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Freedom And Prison: Putting Structuralism Back Into Structural Inequality, Anders Walker Jan 2019

Freedom And Prison: Putting Structuralism Back Into Structural Inequality, Anders Walker

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Critics of structural racism frequently miss structuralism as a field of historical inquiry. This essay reviews the rise of structuralism as a mode of historical analysis and applies it to the mass incarceration debate in the United States, arguing that it enriches the work of prevailing scholars in the field.


A Comparison Of Defendants With Mental Illness Represented By Public Defenders And Private Attorneys: An Analysis Of Court-Ordered Pretrial Psychiatric Evaluations, Donald M. Linhorst, P. Ann Dirks-Lindhorst, Susan Mcgraugh, Lauren Choate, Sarah Riley Jan 2017

A Comparison Of Defendants With Mental Illness Represented By Public Defenders And Private Attorneys: An Analysis Of Court-Ordered Pretrial Psychiatric Evaluations, Donald M. Linhorst, P. Ann Dirks-Lindhorst, Susan Mcgraugh, Lauren Choate, Sarah Riley

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This study compared the characteristics and court-ordered evaluation questions and responses among 4,430 defendants to determine if differences existed between those represented by public defenders and private attorneys when receiving trial competency or responsibility psychiatric evaluations from a state department of mental health. Defendants represented by public defenders were more likely to be younger, to have less education, to have psychotic disorders, to have a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment, to live in urban or rural counties, and to be jailed at the time of the evaluation. In addition, defendants represented by public defenders were less likely to have ...


“To Corral And Control”: Stop, Frisk, And The Geography Of Freedom, Anders Walker Jan 2014

“To Corral And Control”: Stop, Frisk, And The Geography Of Freedom, Anders Walker

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This article revisits the emergence of stop and frisk law in the 1960s to make three points. One, the impetus for formalizing police stops arose midst confusion generated by Mapp v. Ohio, the landmark Warren Court opinion incorporating the exclusionary rule to the states. Two, police over-reactions to Mapp intersected with fears of urban riots, leading to a formalization of stop and frisk rules that aimed at better containing inner city minority populations. Three, the heightened control of urban streets coupled with the heightened protection of the private home bore geographic implications, interiorizing liberty in ways that perpetuated a national ...


The New Jim Crow? Recovering The Progressive Origins Of Mass Incarceration, Anders Walker Jan 2014

The New Jim Crow? Recovering The Progressive Origins Of Mass Incarceration, Anders Walker

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This article revisits the claim that mass incarceration constitutes a new form of racial segregation, or JimCrow. Drawing from historical sources, it demonstrates that proponents of the analogy miss an important commonality between the two phenomena, namely the debt that each owe to progressive and/or liberal politics. Though generally associated with repression and discrimination, both Jim Crow and massincarceration owe their existence in part to enlightened reforms aimed at promoting black interests; albeit with perverse results. Recognizing the aspirational origins of systematic discrimination marks an important facet of comprehending the persistence of racial inequality in the United States.


Marxist And Soviet Law, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2014

Marxist And Soviet Law, Stephen C. Thaman

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This chapter addresses both the Marxist critique of law before the Russian Revolution and the development of the Soviet Law Structure. It discusses the three main trends in Soviet Criminal Law before elucidating how these trends affected the General Part and the Special Part of Soviet Criminal Codes and overall Soviet criminal policy.


Report On Usa, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2013

Report On Usa, Stephen C. Thaman

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This chapter in the book on transnational inquiries and the protection of fundamental rights in criminal proceedings takes into account the particular, and perhaps unique situation in the United States (US) following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. It explores the laws regulating inquiries by foreign governments who seek evidence in the US to use in criminal proceedings overseas, but primarily the protections recognized by US statutes and jurisprudence when US officials gather evidence abroad. In this respect, the chapter focuses on protections during interrogations, searches, interceptions of confidential communications, and examinations of witnesses and explores when the protection ...


Strange Traffic: Sex, Slavery & The Freedom Principle, Anders Walker Jan 2013

Strange Traffic: Sex, Slavery & The Freedom Principle, Anders Walker

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This article uses the recent prosecution of a sex trafficking case in rural Missouri to argue three points. One, the federal law of trafficking is currently being used in unanticipated ways, including the apprehension of individuals who pay for sex. Two, trafficking invites creative use precisely because it provides prosecutors with a more salient justification for punishment than either legal moralism or harm; a rhetorical plea to anti-slavery that enjoys a longstanding but under-theorized role in criminal law rhetoric. Three, anti-slavery’s recurrence in criminal law rhetoric underscores a larger doctrinal point, namely that H.L.A. Hart’s version ...


