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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Parity Principle, Luke P. Norris Jan 2018

The Parity Principle, Luke P. Norris

Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court has interpreted the Federal Arbitration Act of 1925 (FAA) in a broad way that has allowed firms to widely privatize disputes with workers and consumers. The resulting expansive growth of American arbitration law has left commentators both concerned about the structural inequalities that permeate the regime and in search of an effective limiting principle. This Article develops such a limiting principle from the text and history of the FAA itself. The Article reinterprets the text and history of section 1 of the statute, which, correctly read, excludes individual employee-employer disputes from the statute’s coverage. The Article ...


Bespoke Discovery, Jessica Erickson Jan 2018

Bespoke Discovery, Jessica Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

The U.S. legal system gives contracting parties significant freedom to customize the procedures that will govern their future disputes. With forum selection clauses, parties can decide where they will litigate future disputes. With fee-shifting provisions, they can choose who will pay for these suits. And with arbitration clauses, they can make upfront decisions to opt out of the traditional legal system altogether. Parties can also waive their right to appeal, their right to a jury trial, and their right to file a class action. Bespoke procedure, in other words, is commonplace in the United States.

Far less common, however ...


Uncivil Asset Forfeiture: An Analysis Of Civil Asset Forfeiture And Virginia H.B. 48, Brent Ashley Jan 2017

Uncivil Asset Forfeiture: An Analysis Of Civil Asset Forfeiture And Virginia H.B. 48, Brent Ashley

Law Student Publications

Introduced in 2016, Virginia House Bill 48 proposed civil forfeiture reforms which would raise the burden of proof required for law enforcement agencies to seize property related to criminal activity. Civil forfeiture has grown in recent decades to deprive innocent property owners of their belongings, often due to connections between the property seized and persons accused of using the property illegally without the owners’ consent. Additionally, with a burden of proof much lower than the standard that must be met for a criminal conviction, civil forfeiture as it stands now risks depriving property owners of their possessions despite a lack ...


When Is It Necessary For Corporations To Be Essentially At Home: An Exploration Of Exceptional Cases, Pricilla Heinz Jan 2017

When Is It Necessary For Corporations To Be Essentially At Home: An Exploration Of Exceptional Cases, Pricilla Heinz

Law Student Publications

This comment examines the current state of the law surrounding the exercise of general jurisdiction and forecasts the circumstances under which the Supreme Court is likely to clarify its recent decisions. Its purpose is to explore the principles announced in Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S.A. v. Brown and Daimler AG v. Bauman and consider whether the due process rationales offered in the past coincide with the new essentially at home standard imposed for general jurisdiction. Moreover, this comment analyzes the reactions of the lower courts in the wake of these decisions and predicts where the Supreme Court is headed ...


Labor And The Origins Of Civil Procedure, Luke P. Norris Jan 2017

Labor And The Origins Of Civil Procedure, Luke P. Norris

Law Faculty Publications

A series of changes within civil procedure over the past few decades—including the rise of private arbitration, the accompanying decline of public adjudication, and the erection of barriers to class actions—have diminished the economic power of workers, consumers, and diffuse economic actors. This Article demonstrates that avoiding these economic consequences was a central goal of those who crafted American federal civil procedure in the first place. Driven to action by the procedural issues involved in labor injunction cases, leading procedural reformers behind the modern regime strove to make American federal civil procedure sensitive to questions of political economy ...


Civil Practice And Procedure, Christopher S. Dadak Nov 2016

Civil Practice And Procedure, Christopher S. Dadak

Law Student Publications

Continuing in the rich vein of prior Annual Surveys, this article examines developments in Virginia civil procedure and practice in the past year. The survey includes a discussion of the relevant decisions from the Supreme Court of Virginia, changes to applicable rules of practice or procedure, and new legislation, which will likely affect the practice of a civil practitioner in the Commonwealth of Virginia.


The Dormant Commerce Clause As A Limit On Personal Jurisdiction, John F. Preis Nov 2016

The Dormant Commerce Clause As A Limit On Personal Jurisdiction, John F. Preis

Law Faculty Publications

For over 70 years, the Due Process Clause has defined the law of personal jurisdiction. This makes sense, because being forced to stand trial in a far-off state will sometimes be fundamentally unfair. What does not make sense, however, is the Dormant Commerce Clause’s apparent irrelevance to personal jurisdiction. The Dormant Commerce Clause addresses state laws affecting interstate commerce, and a plaintiff’s choice of forum is often a commercially driven choice between different state courts. So why isn’t the Dormant Commerce Clause part of personal jurisdiction doctrine?

