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Full-Text Articles in Law

Public Utility Valuation, Edwin C. Goddard Jan 1917

Public Utility Valuation, Edwin C. Goddard

Articles

EVERY consideration of valuation of a public utility, whether for the purpose of condemnation for purchase or as a basis for fixing rates or permitting the issue of stock or bonds, must start from Sinyth v. Ames, and the rule therein laid down by HARLAN, J., at page 546: "We hold, however, that the basis of all calculations as to the reasonableness of rates to be charged by a corporation maintaining a highway under legislative sanction must be the fair value of the property being used by it for the convenience of the public. And in order to ascertain that ...


Partnership Entity And Tenancy In Partnership: The Struggle For A Definition, Joseph H. Drake Jan 1917

Partnership Entity And Tenancy In Partnership: The Struggle For A Definition, Joseph H. Drake

Articles

PARTNERSHIP is a legal entity formed by the association of two or more persons. This definition of a partnership as a person or entity represents what may be characterized as a generally accepted theory among American jurists at the time of its publication in 1893. But a later definition says: "A partnership is an association of two more persons." "A partner is co-owner with his partners of specific partnership property holding as a tenant in partnership." The second definition shows that the Commissioners on Uniform State Laws have rejected the entity theory and coined a new term to describe partnership ...


Corporations And Express Trusts As Business Organizations, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1914

Corporations And Express Trusts As Business Organizations, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

PRESIDENT BUTLER of Columbia University is reported to have said in an address before the New York Chamber of Commerce in 1911, that "the limited liability corporation is the greatest single discovery of modem times, whether you judge it by its social, by its ethical, by its industrial, or, in the long run--after we understand it and know how to use it,--by its political, effects." 1


Interstate Commerce And State Control Over Foreign Corporations, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1914

Interstate Commerce And State Control Over Foreign Corporations, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

Since Bank of Augusta v. Earle, 13 Pet. 519, there seems to have been no real occasion to doubt the power of a state totally to exclude foreign corporations seeking to engage in intrastate business only. The power to exclude being absolute, there has been no question as to the right of the state to allow the entrance of the foreign corporation for such business upon terms, and the terms may be of any sort, reasonable or unreasonable, except that the corporation seeking to enter cannot as a condition precedent to such entry be required to surrender a right or ...


The Corporation Tax Decision, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1911

The Corporation Tax Decision, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

Seldom, if ever, in the history of the country has the Supreme Court been called upon within a comparatively short period of time to decide so many questions of widespread interest and vital importance as has been the case during the last year or two. Attempts on the part of the state and national governments to regulate and control corporations, which in recent years have come to exercise such a large and not always wholesome influence upon affairs generally, have been the occasion for the consideration by the court of many of the important cases recently presented. Among these are ...


The Standard Oil Decision: The Rule Of Reason, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1911

The Standard Oil Decision: The Rule Of Reason, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

After twenty-one years the Sherman Anti Trust Act has been applied to the typical combination restraining interstate commerce, which that act was designed to prevent.


The Passing Of State Control Over Railway Rates, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1911

The Passing Of State Control Over Railway Rates, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

Congress has exclusive power to regulate interstate commerce, so far as it admits of a uniform system of regulation, and a failure on its part to regulate in a given case is tantamount to a declaration that such commerce shall remain free and unrestricted. Brown v. Houston, 114 U. S. 622; Leisy v. Hardin, 135 U. S. 100. The states are, in all such cases, without jurisdiction to regulate, irrespective of what Congress has or has not done.


Liability Of Water Companies For Losses By Fire In Actions Of Tort, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1910

Liability Of Water Companies For Losses By Fire In Actions Of Tort, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

In Fisher v. Greensboro Water Supply Company, 128 N. C. 375, it was held that the defendant water company was liable in damages in an action of tort for negligent failure to furnish sufficient water pressure in the mains of the city, by reason of which negligence the plaintiff's house was burned. The only duty on the part of the defendant to furnish water grew out of a contract made by the company with the city and the fact that the defendant had entered upon the business of supplying water pursuant to such contract.


Interstate Commerce And State Control Of Foreign Corporations, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1910

Interstate Commerce And State Control Of Foreign Corporations, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

Corporations are the creatures of their parent state and outside the borders of the state creating them they have no existence except such as is granted them by comity. Bank of Augusta v. Earle, 13 Pet. 519; Lafayette Ins. Co. v. French, 18 How. 404; Paul v. Virginia, 8 Wall. 168; Ducat v. Chicago, 10 Wall. 410; Liverpool Ins. Co. v. Massachusetts, 10 Wall, 566; Home Ins. Co. v. Morse, 20 Wall. 445; Horn Silver Mining Co. v. New York, 143 U. S. 305; Waters-Pierce Oil Co. v. Texas, 177 U. S. 28; Security Mut. L. I. Co. v. Prewitt ...


Corporation Liens On Stock, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1910

Corporation Liens On Stock, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

At common law a corporation had no lien upon its stock for assessments unpaid or for debts due it from its shareholders.6 There are therefore but four possible methods by which liens could be created in favor of the corporation upon the stock which it issues, (i) by statute, (2) by charter, (3) by by-law, (4) by contract.


