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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2021

The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The Hague Judgments Convention, completed on July 2, 2019, is built on a list of “jurisdictional filters” in Article 5(1), and grounds for non-recognition in Article 7. If one of the thirteen jurisdictional tests in Article 5(1) is satisfied, the judgment may circulate under the Convention, subject to the grounds for non-recognition found in Article 7. This approach to Convention structure is especially significant for countries considering ratification and implementation. A different structure was suggested in the initial Working Group stage of the Convention’s preparation which would have avoided the complexity of multiple rules of indirect jurisdiction ...


Did The America Invents Act Change University Technology Transfer?, Cynthia L. Dahl Aug 2020

Did The America Invents Act Change University Technology Transfer?, Cynthia L. Dahl

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

University technology transfer offices (TTOs) are the gatekeepers to groundbreaking innovations sparked in research laboratories around the U.S. With a business model reliant on patenting and licensing out for commercialization, TTOs were positioned for upheaval when the America Invents Act (AIA) transformed U.S. patent law in 2011. Now almost ten years later, this article examines the AIA’s actual effects on this patent-centric industry. It focuses on the five key areas of most interest to TTOs: i) first to file priority; ii) broadening of the universe of prior art; iii) carve-out to the prior commercial use defense; iv ...


Valuing Young Startups Is Unavoidably Difficult: Using (And Misusing) Deferred-Equity Instruments For Seed Investing, John L. Orcutt Jun 2020

Valuing Young Startups Is Unavoidably Difficult: Using (And Misusing) Deferred-Equity Instruments For Seed Investing, John L. Orcutt

Law Faculty Scholarship

In a well-functioning market, reasonable investors are less likely to invest in companies when they cannot confidently value the opportunity. This presents a serious problem for young startups because they are unavoidably difficult to value. Partly in response to the valuation challenge, specialized startup investors evolved how they contract for young-startup investments. Around 2005 they began using deferred-equity instruments (first convertible notes, and later safes and the KISS). Deferred-equity instruments offer a partial solution to the valuation challenge by allowing specialized startup investors to thoughtfully invest in venture capital-eligible young startups without valuing them at the time of investment. Deferred-equity ...


The Social Cost Of Contract, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang Jun 2020

The Social Cost Of Contract, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

When private parties perform contracts, the public bears some of the costs. But what happens when society confronts unexpected contractual risks? During the COVID-19 pandemic, completing particular contracts—such as following through with weddings, conferences, and other large gatherings—will greatly increase the risk of rapidly spreading disease. A close reading of past cases illustrates that when social hazards sharply increase after formation, courts have sometimes rejected, reformed, and reinterpreted contracts so that parties who breach to reduce external harms are not left holding the bag.

This Essay builds on that observation in making two contributions. Theoretically, it characterizes contracts ...


When Standards Collide With Intellectual Property: Teaching About Standard Setting Organizations, Technology, And Microsoft V. Motorola, Cynthia L. Dahl Jun 2020

When Standards Collide With Intellectual Property: Teaching About Standard Setting Organizations, Technology, And Microsoft V. Motorola, Cynthia L. Dahl

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Technology lawyers, intellectual property (IP) lawyers, or even any corporate lawyer with technology clients must understand standard essential patents (SEPs) and how their licensing works to effectively counsel their clients. Whether the client’s technology is adopted into a voluntary standard or not may be the most important factor in determining whether the company succeeds or is left behind in the market. Yet even though understanding SEPs is critical to a technology or IP practice, voluntary standards and specifically SEPs are generally not taught in law school.

This article aims to address this deficiency and create more practice-ready law school ...


Regulation Of Lobster Bait Alternatives In New England, Victoria Rosa, Read Porter Jun 2020

Regulation Of Lobster Bait Alternatives In New England, Victoria Rosa, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Unwritten Rules And The New Contract Paradigm, David A. Skeel Jr. May 2020

Unwritten Rules And The New Contract Paradigm, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In a recent essay—part of a larger book project-- Douglas Baird contends that the standard accounts of the history of corporate reorganization miss an essential feature: the extent to which both current and prior practice have been governed by unwritten rules (such as full disclosure and the opportunity for each party to participate in the negotiations) that “are well-known to insiders, but largely invisible to those on the outside.” According to Professor Baird, the unwritten rules, not bankruptcy’s distribution provisions or other features of the Bankruptcy Code, are the essence of corporate reorganization.