This Article makes the case for its relevance, and demonstrates ...


Calling An End To Culling: Predictive Coding And The New Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, Stephanie Serhan Jan 2016

Calling An End To Culling: Predictive Coding And The New Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, Stephanie Serhan

Law Student Publications

This paper examines the impact of the most recent amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure on the current split between courts about whether predictive coding should be applied at the outset or to a set of keyword-culled documents. Since the new Rules explicitly implement the concept of proportionality and a new set of standards in Rule 26, I argue that applying predictive coding at the outset is more compliant with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Part II will explain the difference in timing between applying predictive coding after keyword culling or prior to it, and discuss the ...


Compensating The Wrongfully Convicted: A Proposal To Make Victims Of Wrongful Incarceration Whole Again, Alanna Trivelli Jan 2016

Compensating The Wrongfully Convicted: A Proposal To Make Victims Of Wrongful Incarceration Whole Again, Alanna Trivelli

Law Student Publications

Part I of this comment presents a brief overview of the current state compensation systems for those who are wrongly imprisoned, including model legislation proposed by the Innocence Project and the current shortcomings of compensation statutes across the United States. Part II discusses the principles behind compensatory damages in tort law, and the foundation and reasoning for making a victim whole again. Varying forms of relief are also discussed. Part III applies these principles of tort law to the arena of wrongful convictions to show states have a responsibility to make victims of wrongful convictions whole again. Potential problems arising ...


Civil Procedure: Cases, Materials, And Questions, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2016

Civil Procedure: Cases, Materials, And Questions, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

This innovative casebook is designed to be accessible to first year students while exposing them to the richness of the course. Each chapter begins with an “Introduction and Integration” section, which provides an overview and indicates how the materials relate to other topics. The authors explore the strategic and ethical issues faced by lawyers. The book features clear textual explication to set up consideration of cases. The seventh edition is wholly up-to-date, including the new discovery provisions that became effective December 1, 2015 (Carolina Academic Press).


Heightened Procedure, Jessica Erickson Jan 2016

Heightened Procedure, Jessica Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

When it comes to combating meritless litigation, how much should procedure matter? Conventional wisdom holds that procedure should be uniform, with the same rules applying in all civil cases. Yet the causes of meritless litigation are not uniform, making it difficult for identical procedures to address the problem. As a result, lawmakers frequently turn to what this Article calls “heightened procedure”—additional procedures applicable only in designated areas of the law. Across a variety of substantive areas, lawmakers have adopted heightened pleading standards, stays of discovery, agency review, and a multitude of other tools from the heightened procedural toolbox. Despite ...


A Further Note On Federal Causes Of Action, John F. Preis Jan 2016

A Further Note On Federal Causes Of Action, John F. Preis

Law Faculty Publications

In the article, I argue that federal causes of action ought to be treated as (1) distinct from substantive rights, (2) synonymous with the availability of a remedy (but not whether a remedy will in fact issue) and (3) distinct from subject matter jurisdiction (unless Congress instructs otherwise). This thesis is built principally on a historical recounting of the cause of action from eighteenth century England to twenty-first century America. In taking an historical approach, I did not mean to argue that federal courts are bound to adhere to centuries-old conceptions of the cause of action. I merely used history ...


Virginia Practice Series: Jury Instructions, Ronald J. Bacigal, Margaret Ivey Bacigal Jan 2016

Virginia Practice Series: Jury Instructions, Ronald J. Bacigal, Margaret Ivey Bacigal

Law Faculty Publications

Virginia Practice Series-Jury Instructions is a continuation and update of previous editions, which won widespread approval among the bench and bar for almost 40 years.

As in the past, this book is primarily confined to the most common areas of jury trial work, torts and criminal law. Where possible, the language of the instructions is taken directly from reported cases or case records. Where this is not possible, we have set out instructions that should meet both the general rules regarding the form of instructions and the specific substantive legal rules. In the latter cases, close attention has been paid ...


Why Insurance Contracts Might Be The Trick To Police Reform, John F. Preis Jan 2016

Why Insurance Contracts Might Be The Trick To Police Reform, John F. Preis

Law Faculty Publications

How do lawsuits deter misconduct? That is an issue that Professor Joanna Schwartz has written about before, and her latest article on the topic, How Governments Pay: Lawsuits, Budgets and Police Reform, could not be more timely. Over the past year, our county has witnessed dramatic instances of police abuse and the public is understandably demanding reform. Schwartz’s terrific article explains why civil rights actions may fail to instigate reform, and suggests how insurance contracts, of all things, can play a role in fixing this problem.


