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Comparative and Foreign Law

2006

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Legal Reform In Contemporary Japan, Eric Feldman Dec 2006

Legal Reform In Contemporary Japan, Eric Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this chapter I offer a preliminary assessment of a quickly moving target—legal reform and its impact on rights in Japan. Although a broad consensus has emerged among interested parties that at least some degree of reform is desirable, there is significant disagreement about the goals of reform, and also about the likelihood that it will achieve certain objectives. Some commentators believe that the Japanese legal system is on the cusp of a “revolution” that will shore up long-neglected rights and create new entitlements. Others predict that the consequences of reform will be modest; and they despair that aggrieved ...


Working Toward Democracy: Thurgood Marshall And The Constitution Of Kenya, Mary L. Dudziak Dec 2006

Working Toward Democracy: Thurgood Marshall And The Constitution Of Kenya, Mary L. Dudziak

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This Article is a work of transnational legal history. Drawing upon new research in foreign archives, it sheds new light on the life of Thurgood Marshall, exploring for the first time an episode that he cared very deeply about: his work with African nationalists on an independence constitution for Kenya. The story is paradoxical, for Marshall, a civil rights legend in America, would seek to protect the rights of white landholders in Kenya who had gained their land through discriminatory land laws, but were soon to lose political power. In order to understand why Marshall would take pride in entrenching ...


Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer Nov 2006

Codifying Shari'a: International Norms, Legality & The Freedom To Invent New Forms, Paul H. Robinson, Adnan Zulfiqar, Margaret Kammerud, Michael Orchowski, Elizabeth A. Gerlach, Adam L. Pollock, Thomas M. O'Brien, John C. Lin, Tom Stenson, Negar Katirai, J. John Lee, Marc Aaron Melzer

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The United Nations Development Program and the Republic of the Maldives, a small Muslim country with a constitutional democracy, commissioned this project to craft the country's first system of codified penal law and sentencing guidelines. This Article describes the special challenges and opportunities encountered while drafting a penal code based on Shari'a (Islamic law). On the one hand, such comprehensive codification is more important and more likely to bring dramatic improvements in the quality of justice than in many other societies, due in large part to the problems of assuring fair notice and fair adjudication in the uncodified ...


Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda Nov 2006

Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

This essay discusses a number of developments outside of the United States concerning punitive damages, which may ultimately signal a change in the way other countries view American awards of such damages.

To date, courts in many countries have refused to recognize and enforce American punitive damages awards on the ground that they violate the host country’s public policy. In most civil law countries, such as France and Germany, penal damages can only be ordered in criminal proceedings; a civil award of such damages has been viewed as contrary to ordre public. In common law countries, while punitive damages ...


Consumerism Versus Producerism: On The Global Menace Of "Consumerism" And The Mission Of Comparative Law, James Q. Whitman Aug 2006

Consumerism Versus Producerism: On The Global Menace Of "Consumerism" And The Mission Of Comparative Law, James Q. Whitman

Faculty Scholarship Series

This paper aims to develop an analytic comparative law approach to the global spread of "consumerist" law. It expresses dismay at the failure of comparative law to offer any contribution to global debates over the sort of consumerism associated with the practices of firms like Wal-Mart, and proposes that scholars should revive the distinction between "consumerism" and "producerism" that was common in the 1930s. Focusing on questions of competition law, the law of retail and labor law, as well as on Wal-Mart's recent failure to penetrate German markets, it rejects the claim that consumerism is inevitably bound to triumph ...


Internalizing Gender: International Goals, Comparative Realities, Darren Rosenblum Aug 2006

Internalizing Gender: International Goals, Comparative Realities, Darren Rosenblum

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article uses the example of international women's political rights to examine the value of comparative methodologies in analyzing the process by which nations internalize international norms. As internalized in Brazil and France, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women suggests possibilities for (and possible limitations of) interdisciplinary comparative and international law scholarship. Indeed, international law scholarship is divided between theories of internalization and neorealist challenges to those theories. Comparative methodologies add crucial complexity to internalization theory, the success of which depends on acknowledging vast differences in national legal cultures. Further, comparative methodologies expose ...


The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller Aug 2006

The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

India developed a world-class generic drug manufacturing industry by excluding pharmaceutical products from patent protection in 1972. In 2005, India reintroduced pharmaceutical patenting in order to comply with its obligations as a WTO member. For an emerging superpower still mired in poverty and public health crises, the change did not come quickly or without controversy. This Article provides the first major comparative analysis of India’s new patents regime. Based on the author’s data gathering and interviews in India, the Article evaluates the regime’s first eighteen months. It critiques the new law and the capacity of India’s ...


The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran Aug 2006

The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

The post-Second World War trial for the crime against humanity from the start assumed pedagogical proportions, with the tribunals involved conscious that their legal verdicts would represent historical pronouncement and national values. The newly defined crime has been asked to institutionalize far more than the traditional task of adjudicating the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The trials themselves are meant to define the past, create and crystallize national memory, and illuminate the foundations of the future. I suggest that, by placing a burden on law that it is not designed to bear, we risk deforming law and legal principle ...


Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda Jul 2006

Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

In contract disputes between transnational contracting parties, damages are often awarded to compensate a claimant for loss, injury or detriment resulting from a respondent’s failure to perform the agreement. In fact, damages may be the principal means of substituting for performance or they may complement other remedies, such as recision or specific performance.

Damages for breach of contract typically serve to protect one of three interests of a claimant: (1) performance interest (also known as expectation interest); (2) reliance interest; or (3) restitution interest. The primary goal of damages in most jurisdictions is to fulfil a claimant’s performance ...


Can Appropriation Riders Speed Our Exit From Iraq?, Charles Tiefer Jul 2006

Can Appropriation Riders Speed Our Exit From Iraq?, Charles Tiefer

All Faculty Scholarship

To explore the implications of riders - provisions added to appropriation bills that "ride" on the underlying bill - on the United States' continued military force in Iraq, the author draws three hypotheticals, each focusing on the debate surrounding the policy and political disputes raised by the use of such riders. A "withdrawal" rider, which would authorize funding only if there exists a plan to withdraw American ground troops by a set deadline, remains the most important - and controversial - rider. Riders may also significantly affect wartime policies, like those that limit the President's use of reservists in combat so as to ...


We All Fall Down: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies And The Minority Question In China’S Educational Policies, Lauren A. Burke Apr 2006

We All Fall Down: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies And The Minority Question In China’S Educational Policies, Lauren A. Burke

East Asian Languages and Cultures Department Honors Papers

This paper does not have an abstract.


Law In Books, Law In Action And Society, Alan Watson Apr 2006

Law In Books, Law In Action And Society, Alan Watson

Colloquia

I consider myself a comparative legal historian and range widely over time and space. My interest is in private law. My general conclusions, developed over years, on law in society are three and are interconnected and are as follows: 1) Governments are not much interested in developing law especially not private law. They generally leave this to subordinate law makers to whom, however, they do not grant power to make law; 2) Even when famous legislators emerge, they are seldom interested in inserting a particular social message or even certainty into their laws; 3) Borrowing is the name of the ...


Comparative Chart Of “Right-To-Ask” Laws In The U.S. And Abroad, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Apr 2006

Comparative Chart Of “Right-To-Ask” Laws In The U.S. And Abroad, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


What's Your Sign? -- International Norms, Signals, And Compliance, Charles K. Whitehead Apr 2006

What's Your Sign? -- International Norms, Signals, And Compliance, Charles K. Whitehead

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes a new approach to analyzing state compliance with international obligations, positing that increased interaction among the world's regulators has reinforced norms within cross-border regulatory networks, influencing the actions of senior regulators who are network members and, in turn, affecting levels of state compliance.

Network norms help define what state actions constitute signals and the meanings of those signals. Certain actions, such as implementing a substantive network standard, may be considered a concrete expression of an abstract network norm. States that fail to implement that standard risk failing to send the right signal, potentially incurring significant network ...


The Culture Of Legal Change: A Case Study Of Tobacco Control In Twenty-First Century Japan, Eric Feldman Apr 2006

The Culture Of Legal Change: A Case Study Of Tobacco Control In Twenty-First Century Japan, Eric Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article argues that the interaction of international norms and local culture is a central factor in the creation and transformation of legal rules. Like Alan Watson's influential theory of legal transplants, it emphasizes that legal change is frequently a consequence of learning from other jurisdictions. And like those who have argued that rational, self-interested lawmakers responding to incentives such as reelection are the engine of legal change, this Article treats incentives as critical motivators of human behavior. But in place of the cutting-and-pasting of black-letter legal doctrine it highlights the cross-border flow of social norms, and rather than ...


A Ferenj Observer In The Horn Of Africa -- Perspectives On Cultural Relativity, Zygmunt J.B. Plater Feb 2006

A Ferenj Observer In The Horn Of Africa -- Perspectives On Cultural Relativity, Zygmunt J.B. Plater

Boston College Law School Lectures and Presentations

A Speech by Prof. Zygmunt Plater delivered at the Harvard African Law Association (HALA) and the Harvard Black Law Students Association (BLSA) Conference "Ethiopia: Prospects for Democracy."


No Laughing Matter: The Controversial Danish Cartoons Depicting The Prophet Mohammed, And Their Broader Meaning For The Europe’S Public Square, Ruti G. Teitel Feb 2006

No Laughing Matter: The Controversial Danish Cartoons Depicting The Prophet Mohammed, And Their Broader Meaning For The Europe’S Public Square, Ruti G. Teitel

Other Publications

No abstract provided.


Examining A Comparative Law Myth: Two Hundred Years Of Riparian Misconception, Andrea B. Carroll Feb 2006

Examining A Comparative Law Myth: Two Hundred Years Of Riparian Misconception, Andrea B. Carroll

Journal Articles

This article is a first step in an effort to critically examine - and to debunk - some of the myths that persist about the degree to which the common and civil law systems differ. Specifically, the article questions the validity of recent scholarly commentary suggesting that the primary differences between the systems can be found in their substantive legal rules or in their respective "spirits." A relatively narrow issue of riparian access perfectly highlights the problem. Nearly all of the high courts in the United States that have examined this particular riparian issue have chosen to adopt either the so-called "common ...


