a rule of evidence that excludes unreliable hearsay. But where the hearsay declarant is an accomplice who refuses to testify at defendant's trial, the Court's approach leads prosecutors and defendants to ignore real opportunities for confrontation, while they debate the reliability of hearsay. And even where the Court's doctrine excludes hearsay, it leads prosecutors to purchase the accomplice's testimony through a process that raises equally serious questions of reliability. Thus, the Court's approach promotes neither reliability nor confrontation. This Article advocates an approach that applies the Confrontation ...


Virginia Criminal Procedure Forms, 4th Edition, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 2000

Virginia Criminal Procedure Forms, 4th Edition, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

Including forms suggested by practicing Virginia prosecutors and defense attorneys, Criminal Procedure Forms gives you the benefit of their years of experience. It also provides a number of official state forms used by circuit and district judges and magistrates. This companion to Criminal Procedure follows the outline of that work and includes forms for topics such as:

• Arrest

• Search and seizure

• Confession

• Identification

• Pretrial

• Trial

• Sentencing

• Judicial review


Balancing Hearsay And Criminal Discovery, John G. Douglass Jan 2000

Balancing Hearsay And Criminal Discovery, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

and prosecutors. Part I of this Article argues that the conventional theory of hearsaydiscovery balance does not reflect the reality of modem federal practice. An imbalance has arisen because, in the last quarter century, developments in the law of evidence and confrontation are at odds with developments-or one might say nondevelopments-in the law of criminal discovery. Since enactment of the Federal Rules of Evidence in 1975, both the law of evidence and modem Confrontation Clause doctrine have evolved toward broader admission of hearsay in criminal cases. Contrary to conventional theory, that evolution has at least matched-and probably has outpaced-the trend ...


Beyond Admissibility: Real Confrontation, Virtual Cross-Examination And The Right To Confront Hearsay, John G. Douglass Jan 1999

Beyond Admissibility: Real Confrontation, Virtual Cross-Examination And The Right To Confront Hearsay, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this Article describes how the Court turned the Confrontation Clause into a rule excluding unreliable hearsay, culminating in the 1980 decision in Ohio v. Roberts, in which the Court set out the "general approach" that dominates confrontation-hearsay analysis today. Part II assesses the application of the Court's exclusionary rule in the two decades since Roberts, a period during which the Confrontation Clause largely has merged with, and disappeared into, the law of evidence, in the process losing its significance as an independent protection for the accused in an adversarial system. Part III argues that the Court ...


Virginia Criminal Procedure, 4th Edition, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 1999

Virginia Criminal Procedure, 4th Edition, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

The importance of procedure in criminal cases has increased dramatically in recent years. The average practitioner is well aware that cases can be won or lost on procedural grounds. This book is therefore designed to aid Virginia practitioners in the handling of a criminal case. It is hoped that through the sequential examination of the various stages of the criminal process from arrest to appeal, the reader will easily be able to find the point of law with which he is concerned.


The Breard Case And The Virtues Of Forbearance, John G. Douglass Jan 1998

The Breard Case And The Virtues Of Forbearance, John G. Douglass

Law Faculty Publications

At a time when the scheduled execution of Angel Francisco Breard made Virginia the focus of a groundbreaking controversy over the reach of internationallaw into the domestic criminal process of the United States, law students and faculty at the University of Richmond had the unique opportunity to consider the case along with Philippe Sands, then a Visiting Allen Chair Professor at the University.


How Much Should Mind Matter? Mens Rea In Theft And Fraud Sentencing, James Gibson Nov 1997

How Much Should Mind Matter? Mens Rea In Theft And Fraud Sentencing, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

This article discusses the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s vote to potentially revise the definition of loss. Anyone who has followed the Commission's deliberations on loss will see that the proposed definition attempts to address many of the contentious issues that have arisen in the case law and commentary. The issues that the proposed definition concentrates on, however, such as credits, interest, causation, and gain, tend to inform the inquiry into "actual loss" rather than "intended loss," even though the latter concept is integral to both definitions. Although neither the current nor the proposed definition provides much guidance for ...


The Right Of The People To Be Secure, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 1993

The Right Of The People To Be Secure, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this Article defines searches and seizures of property and person, discussing the Supreme Court's initially broad interpretation of the Fourth Amendment and its subsequent narrowing in later decisions. Part II discusses several police "chase cases" leading up to the elimination of accidental and attempted seizures from Fourth Amendment protection in Brower v. County of Inyo and California v. Hodari D. Part Ill analyzes the Brower decision and its effect on accidental seizures, concluding that the analysis set forth therein should be abolished and advocating an alternate test. Part IV confronts the Court's elimination of attempted ...


