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Full-Text Articles in Law

Debunked, Discredited, But Still Defended: Why Prosecutors Resist Challenges To Bad Science And Some Suggestions For Crafting Remedies For Wrongful Conviction Based On Changed Science, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2018

Debunked, Discredited, But Still Defended: Why Prosecutors Resist Challenges To Bad Science And Some Suggestions For Crafting Remedies For Wrongful Conviction Based On Changed Science, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Flawed science has significantly contributed to wrongful convictions. Courts struggle with how to address such convictions when the mistaken science (such as bogus expert claims about the differences between accidental fires and intentionally set ones) significantly affected the guilty verdict but there is no DNA evidence to directly exonerate the accused. My short piece explores why prosecutors often defend bad science. Mistakes in science tend to serve the prosecution, but there are other more subtle factors that explain prosecutors’ reluctance to address flawed forensic testimony. Such reluctance may arise from fondness for the status quo and a resistance to subverting ...


Forfeiture Of Confrontation Rights And The Complicated Dynamics Of Domestic Violence: Some Thoughts Inspired By Myrna Raeder, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2015

Forfeiture Of Confrontation Rights And The Complicated Dynamics Of Domestic Violence: Some Thoughts Inspired By Myrna Raeder, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In this essay and memorial to my friend and colleague, Myrna Raeder, I examine forfeiting the right of confrontation in the context of domestic violence cases. In 2004, Crawford v. Washington the United States Supreme Court reinterpreted the Sixth Amendment, requiring that for “testimonial statements” to be offered against the accused, the speaker must appear in court, or, if unavailable, must have been subject to cross-examination previously. The practical effect of Crawford was to exclude many out-of-court statements that had previously been admissible. Nowhere was the effect of Crawford more striking than in domestic violence cases, where victims often make ...


Police Violence And Ferguson: (En)Racing Criminal Procedure, Jeannine Bell Jan 2015

Police Violence And Ferguson: (En)Racing Criminal Procedure, Jeannine Bell

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


In Defense Of The Finality Of Criminal Sentences On Collateral Review, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2014

In Defense Of The Finality Of Criminal Sentences On Collateral Review, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Skeptic’S Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2013

The Skeptic’S Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The “information sharing model,” a leading method of structuring judicial discretion at the sentencing stage of criminal cases, has attracted broad support from scholars and judges. Under this approach, sentencing judges should have access to a robust body of information, including written opinions and statistics, about previous sentences in similar cases. According to proponents, judges armed with that information can conform their sentences to those of their colleagues or identify principled reasons for distinguishing them, reducing inter-judge disparity and promoting rationality in sentencing law. This Article takes a skeptical view of the information sharing model, arguing that it suffers from ...


The Skeptic's Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2013

The Skeptic's Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The “information sharing model,” a leading method of structuring judicial discretion at the sentencing stage of criminal cases, has attracted broad support from scholars and judges. Under this approach, sentencing judges should have access to a robust body of information, including written opinions and statistics, about previous sentences in similar cases. According to proponents, judges armed with that information can conform their sentences to those of their colleagues or identify principled reasons for distinguishing them, reducing inter-judge disparity and promoting rationality in sentencing law.

This Article takes a skeptical view of the information sharing model, arguing that it suffers from ...


Innocence And Federal Habeas After Aedpa: Time For The Supreme Court To Act, Joseph L. Hoffmann Jan 2012

Innocence And Federal Habeas After Aedpa: Time For The Supreme Court To Act, Joseph L. Hoffmann

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


"Sticky Metaphors" And The Persistence Of The Traditional Voluntary Manslaughter Doctrine, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Elise J. Percy, Steven J. Sherman Jan 2011

"Sticky Metaphors" And The Persistence Of The Traditional Voluntary Manslaughter Doctrine, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Elise J. Percy, Steven J. Sherman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Facing The Unfaceable: Dealing With Prosecutorial Denial In Postconviction Cases Of Actual Innocence, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2011

Facing The Unfaceable: Dealing With Prosecutorial Denial In Postconviction Cases Of Actual Innocence, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

As this memorial volume illustrates, Fred Zacharias wrote insightfully on many aspects of the legal profession, covering a wide-range of ethical topics and analyzing many aspects of lawyers’ work. He was interested in the lives of lawyers and believed they owed a duty to society beyond an exclusive focus on individual clients’ interests.