Land Titling: A Mode Of Privatization With The Potential To Deepen Democracy, Bernadette Atuahene Feb 2006

Land Titling: A Mode Of Privatization With The Potential To Deepen Democracy, Bernadette Atuahene

All Faculty Scholarship

Land titling is a form of privatization in that public assets are transferred to private families and individuals. This is unlike other forms of privatization, however, because there is a systematic diffusion of economic and decision making power down to indigent populations rather than out of the country or up to its local elites. In light of this uniqueness, the question I will grapple with in this Article is, can property ownership, achieved through land titling programs, bolster democracy? First, using Peru as an example, I explain the context that necessitated the creation of land titling and the process by ...


Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Country, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Jan 2006

Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Country, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Topic, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Jan 2006

Select Foreign Exto Laws: By Topic, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Opening Our Classrooms Effectively To Foreign Graduate Students, Lauren K. Robel Jan 2006

Opening Our Classrooms Effectively To Foreign Graduate Students, Lauren K. Robel

Lauren Robel (2002 Acting; 2003-2011)

No abstract provided.


Summary Comparison Of Select Foreign Exto Laws, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Jan 2006

Summary Comparison Of Select Foreign Exto Laws, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


The Provincial Archive As A Place Of Memory: The Role Of Former Slaves In The Cuban War Of Independence (1895-98), Rebecca Scott Jan 2006

The Provincial Archive As A Place Of Memory: The Role Of Former Slaves In The Cuban War Of Independence (1895-98), Rebecca Scott

Book Chapters

Prof. Scott focuses on the study of the role of former slaves in the Cuban War of Independence, in light of the avoidance of the theme of race within this war in Cuban historiography. She discusses reasons for the silence on race issues, and for the historic construction of the "myth" of racial equality in this era.


An Economic Model Of Fair Use (With Thomas Miceli), Richard Adelstein Jan 2006

An Economic Model Of Fair Use (With Thomas Miceli), Richard Adelstein

Division II Faculty Publications

A formal model of the law of fair use.


Belonging: Citizenship And Migration In The European Union And In Germany, Helen E. Hartnell Jan 2006

Belonging: Citizenship And Migration In The European Union And In Germany, Helen E. Hartnell

Publications

This article investigates the evolving notion of belonging through the lens of Germany's new frameworks for nationality/citizenship and migration. Given the quantity of EU activity in the fields under consideration here, European developments are also analyzed, though less for their own sake than for the sake of staking out the parameters within which Germany remains sovereign to act.

Throughout this article, the question of how concrete developments bear on larger questions about belonging will recur. I make two main arguments. First, however welcome Germany's dramatic legal reforms may be, they will not necessarily solve the problems such ...


Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards Against Foreign States Or State Agencies, S. I. Strong Jan 2006

Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards Against Foreign States Or State Agencies, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

Britain's Lord Denning once said that “as a moth is drawn to the light, so is a litigant drawn to the United States.” Certainly, as a pro-arbitration state and a signatory to various international conventions concerning the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, the United States seems a natural place to bring an action to enforce an arbitral award against a foreign state or state agency. However, suing a sovereign has not traditionally been a simple task in the United States or elsewhere. Most nations grant foreign states the presumption of immunity, thus denying that their domestic courts have jurisdiction ...


The Federal Constitutional Court: Guardian Of German Democracy, Donald P. Kommers Jan 2006

The Federal Constitutional Court: Guardian Of German Democracy, Donald P. Kommers

Journal Articles

Germany’s Federal Constitutional Court rivals the Supreme Court of the United States in protecting political democracy. Its jurisprudence of democracy has shaped the course and character of German politics while upholding the rule of law and defending the constitutionally prescribed “free democratic basic order.” In furtherance of these objectives, the Constitutional Court has invalidated regulations limiting the rights of minor parties and constitutionalizing measures designed to stabilize Germany’s system of parliamentary government. These purposes have been served by constitutional decisions on voting rights, public funding of election campaigns, dissolution of Parliament, and proportional representation, including the limiting 5 ...


Continuity, Change And Innovation In Emerging Consumer Bankruptcy Systems: Belgium And Luxembourg, 14 Am. Bankr. Inst. L. Rev. 69 (2006), Jason Kilborn Jan 2006

Continuity, Change And Innovation In Emerging Consumer Bankruptcy Systems: Belgium And Luxembourg, 14 Am. Bankr. Inst. L. Rev. 69 (2006), Jason Kilborn

UIC John Marshall Law School Open Access Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Has Conduct In Iraq Confirmed The Moral Inadequacy Of International Humanitarian Law? Examining The Confluence Between Contract Theory And The Scope Of Civilian Immunity During Armed Conflict, 16 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 249 (2006), Samuel Vincent Jones Jan 2006

Has Conduct In Iraq Confirmed The Moral Inadequacy Of International Humanitarian Law? Examining The Confluence Between Contract Theory And The Scope Of Civilian Immunity During Armed Conflict, 16 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 249 (2006), Samuel Vincent Jones

UIC John Marshall Law School Open Access Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.