The Penal Order: Prosecutorial Sentencing As A Model For Criminal Justice Reform?, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2012

The Penal Order: Prosecutorial Sentencing As A Model For Criminal Justice Reform?, Stephen C. Thaman

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This chapter traces the history of the penal order from its earliest roots through its consolidation as a normal alternative form of procedure in Germany. It compares the types of penal order procedures found in modern criminal procedure codes, and it compares penal orders with other “consensual” procedural modes that also involve considerable prosecutorial influence in determination of the level of guilt and punishment: diversion, pleas and stipulations of guilt, and abbreviated trials based on the contents of the preliminary investigation dossier. Finally, it explores whether the penal order, could eventually become a model for the consensual resolution of all ...


Criminal Courts And Procedure, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2012

Criminal Courts And Procedure, Stephen C. Thaman

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This chapter provides both a historical and modern perspective on criminal procedure around the world.


Constitutional Rights In The Balance: Modern Exclusionary Rules And The Toleration Of Police Lawlessness In The Search For Truth, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2011

Constitutional Rights In The Balance: Modern Exclusionary Rules And The Toleration Of Police Lawlessness In The Search For Truth, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article explores the tension in modern criminal procedure between the goal of ascertaining the material truth of the criminal charge and the respect for important human rights of criminal suspects during the investigation of the alleged criminal responsibility. It examines two major areas where police run the risk of violating and often do violate the constitutional rights of criminal suspects during interrogations and during invasions of privacy in the form of dwelling searches and interception of confidential communications. The approaches of modern democracies to this dilemma run from the strict exclusion of all direct and indirect evidence (fruits of ...


A Typology Of Consensual Criminal Procedures: An Historical And Comparative Perspective On The Theory And Practice Of Avoiding The Full Trial, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2010

A Typology Of Consensual Criminal Procedures: An Historical And Comparative Perspective On The Theory And Practice Of Avoiding The Full Trial, Stephen C. Thaman

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In the words of Clifford Geertz, this chapter engages in “an exercise of intercultural translation” in order to understand the reality of plea bargaining and other forms of consensual resolution of criminal cases. It provides a history of consensual and alternative forms of criminal procedure around the world. It also provides a comprehensive discussion on alternatives to a full trial in modern penal systems and issues that arise with those alternatives.


'Fruits Of The Poisonous Tree' In Comparative Law, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2010

'Fruits Of The Poisonous Tree' In Comparative Law, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article gives a brief review of the types of exclusionary rules articulated in modern codes, constitutions, and jurisprudence, and explores how these rules are interpreted when excluding the derivative “fruits” of constitutional violations of the right to silence and human dignity during police interrogations and the right to privacy in one’s home and confidential communications. It shows, whether a country begins with a seemingly airtight categorical exclusionary rule for serious constitutional violations, or allows judges great discretion in deciding whether to use fruits of unconstitutional police behavior, the search for truth has largely triumphed over constitutional rights. As ...


Truth Or Legality: The Limits On The Laundering Of Illegally Gathered Evidence In A State Under The Rule Of Law (Verdad O Legalidad: Los Límites Del Blanqueo De Pruebas Ilegalmente Recogidas En Un Estado De Derecho) (Spanish), Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2009

Truth Or Legality: The Limits On The Laundering Of Illegally Gathered Evidence In A State Under The Rule Of Law (Verdad O Legalidad: Los Límites Del Blanqueo De Pruebas Ilegalmente Recogidas En Un Estado De Derecho) (Spanish), Stephen C. Thaman

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This paper discusses the tension between the constitutional rights to silence and to privacy and the important goal of criminal procedure to ascertain the truth. It traces exclusionary rules from the inquisitorial rules relating to nullities, to modern constitutional, statutory and jurisprudential rules for excluding illegally gathered evidence.

Note: downloadable document is in Spanish


Place Mattters (Most): An Empirical Study Of Prosecutorial Decision-Making In Death-Eligible Cases, Katherine Y. Barnes, David L. Sloss, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2009

Place Mattters (Most): An Empirical Study Of Prosecutorial Decision-Making In Death-Eligible Cases, Katherine Y. Barnes, David L. Sloss, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article investigates prosecutorial discretion in death penalty prosecution in Missouri. Based upon an empirical analysis of all intentional-homicide cases from 1997-2001, this article concludes that Missouri law gives prosecutors unconstitutionally broad discretion in charging these cases. This article also finds that prosecutors exercise this broad discretion differently, leading to geographic and racial disparities in sentencing, and concludes with proposals for statutory reform.