Civil Procedure: Cases, Materials, And Questions, Wendy Collins Perdue, Richard D. Freer Jan 2012

Civil Procedure: Cases, Materials, And Questions, Wendy Collins Perdue, Richard D. Freer

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


What’S Sovereignty Got To Do With It?: Due Process, Personal Jurisdiction And The Supreme Court, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2012

What’S Sovereignty Got To Do With It?: Due Process, Personal Jurisdiction And The Supreme Court, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

In this symposium contribution I do two things. First, I explore the relationship between sovereignty and due process in personal jurisdiction in some of the more problematic aspects of the Nicastro opinions. I conclude that, although at one time the concept of sovereignty provided an important analytic component of personal jurisdiction analysis, this is largely no longer true.


Corporate Governance In The Courtroom: An Empirical Analysis, Jessica M. Erickson Apr 2010

Corporate Governance In The Courtroom: An Empirical Analysis, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Conventional wisdom is that shareholder derivative suits are dead. Yet this death knell is decidedly premature. The current conception of shareholder derivative suits is based on an empirical record limited to suits filed in Delaware or on behalf of Delaware corporations, leaving suits outside this sphere in the shadows of corporate law scholarship. This Article aims to fill this gap by presenting the first empirical examination of shareholder derivative suits in the federal courts. Using an original, hand-collected data set, my study reveals that shareholder derivative suits are far from dead. Shareholders file more shareholder derivative suits than securities class ...


Reassessing The Purposes Of Federal Question Jurisdiction, John F. Preis Jan 2007

Reassessing The Purposes Of Federal Question Jurisdiction, John F. Preis

Law Faculty Publications

For ages, judges and legal academics have claimed that federal question jurisdiction has three purposes: to provide litigants with a judge experienced in federal law, to protect litigants from state court hostility toward federal claims, and to preserve uniformity in federal law. Because federal claims, for the most part, have always been cognizable in state courts, these purposes imply that state courts are less experienced, more hostile, and more likely to adjudicate federal law in ways that decrease the uniformity of federal law. Despite the ongoing allegiance to this conception of federal question jurisdictionand by implication, state court adjudication of ...


The Merger Of Common-Law And Equity Pleading In Virginia, William Hamilton Bryson Jan 2006

The Merger Of Common-Law And Equity Pleading In Virginia, William Hamilton Bryson

Law Faculty Publications

This article describes the separation of common law and equity in Virginia leading up to the 2006 merger of common law and equity pleading and the problems that remain to be solved by the courts.


Cumulative Supplement To Jurisdiction In Civil Action, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2006

Cumulative Supplement To Jurisdiction In Civil Action, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

Cumulative supplement to Jurisdiction in Civil Action Third Edition.


Bryson On Virginia Civil Procedure - Fourth Edition, William Hamilton Bryson Jan 2005

Bryson On Virginia Civil Procedure - Fourth Edition, William Hamilton Bryson

Law Faculty Publications

The scope of this work is the procedure and practice of civil litigation in Virginia state courts. Occasionally, there will be an excursus into relevant Virginia legal history in order to give the background to the present state of the law. This book proceeds generally from pretrial litigation devices to jurisdiction and parties, pleading, discovery, motions at trial, appeals and enforcement of final judgments. It does not include the law of evidence, probate proceedings, criminal procedure, administrative practice, or federal law.


Aliens, The Internet, And "Purposeful Availment": A Reassessment Of Fifth Amendment Limits On Personal Jurisdiction, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2004

Aliens, The Internet, And "Purposeful Availment": A Reassessment Of Fifth Amendment Limits On Personal Jurisdiction, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

The international community has been struggling with questions of who should regulate the Internet and how, but little consensus has emerged. For the United States, consideration of the pros and cons of the alternative jurisdictional approaches to e-commerce and cyberspace is complicated by an overlay of constitutional law. While the rest of the world considers the policy implications of a country of origin versus a country of destination approach, the United States is wrestling with what constitutes "purposeful availment" under the Due Process Clause.

The Supreme Court has never squarely considered what limits the Fifth Amendment imposes on assertions of ...