When Racists And Radicals Meet, Ronald J. Bacigal, Margaret Ivey Bacigal Jan 1989

When Racists And Radicals Meet, Ronald J. Bacigal, Margaret Ivey Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

In order to stimulate scholarly discussion, this Essay presents an empirical account of the Greensboro incident from the perspective of those who participated in the episode and in the resulting civil rights trial. The Essay traces the circumstances leading to the violence and reviews the resultant litigation with special attention given to the role of the trial judge in politically volatile cases. The candid reflections offered by the trial judge and other participants allow the reader to examine both the event and the litigation, not merely in the abstract, but as implemented by flesh-andblood lawyers, litigants, and judges. .


Criminal Procedure, Ronald J. Bacigal Jul 1987

Criminal Procedure, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

This article summarizes significant legislative changes, decisions of the United States and Virginia Supreme Courts, and decisions of the Virginia Court of Appeals. A more extensive consideration of this material as well as recent decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and federal district courts is contained in R. Bacigal, Virginia Criminal Procedure (Supp. 1987).


Annual Survey Of Virginia Law - Civil Procedure And Practice, William Hamilton Bryson Jan 1987

Annual Survey Of Virginia Law - Civil Procedure And Practice, William Hamilton Bryson

Law Faculty Publications

This article considers recent developments in the field of Virginia civil procedure and practice, including statutes, rules of court, and opinions of the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia that have appeared between May 1986 and May 1987. This article also comments on cases in volumes five through eight of Virginia Circuit Court Opinions, many of which were decided before 1986. It is appropriate to mention them here since they were only recently made generally available through publication. In order to facilitate the discussion of numerous Virginia Code sections, they will be referred to in ...


Criminal Procedure, Ronald J. Bacigal Jul 1985

Criminal Procedure, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

This survey addresses only significant Virginia cases and statutes affecting Virginia criminal procedure. For discussion of the impact of federal court decisions, see R. Bacigal, Virginia Criminal Procedure (Supp. 1985).


Post-Whalen Double Jeopardy In Virginia, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 1982

Post-Whalen Double Jeopardy In Virginia, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

The constitutional prohibition against double jeopardy serves three distinct purposes: (1) prohibition of a second prosecution after acquittal; (2) prohibition of a second prosecution after conviction; and (3) prohibition of multiple punishments for the same offense. This article addresses the problem of defining "the same offense," and specifically focuses on the application of the Blockburger test in light of Whalen v. United States.


A Case For Jury Determination Of Search And Seizure Law, Ronald J. Bacigal Jan 1981

A Case For Jury Determination Of Search And Seizure Law, Ronald J. Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

In a criminal case the option to return a general verdict of acquittal invests the jury with the raw power to nullify many legal determinations, including the trial judge's ruling that a search is constitutional. While courts grudingly acknowledge the existence of an extra-legal jury nullification power, courts do not recognize any jury prerogative to determine the lawfulness of a search. The United States Supreme Court's discussion of the jury's role in interpreting and applying the fourth amendment consists of one terse statement that the legality of a search "is a question of fact and law for ...


Law And Tactics In Juvenile Cases, Adrienne E. Volenik Jan 1977

Law And Tactics In Juvenile Cases, Adrienne E. Volenik

Law Faculty Publications

Preparing a practice manual for legal services and defense attorneys located in all parts of the country is a difficult assignment. Despite differences in state juvenile codes and significant variations in the evolution of case law in each jurisdiction, there are common issues and problems in the juvenile and family law fields. Although this Manual is not designed to answer definitively questions of law that arise in a particular jurisdiction, it does present a comprehensive overview of the issues. In addition, it proposes solutions to the common problems, outlines challenges to improper practices, and suggests tactics to be employed in ...


Notice In Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings, Adrienne Volenik Jan 1975

Notice In Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings, Adrienne Volenik

Law Faculty Publications

Despite these suggestions, the problem of what constitutes adequate notice continues to plague juvenile courts. Furthermore, by suggesting two criminal and two civil cases as examples, the Court added the issue of whether a civil or a criminal standard for notice should be applied. Courts that have addressed this issue have reached different conclusions.


Criminal Law And Procedure Eleventh Survey Of Florida Law - Part Four, David Frisch Jan 1974

Criminal Law And Procedure Eleventh Survey Of Florida Law - Part Four, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

This survey is a continuation of previous articles on the topic of Florida criminal law and procedure.