The Precarious Situation Of Human Rights In The United States In Normal Times And After September 11, 2001 (La Situación Precaria De Los Derechos Humanos En Estados Unidos En Tiempos Normales Y Después Del 11 De Septiembre De 2001) (Spanish), Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2009

The Precarious Situation Of Human Rights In The United States In Normal Times And After September 11, 2001 (La Situación Precaria De Los Derechos Humanos En Estados Unidos En Tiempos Normales Y Después Del 11 De Septiembre De 2001) (Spanish), Stephen C. Thaman

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The paper criticizes the impact of U. S. American criminal law and procedure on the human rights of U. S. citizens in normal times and the changes that have occurred since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. It deals with racial profiling, the death penalty, Draconian prison sentences in normal times, and the use of unlimited detention, torture and expanded powers of wiretapping and evidence gathering since the attacks of 9-11.

Note: downloadable document is in Spanish


Life And Death Decisions: Prosecutorial Discretion And Capital Punishment In Missouri, Katherine Y. Barnes, David L. Sloss, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2008

Life And Death Decisions: Prosecutorial Discretion And Capital Punishment In Missouri, Katherine Y. Barnes, David L. Sloss, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article presents the results of an empirical study of intentional homicide cases in Missouri. The authors created a database of 1046 cases; it includes substantially all of the homicide cases prosecuted in Missouri over a five year period that were initially charged as murder or voluntary manslaughter and that yielded criminal convictions. The authors selected 247 cases from the larger database for more detailed analysis. We analyzed geographic and racial disparities in the rates at which: prosecutors charge first-degree murder versus lesser charges; prosecutors seek the death penalty, not lesser punishments; defendants are convicted of first-degree murder versus lesser ...


The Two Faces Of Justice In The Post-Soviet Legal Sphere: Adversarial Procedure, Jury Trial, Plea-Bargaining And The Inquisitorial Legacy, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2008

The Two Faces Of Justice In The Post-Soviet Legal Sphere: Adversarial Procedure, Jury Trial, Plea-Bargaining And The Inquisitorial Legacy, Stephen C. Thaman

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This essay focuses on adversary procedure, plea-bargaining, and jury trial in the 1991 Concept of Judicial Reform of the Russian Republic. It discusses the impact of these reforms and assesses whether they have led to an improvement in the quality of evidence presented to the trier of fact, liberation of the trial and appellate judges from the juggernaut of hierarchical Soviet ‘crime control’ policies, and the development of a culture where acquittals of guilty and innocent will be tolerated when the evidence lacks credibility or is insufficient to constitute proof beyond a reasonable doubt.


Jury Trial And Adversary Procedure In Russia: Reform Of Soviet Inquisitorial Procedure Or Democratic Window-Dressing?, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2008

Jury Trial And Adversary Procedure In Russia: Reform Of Soviet Inquisitorial Procedure Or Democratic Window-Dressing?, Stephen C. Thaman

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A new adversary system of jury trial was introduced in 1993-1994, and the rights to jury trial, adversary procedure, the presumption of innocence, and the mandatory exclusion of illegally gathered evidence were incorporated into the new Constitution of the Russian Federation in December of 1993. The new Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, passed in December 2001, led to the extension of jury trial to the entire country with the exception of the Republic of Chechnia in 2003-2004.

This chapter explores the extent to which the Russian jury system and adversary procedure have humanized criminal procedure, and concludes that ...


The Good, The Bad, Or The Indifferent: '12 Angry Men' In Russia, Part Of Symposium: The 50th Anniversary Of '12 Angry Men', Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2007

The Good, The Bad, Or The Indifferent: '12 Angry Men' In Russia, Part Of Symposium: The 50th Anniversary Of '12 Angry Men', Stephen C. Thaman

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Sidney Lumet’s 1957 film, 12 Angry Men, based on the screenplay by Reginald Rose, has become the emblem of the American jury trial as an anti-authoritarian institution based on democratic consensus building. This essay discusses the interplay of literature and criminal justice in pre-Revolution Russia, for this is the cultural soil upon which the film 12 Angry Men was received in Soviet Russia, when it was first screened in 1961. It discusses the reception of 12 Angry Men in Soviet Russia in 1961 and the impact it had on Soviet-era citizens in their understanding of American and Soviet criminal ...


Consensual Penal Resolution, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2007

Consensual Penal Resolution, Stephen C. Thaman

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Volume I: This is an encyclopedia entry on consensual penal resolution.


Penal Court Procedures: Doctrinal Issues, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2007

Penal Court Procedures: Doctrinal Issues, Stephen C. Thaman

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Volume III: This is an encyclopedia entry on doctrinal issues in penal court procedures.


Plea-Bargaining, Negotiating Confessions And Consensual Resolution Of Criminal Cases, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2007

Plea-Bargaining, Negotiating Confessions And Consensual Resolution Of Criminal Cases, Stephen C. Thaman

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This report explores the various types of consensual procedures that make up the procedural arsenals of modern criminal justice systems and if and how they have contributed to procedural economy in the respective country. It discusses whether or not important procedural principles have been compromised, undermining the legitimacy of the criminal justice system.