This Article develops a question that intrigued Fred: Prosecutors’ duties postconviction to prisoners who might be innocent. Although Fred wrote about a panoply of questions that arise regarding the prosecutor’s duty to “do justice” after conviction, this Article will address one specific area of concern: how ...


Delay In Process, Denial Of Justice: The Jurisprudence And Empirics Of Speedy Trials In Comparative Perspective, Jayanth K. Krishnan, C. Raj Kumar Jan 2011

Delay In Process, Denial Of Justice: The Jurisprudence And Empirics Of Speedy Trials In Comparative Perspective, Jayanth K. Krishnan, C. Raj Kumar

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Criminal law scholars regularly maintain that American prisons are overcrowded and that defendants in custody wait long periods of time before having their cases brought to trial. A similar refrain is made of the penal process in India – the world’s largest democracy, an ally of the United States, and a country with a judiciary that has drawn upon American criminal procedure law. In fact, the situation in India is thought to be much worse. Accounts of prisoners languishing behind bars for several years – and sometimes decades – awaiting their day in court are not uncommon. And many Indian prisons are ...


Race Disparity Under Advisory Guidelines: Dueling Assessments And Potential Responses, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2011

Race Disparity Under Advisory Guidelines: Dueling Assessments And Potential Responses, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Dueling studies of race disparity, one by the U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC, 2010) and an alternative analysis published in this issue by Ulmer, Light, and Kramer (2011), diverge sharply in their methodological choices and in their characterization of trends in federal sentencing. The Commission’s study suggests a marked increase in race disparity, differences in sentencing outcomes between racial groups that cannot be explained by controlling for relevant nonrace factors, after the Supreme Court’s decisions in United States v. Booker (2005) and Gall v. United States (2007). Those decisions rendered the federal Sentencing Guidelines advisory and set a ...


Reconceiving The Fourth Amendment And The Exclusionary Rule, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2010

Reconceiving The Fourth Amendment And The Exclusionary Rule, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Melendez-Diaz And The Right To Confrontation, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2010

Melendez-Diaz And The Right To Confrontation, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Inter-Judge Sentencing Disparity After Booker: A First Look, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2010

Inter-Judge Sentencing Disparity After Booker: A First Look, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

A central purpose of the Sentencing Reform Act was to reduce inter-judge sentencing disparity, driven not by legitimate differences between offenders and offense conduct, but by the philosophy, politics, or biases of the sentencing judge. The federal Sentencing Guidelines, despite their well-recognized deficiencies, succeeded in reducing that form of unwarranted disparity. But in a series of decisions from 2005 to 2007, the Supreme Court rendered the Guidelines advisory (Booker), set a highly deferential standard for appellate review (Gall), and explicitly authorized judges to reject the policy judgments of the Sentencing Commission (Kimbrough). Since then, the Commission has received extensive anecdotal ...


Right Problem; Wrong Solution, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King Jan 2010

Right Problem; Wrong Solution, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Rethinking The Federal Role In State Criminal Justice, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King Jan 2009

Rethinking The Federal Role In State Criminal Justice, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Essay argues that federal habeas review of state criminal cases squanders resources the federal government should be using to help states reform their systems of defense representation. A 2007 empirical study reveals that federal habeas review is inaccessible to most state prisoners convicted of non-capital crimes, and offers no realistic hope of relief for those who reach federal court. As a means of correcting or deterring constitutional error in non-capital cases, habeas is failing and cannot be fixed. Drawing upon these findings as well as the Supreme Court's most recent decision applying the Suspension Clause, the authors propose ...