This essay is a short ...


Law School News: Distinguished Research Professor: John Chung 05-24-2020, Michael M. Bowden May 2020

Law School News: Distinguished Research Professor: John Chung 05-24-2020, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Commercial Law Intersections, Giuliano Castellano, Andrea Tosato Apr 2020

Commercial Law Intersections, Giuliano Castellano, Andrea Tosato

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Commercial law is not a single, monolithic entity. It has grown into a dense thicket of subject-specific branches that govern a broad range of transactions and corporate actions. When one of these events falls concurrently within the purview of two or more of these commercial law branches - such as corporate law, intellectual property law, secured transactions law, conduct and prudential regulation - an overlap materializes. We refer to this legal phenomenon as a commercial law intersection (CLI). Some notable examples of transactions that feature CLIs include bank loans secured by shares, supply chain financing arrangements, patent cross-licensing, and blockchain-based initial coin ...


Lost In Transplantation: Modern Principles Of Secured Transactions Law As Legal Transplants, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Apr 2020

Lost In Transplantation: Modern Principles Of Secured Transactions Law As Legal Transplants, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This manuscript will appear as a chapter in a forthcoming edited volume published by Hart Publishing, Secured Transactions Law in Asia: Principles, Perspectives and Reform (Louise Gullifer & Dora Neo eds., forthcoming 2020). It focuses on a set of principles (Modern Principles) that secured transactions law for personal property should follow. These Modern Principles are based on UCC Article 9 and its many progeny, including the UNCITRAL Model Law on Secured Transactions. The chapter situates the Modern principles in the context of the transplantation of law from one legal system to another. It draws in particular on Alan Watson’s pathbreaking ...


The New Fiduciaries, Natalya Shnitser Apr 2020

The New Fiduciaries, Natalya Shnitser

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The regulation of employer-sponsored retirement plans in the United States relies on fiduciary standards drawn from donative trust law to regulate the conduct of those with authority or discretion over plan assets. The mismatch between the trust-based fiduciary framework and the rights and interests of employers and employees has contributed to the high cost of pension fund investing and the significant gaps in pension coverage in the private sector. In recent years, state and local governments have stepped in to reduce the retirement coverage gap by creating state-facilitated retirement savings programs for private-sector workers who lack access to employment-based coverage ...


Considering Law And Macroeconomics, Anna Gelpern, Adam J. Levitin Mar 2020

Considering Law And Macroeconomics, Anna Gelpern, Adam J. Levitin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The worst financial and economic crisis to hit the world’s richest economies since the Great Depression inspired a flood of scholarship that straddled the disciplines of law and macroeconomics. With few exceptions, this crisis scholarship did not set out to build a new interdisciplinary movement and did not claim the legacy of earlier efforts to mine the intersection of law and macroeconomics. What are we to make of this moment ten years on? Could Law and Macroeconomics (#LawMacro for short) be an important new turn in legal and economic thought, a casual interdisciplinary tryst on the margins of a ...


Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow Jan 2020

Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The IRS recently issued its second description of how it will treat Bitcoin and other blockchain assets. Some of its analysis leaves open questions that invite further consideration, and important issues remain unresolved. Moreover, because the popular Bitcoin blockchain uses a "proof of work" consensus procedure, issues relating to the alternative "proof of stake" procedure have been neglected.


Reviewing Inter Partes Review Five Years In: The View From University Technology Transfer Offices, Cynthia L. Dahl Jan 2020

Reviewing Inter Partes Review Five Years In: The View From University Technology Transfer Offices, Cynthia L. Dahl

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

With the implementation of the inter partes review (IPR) proceeding under the America Invents Act in 2012, university technology transfer offices (TTOS) were worried that the value of their patents might be irreparably harmed. With IPR proceedings making patent challenges easy, relatively inexpensive, and a threat extending over the lifetime of a patent, TTOs wondered if IPRs might do nothing short of undermining their licensing business model.

However, although IPRs have irreparably changed the patent infringement landscape outside of the university setting, the effect on university patents has not been nearly as severe. This chapter explores why that might be ...


What’S In Your Wallet (And What Should The Law Do About It?), Natasha Sarin Jan 2020

What’S In Your Wallet (And What Should The Law Do About It?), Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In traditional markets, firms can charge prices that are significantly elevated relative to their costs only if there is a market failure. However, this is not true in a two-sided market (like Amazon, Uber, and Mastercard), where firms often subsidize one side of the market and generate revenue from the other. This means consideration of one side of the market in isolation is problematic. The Court embraced this view in Ohio v. American Express, requiring that anticompetitive harm on one side of a two-sided market be weighed against benefits on the other side.