Rule 11 And Rule Revision, Carl W. Tobias, Margaret L. Sanner Jan 2004

Rule 11 And Rule Revision, Carl W. Tobias, Margaret L. Sanner

Law Faculty Publications

Numerous observers of modem civil practice, whose views range across a comparatively broad spectrum, consider the 1983 amendment to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11 the most controversial revision since the United States Supreme Court promulgated the original Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in 1938.1 Counsel and litigants overused and abused the 1983 modification to Rule 11 by inappropriately stressing the compensatory goal of the proviso and improperly deemphasizing the stricture's deterrence objective. Many judges vigorously enforced Rule 11, often finding violations and imposing burdensome sanctions which frequently included large attorney's fees. This activity of lawyers and ...


The Story Of Shaffer: Allocating Jurisdictional Authority Among The States, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2004

The Story Of Shaffer: Allocating Jurisdictional Authority Among The States, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

Shaffer v. Heitner is one of a long series of Supreme Court cases addressing the scope of state-court territorial authority. Indeed, Shaffer is the first of a dozen modern cases that delineated the Court's current conception of the constitutional limits on state-court jurisdictional authority.

Determining whether a court has jurisdiction to hear a dispute is an important preliminary step in any litigation. But the constitutional doctrine the Court has developed in this area is also an interesting window on the Court's more general understanding of the allocation of power among the states.


More Proposals To Simplify Modern Federal Procedure, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2004

More Proposals To Simplify Modern Federal Procedure, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Response to Edward H. Cooper, Simplified Rules of Federal Procedure1, 100 Mich. L. Rev. 1794 (2002)


The Past And Future Of The Federal Rules In State Courts, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2003

The Past And Future Of The Federal Rules In State Courts, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Response to Prof. John B. Oakley's writings comparing state court procedural rules with the Federal Rules of Civil procedure.

Professor Oakley's substantial contribution to the Nevada Law Journal dispute resolution symposium neither accords much treatment to how or why the earlier uniformity between state and federal procedural regimes changed so dramatically over such a brief period nor proffers very many suggestions for the future. My response aspires primarily to scrutinize how federal-state consistency deteriorated and secondarily to consider what, if any, measures should be instituted to change the present condition of state civil procedure in the fifty jurisdictions ...


Recent Developments In Federal Jurisdiction And Pleading, Wendy Collins Perdue Jan 2003

Recent Developments In Federal Jurisdiction And Pleading, Wendy Collins Perdue

Law Faculty Publications

Recent developments in federal jurisdiction and pleading including subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction and notice, venue, forum non conveniens, forum selection clauses, and pleading.


Local Federal Civil Procedure For The Twenty-First Century, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2002

Local Federal Civil Procedure For The Twenty-First Century, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Federal civil procedure is now byzantine. Lawyers and parties face, and federal judges apply, a bewildering panorama of requirements. There are strictures in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as well as Title 28 of the United States Code and dozens of substantive statutes. A stunning array of local measures-including local rules; general, special, and scheduling orders; individual-judge practices; and mechanisms that courts adopted under the Civil Justice Reform Act (CJRA) of 1990 to reduce cost and delay-also govern cases in all ninety-four districts. Many of the provisions· are inconsistent or duplicative, while a significant percentage are difficult to discover ...


The Expiration Of The Civil Justice Reform Act Of 1990, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2002

The Expiration Of The Civil Justice Reform Act Of 1990, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Ever since the United States Congress passed the Civil Justice Reform Act of 1990 (CJRA), a minor mystery of federal court jurisprudence has been whether - and if so, precisely when - that significant and controversial legislation expired. The measure instituted unprecedented nationwide experimentation with procedures that lawmakers intended to decrease cost and delay in civil litigation, but the statute's implementation additionally balkanized federal practice and procedure.


A Civil Discovery Dilemma For The Arizona Supreme Court, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2002

A Civil Discovery Dilemma For The Arizona Supreme Court, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

The drafters of the 1938 Federal Rules of Civil Procedure hoped to establish those rules as a model that the states could adopt, thus fostering national and intrastate procedural uniformity. This objective was not realized generally or by very many specific jurisdictions. Observers of the increasingly fractured procedural regime in the federal arena have voiced concerns about the mounting numbers of strictures, the accelerating pace of procedural change and the growing inconsistency of the requirements imposed. Illustrative are the major 1983 and 1993 federal discovery amendments, which new discovery provisions further revised in December 2000. The Civil Justice Reform Act ...