Interrogation And Silence: A Comparative Study, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2009

Interrogation And Silence: A Comparative Study, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines interrogation practices in detail in three systems: the American, the English (and Welsh), and the Canadian while also discussing rules from various other countries. It considers when the Miranda-type warnings (required in all three systems) must be given and when suspects will be deemed to have waived their rights. This article further discusses how reliability and voluntariness of confession is assured. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on the issue of when a suspect's silence during interrogation may be used against him in court. The article concludes that American courts have not done enough to ensure ...


Envisioning Post-Conviction Review For The Twenty-First Century, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King Jan 2008

Envisioning Post-Conviction Review For The Twenty-First Century, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Special Issues Raised By Rape Trials, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2007

Special Issues Raised By Rape Trials, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Rape cases reveal core conflicts in the space where evidence, law, and ethics intersect. Such conflicts include the tension between victim protection and the rights of the accused, the challenges attorneys face trying to negotiate the demands of sensitive and emotionally difficult cases, and the role of the law in counteracting stereotypes and bias.

In this essay, I will begin by presenting the cultural milieu surrounding rape allegations, briefly reviewing attitudes towards perpetrators and victims. Next, I will attempt to capture the legal zeitgeist concerning rape, focusing on two recent phenomena: the reversal of false rape convictions based on DNA ...


Sovereignty, Not Due Process: Personal Jurisdiction Over Nonresident, Alien Defendants, Austen L. Parrish Jan 2006

Sovereignty, Not Due Process: Personal Jurisdiction Over Nonresident, Alien Defendants, Austen L. Parrish

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The Due Process Clause with its focus on a defendant's liberty interest has become the key, if not only, limitation on a court's exercise of personal jurisdiction. This due process jurisdictional limitation is universally assumed to apply with equal force to alien defendants as to domestic defendants. With few exceptions, scholars do not distinguish between the two. Neither do the courts. Countless cases assume that foreigners have all the rights of United States citizens to object to extraterritorial assertions of personal jurisdiction.

But is this assumption sound? This Article explores the uncritical assumption that the same due process ...


The Reasonable Policeman: Police Intent In Criminal Procedure, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2006

The Reasonable Policeman: Police Intent In Criminal Procedure, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Protecting The Innocent: The Massachusetts Governor's Council Report, Joseph L. Hoffmann Jan 2005

Protecting The Innocent: The Massachusetts Governor's Council Report, Joseph L. Hoffmann

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Deviance, Due Process, And The False Promise Of Federal Rule Of Evidence 403, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2005

Deviance, Due Process, And The False Promise Of Federal Rule Of Evidence 403, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In a significant break with traditional evidence rules and policies, Federal Rules of Evidence 413 and 414 (concerning rape and child abuse, respectively) allow jurors to use the accused's prior sexual misconduct as evidence of character and propensity. Courts have rejected due process challenges to the new rules, holding that Federal Rule of Evidence 403 serves as a check on any fairness concerns. However, courts' application of Rule 403 in cases involving these sexual propensity rules is troubling. Relying on the legislative history of the new rules and announcing a presumption of admissibility, courts have forsaken the traditional operation ...


Federalism And The Federal Criminal Law, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2004

Federalism And The Federal Criminal Law, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


To Err Is Human: The Judicial Conundrum Of Curing Apprendi Error, Joshua Fairfield Jan 2003

To Err Is Human: The Judicial Conundrum Of Curing Apprendi Error, Joshua Fairfield

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Revenge Or Mercy? Some Thoughts About Survivor Opinion Evidence In Death Penalty Cases, Joseph L. Hoffmann Jan 2003

Revenge Or Mercy? Some Thoughts About Survivor Opinion Evidence In Death Penalty Cases, Joseph L. Hoffmann

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Middle Class Fourth Amendment, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2003

The Middle Class Fourth Amendment, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Keeping Cross-Examination Under Control, J. Alexander Tanford Jan 2002

Keeping Cross-Examination Under Control, J. Alexander Tanford

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Apprendi V. New Jersey: Back To The Future?, Joseph L. Hoffmann Jan 2001

Apprendi V. New Jersey: Back To The Future?, Joseph L. Hoffmann

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Mapp Goes Abroad, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2001

Mapp Goes Abroad, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.