Legal scholars denounce this decision, which, practically ...


Commercial Law, Cleveland-Marshall College Of Law Library Jan 2020

Commercial Law, Cleveland-Marshall College Of Law Library

Law Library Research Guides - Archived

No abstract provided.


Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman Jan 2020

Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Deals accomplished through software persistently residing on computer networks—sometimes called smart contracts, but better termed transactional scripts—embody a potentially revolutionary contracting innovation. Ours is the first precise account in the legal literature of how such scripts are created, and when they produce errors of legal significance.

Scripts’ most celebrated use case is for transactions operating exclusively on public, permissionless, blockchains: such exchanges eliminate the need for trusted intermediaries and seem to permit parties to commit ex ante to automated performance. But public transactional scripts are costly both to develop and execute, with significant fees imposed for data storage ...


Stay In The Fight With Civility And Professionalism, David Spratt Jan 2020

Stay In The Fight With Civility And Professionalism, David Spratt

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Behavioral Comparative Law: Its Relevance To Global Commercial Law-Making, John Linarelli Jan 2020

Behavioral Comparative Law: Its Relevance To Global Commercial Law-Making, John Linarelli

Scholarly Works

This is a book chapter written for a British Society of Legal Scholars funded conference held at Durham University Law School. It develops a framework by which to evaluate the making of commercial law at the global level. It offers an approach to evaluating the process by which primarily intergovernmental organisations produce commercial law. The approach grounds in both behavioural science and comparative law. The focus is mainly but not exclusively on global rule makers such as the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT). It articulates what ...


Global Legal Pluralism And Commercial Law, John Linarelli Jan 2020

Global Legal Pluralism And Commercial Law, John Linarelli

Scholarly Works

Multiple, overlapping, and systemically interactive normative orders regulate commerce, trade, and finance. A diverse set of state and non-state actors produce this plurality of rules governing markets. How these rules operate, what they are, whether some of them deserve recognition as what societies usually conceptualize as law, and their historical lineage, are the subject of significant disagreement and confusion. This chapter offers a taxonomy and classification of the sources of norms and ground clearing on the different kinds of norms at work in the global economy. It surveys the literature on the history of the law merchant, with a focus ...


The Law Of Corporate Investigations And The Global Expansion Of Corporate Criminal Enforcement, Jennifer Arlen, Samuel W. Buell Jan 2020

The Law Of Corporate Investigations And The Global Expansion Of Corporate Criminal Enforcement, Jennifer Arlen, Samuel W. Buell

Faculty Scholarship

The United States model of corporate crime control, developed over the last two decades, couples a broad rule of corporate criminal liability with a practice of reducing sanctions, and often withholding conviction, for firms that assist enforcement authorities by detecting, reporting, and helping prove criminal violations. This model, while subject to skepticism and critiques, has attracted interest among reformers in overseas nations that have sought to increase the frequency and size of their enforcement actions. In both the U.S. and abroad, insufficient attention has been paid to how laws controlling the conduct of corporate investigations are critical to regimes ...


The Paradox Of Contracting In Markets, Robert E. Scott Jan 2020

The Paradox Of Contracting In Markets, Robert E. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

Contract design that motivates parties to invest and trade more efficiently occurs primarily in thin markets characterized by bespoke, bilateral agreements between commercial parties. In that environment, the cost of producing each contract is relatively high. Those costs are justified by offsetting design improvements in contractual incentives. In contrast, more efficient production of contract terms occurs in thick, multilateral markets where parties can realize the scale advantages of standardization. In this environment, the cost of producing individual contracts is relatively low but at the offsetting cost of undermining contractual incentives. These very different trade-offs are dictated by changes in the ...


Driver For Contactless Payments, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2020

Driver For Contactless Payments, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

As a consumer, my primary experience with cash before the virus was standing in checkout lines observing the sluggish pace of cash transactions in front of me. Like so many things in our lives, the advent of the virus has changed the situation markedly. From the earliest days of infection, it has been far more unsettling to observe cash transactions knowing that the virus persists on paper and metal surfaces for days.

The dynamic that has driven the choices merchants offer in face-to-face retail transactions will change as well. Driven by the private exigencies of the retail environment, the last ...