A Comparative Approach To Teaching Criminal Procedure And Its Application To The Post-Investigative Stage, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2006

A Comparative Approach To Teaching Criminal Procedure And Its Application To The Post-Investigative Stage, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article addresses why a comparative perspective should be brought into a basic bar course like criminal procedure. American courts and students should be aware of how other countries process their criminal cases to determine whether we can learn from them. It discusses archetypes of criminal procedure as teaching tools, applications of comparative models in the post-investigative stage of criminal procedure, the right to an oral immediate trial and the right to confront witnesses, and the division of labor between lay and professional judges in deciding facts, guilt, and sentencing. By immersing oneself in comparative law and the history of ...


The Jury's Role In Administering Justice In The U.S. Introduction To Saint Louis Public Law Review Jury Issue, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2002

The Jury's Role In Administering Justice In The U.S. Introduction To Saint Louis Public Law Review Jury Issue, Stephen C. Thaman

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This introduction to the special jury issue of Saint Louis University’s Public Law Review briefly discusses the Conference “Lay Participation in the Criminal Trial in the Twenty-First Century,” in which all of the contributors to this issue participated. The conference took place at the International Institute for Higher Studies in the Criminal Sciences in Siracusa, Italy from May 25-29, 1999. It also discusses select papers and perspectives on the American jury system published in this issue of the journal.


Official Privilege: State Security And The Right To A Fair Trial In The Usa, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2002

Official Privilege: State Security And The Right To A Fair Trial In The Usa, Stephen C. Thaman

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The emphasis of this paper is on the effect of the state claiming a privilege of national security in a criminal case, either to: (1) prevent the defendant from gaining discovery of classified information which could be important in defending against the criminal charges; or (2) prevent the defendant from introducing classified evidence in his/her own defense, access to which has usually been gained by virtue of the defendant’s own activity with the intelligence services (CIA, FBI) or other police agencies. The state often claims national security in situations where the state itself is either dealing with criminals ...


Book Review. Courts And Transition In Russia: The Challenge Of Judicial Reform, By Peter H. Solomon, Jr. And Todd S. Foglesong, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2002

Book Review. Courts And Transition In Russia: The Challenge Of Judicial Reform, By Peter H. Solomon, Jr. And Todd S. Foglesong, Stephen C. Thaman

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This is a book review applauding Peter H. Solomon and Todd S. Foglesong’s book Courts and Transition in Russia: The Challenge of Judicial Reform, written by Professor Stephen C. Thaman. Professor Thaman provides his thoughts on the possibility of Russian reform success.


Latin America's First Modern System Of Lay Participation: The Reform Of Inquisitorial Justice In Venezuela, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2002

Latin America's First Modern System Of Lay Participation: The Reform Of Inquisitorial Justice In Venezuela, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article describes the new Venezuelan jury and mixed court systems that were introduced by Codigo Organico Procesal Penal in 1998, in the context of the code’s radical transition to accusatorial and adversarial procedure.


Miranda In Comparative Law, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2001

Miranda In Comparative Law, Stephen C. Thaman

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Not only have the Miranda warnings become a recognized procedure in police interrogations in the United States, but they have been adopted or strengthened over the years in formerly inquisitorial countries like Germany, Italy, Spain and most recently France, and are now recognized as having constitutional status. This article discusses the protections afforded to criminal suspects and defendants overseas when faced with interrogation by police, prosecutors, investigating magistrates or judges of the investigation. It compares the admonitions given to such suspects with those provided in the Miranda decision and discusses their constitutional, or statutory status. It further discusses when such ...


Comparative Criminal Law And Enforcement: Russia, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2001

Comparative Criminal Law And Enforcement: Russia, Stephen C. Thaman

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This chapter assesses criminal law and enforcement in Russia. It addresses the history of the Russian criminal justice system and its reform, as well as Russia’s criminal procedure and substantive criminal law.


The Separation Of Questions Of Law And Fact In The New Russian And Spanish Jury Verdicts, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2000

The Separation Of Questions Of Law And Fact In The New Russian And Spanish Jury Verdicts, Stephen C. Thaman

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This article discusses the division of labor between the judge and the jury in rendering judgment, and the separation of law and fact historically and currently, focusing on Spain and Russia. Both Russia and Spain rejected the Anglo-American general verdict of “guilty” or “not-guilty” in favor of a list of questions or propositions presented to the jury during their criminal procedure reforms of the 1990’s. This article also delves into the jury deliberation, verdict, and judgment process of the two countries.