Declining Corporate Prosecutions, Brandon L. Garrett Jan 2020

Declining Corporate Prosecutions, Brandon L. Garrett

Faculty Scholarship

In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis, people across the United States protested that "too big to jail" banks were not held accountable after the financial crisis. Little has changed. Newly collected data concerning enforcement during the Trump Administration has made it possible to assess what impact a se­ries of new policies has had on corporate enforcement. To provide a snapshot comparison, in its last twenty months, the Obama Administration levied $I4.15 billion in total corporate penalties by prosecuting seventy-one financial institu­tions and thirty-four public companies. During the first twenty months of the Trump Administration, corporate ...


An Efficiency Analysis Of Defensive Tactics, Ronald J. Gilson, Alan Schwartz Jan 2020

An Efficiency Analysis Of Defensive Tactics, Ronald J. Gilson, Alan Schwartz

Faculty Scholarship

For thirty five years, courts and scholars have divided over the effects of defensive tactics in the market for corporate control. Strong defensive tactics locate authority to accept a hostile bid in the target’s board. The board can bargain for a higher takeover price than uncoordinated shareholders could realize but high takeover prices may reduce shareholder returns by reducing the likelihood of receiving a bid. The Delaware Courts themselves disagree. The Delaware Chancery Court would locate ultimate decision authority in the target’s shareholders, while the Supreme Court, by permitting strong defensive tactics, allocates extensive power to the target ...


Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr. Dec 2019

Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Although the term “bankruptcy” is nowhere to be found in the Bible, debt and the consequences of default are a major theme both in the Hebrew Bible and in the New Testament. In Israel, as in the ancient Near East generally, a debtor who defaulted on his obligations was often sold into slavery or servitude. Biblical law moderated the harshness of this system by prohibiting Israelites from charging interest on loans to one another, thus diminishing the risk of default, and by requiring the release of slaves after seven years of service. Jesus alluded to the lending laws at least ...


Personal Property Security Law: International Ambitions And Local Realities, Giuliano G. Castellano, Andrea Tosato Dec 2019

Personal Property Security Law: International Ambitions And Local Realities, Giuliano G. Castellano, Andrea Tosato

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Personal property security law is a key element of “access to credit” and “financial inclusion”. The prevailing view is that a legal framework enabling the effective use of personal property as collateral markedly benefits both lenders and borrowers. Lenders can offer financing at a lower cost thanks to reduced credit risk; borrowers can access funding by leveraging the otherwise unavailable value of the assets integral to their operations.

Over the past century, the priorities of personal property security law have evolved fundamentally. As small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and individual entrepreneurs have become the growth engine of both developed and ...


Asia’S Response To The Us Indo-Pacific Strategy: Building The Rcep: Legal And Political Implications, Pasha L. Hsieh Dec 2019

Asia’S Response To The Us Indo-Pacific Strategy: Building The Rcep: Legal And Political Implications, Pasha L. Hsieh

Research Collection School Of Law

The Trump administration declared the “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP) strategy as the new U.S. policy on Asia in 2017. This new strategy will have far-reaching implications for U.S.-Asia relations and global governance. The FOIP is conventionally perceived to focus on security dimensions. By “free,” the United States expects all countries “to exercise their sovereignty free from coercion by other countries.”1 The qualifier, “open,” is meant to refer to regional connectivity, in particular including freedom of navigation.2 Notably, the economic dimensions of this component also envision “fair and reciprocal trade” and “transparent agreements.”


The Dodge Brothers’ Monster: A Legal Analysis Of The Effect Of Fiduciary Duty On Dual Voting Structures, Jer'ron J.L. Dinwiddie Ii Nov 2019

The Dodge Brothers’ Monster: A Legal Analysis Of The Effect Of Fiduciary Duty On Dual Voting Structures, Jer'ron J.L. Dinwiddie Ii

Student Publications

The purpose of this research paper is to determine the legal obligations that a shareholder with majority voting rights would have in a dual-voting structure. The focus on the paper is on breaking down the fiduciary duty analysis for its application to dual-voting structures, which currently stands as the shareholder with majority voting rights have no duty to other shareholders.

The paper details the evolution of the common law and the social responses to the use of these structures. Then, the paper measure the application fiduciary duty would have on a dual-voting structure using WeWork as a case study. On ...


Law Library Blog (November 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2019

Law Library Blog (November 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.