Right Of Joint Adventurers Holding All The Stock Of A Corporation To A Dissolution And Accounting In Equity, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1910

Right Of Joint Adventurers Holding All The Stock Of A Corporation To A Dissolution And Accounting In Equity, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

The case of Jackson v. Hooper, in the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals, decided February 28, 1910, by Judge DILL, (42 N. Y. Law Journal, March 8, 1910), overruling Vice Chancellor HOWELL, of the Court of Chancery (74 AtL. 130) presents interesting and unusual points in corporation and partnership law, and the jurisdiction of courts of equity over corporate affairs.


Purchase Of Shares Of Corporation By A Director From A Shareholder, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1910

Purchase Of Shares Of Corporation By A Director From A Shareholder, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

It is generally laid down in the encyclopedias and text books, and affirmed in many court opinions that "the doctrine that officers and directors [of corporations] are trustees of the stockholders, applies only in respect to their acts relating to the property or business of the corporation. It does not extend to their private dealings with stockholders or others, though in such dealings they take advantage of knowledge gained through their official position."1 Much of this doctrine is based upon the language of Chief Justice SHAW in Smith v. Hurd2 decided in 1847. He said: "There is no legal ...


State Regulations Affecting Interstate Commerce, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1910

State Regulations Affecting Interstate Commerce, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

The line between regulations of intrastate and interstate commerce is difficult to draw and hard to maintain. This is well illustrated in the recent case of St. Louis Southwestern Railway Company v. Arkansas, decided by the Supreme Court of the United States April 4, 1910, Advance Sheets, May I, 1910, p. 476, 30 Sup.Ct. 476.


What Is Interstate Commerce?, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1910

What Is Interstate Commerce?, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In the case of International Text-book Company v. Pigg, Advance Sheets May 1, 1910 (30 Sup. Ct. 481) the Supreme Court of the United States, decided April 4, 1910, that a "corporation engaged in imparting instruction by correspondence, whose business involves the solicitation of students in other states by local agents, who are to collect and forward to the home office the tuition fees, and the systematic intercourse between the corporation and its scholars and agents, wherever situated, and the transportation of the needful books, apparatus, and papers," is engaged in interstate commerce, and a state statute which makes the ...


The Constitutionality Of The Federal Corporation Tax, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1910

The Constitutionality Of The Federal Corporation Tax, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

During the special session of Congress held the past summer there was enacted as an amendment to the new Tariff Law what is generally known as the Federal Corporation Tax.1 At the time of its consideration in Congress and since its enactment there has been considerable discussion regarding the constitutionality of the measure, and no little doubt has been expressed as to its validity.


Valuing Property And Franchises Of Public Service Corporations For Fixing Rates, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1909

Valuing Property And Franchises Of Public Service Corporations For Fixing Rates, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

The Supreme Court of the United States has recently decided two important cases relating to the proper valuation of the property of public service corporations for the purpose of fixing rates to be charged for their services. These are Knoxille v. Knoxville Water Company, 211 U. S.--. 29 S. C. 148, and Willcox Y. Consolidated Gas Co.. -- U. S. --. 29 S. C. 192,a both decided January 4, 1909.


The Investigation Of Corporate Monopolies, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1906

The Investigation Of Corporate Monopolies, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

The Supreme Court of the United States has recently given a clear and brief statement of its views respecting the right of a corporation officer to refuse to testify on the ground that his testimony may subject the corporation to a criminal prosecution. Hale v. Henkel, 26 Sup. Ct. Rep. 370. Hale was summoned before a grand jury in a proceeding under the Sherman anti-trust act, and upon being interrogated respecting certain transactions of the MacAndrews & Forbes Co., of which he was Secretary and Treasurer, refused to answer, on the ground that the Federal immunity law was not broad enough ...


Liability Of Water Companies For Fire Losses, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1906

Liability Of Water Companies For Fire Losses, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

In two recent articles published'in this Review, the question of the liability of water companies for fire losses was somewhat exhaustively discussed. The majority of the actions wherein it has been sought to hold water companies liable for fire losses suffered by private property owners, have been brought for breach of contract. In a few cases the theory adopted was that the water company owed a duty to all property owners, by reason of the public character of its service; and the fact that it was under contract with the city to furnish an adequate water supply and pressure ...


Federal License Or National Incorporation, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1905

Federal License Or National Incorporation, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

The message of President Roosevelt and the Report of Mr. Garfield as Commissioner of Corporations, if we are not mistaken, have done, or will do, more than all the discussion of the past several years to clear the vision of the people as to what is necessary and possible to do in the way of meeting and overcoming our industrial and commercial corporation difficulties.


Need Of A National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

Need Of A National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

When the report of the Committee on Uniformity of legislation was submitted to the last American Bar Association, and consideration of the legal problems growing out of modem commercial combinations, was urged as a matter proper for discussion and action by that association, it was gravely argued by distinguished lawyers present that there was no legal problem to be solved. The Committee on Commercial Law, however, thought otherwise and said:- "The American people look to the American Bar for leadership on this question. Some one must lead. If not the lawyer, then it will be the demagogue."


A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In an article in the February number of this magazine1 the writer discussed the need of a national incorporation law. The following is proposed as such; its object is to set forth what, perhaps, may be possible under such a law; what some will think necessary or desirable; what some will think unnecessary and undesirable; and what others will undoubtedly think is all wrong, if not vicious. Whatever view is taken the writer's purpose will be accomplished if consideration and discussion of the proper details of such a law, are provoked. There are two classes who desire a national ...


The Northern Securities Decision, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

The Northern Securities Decision, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

March 14 the Supreme Court of the United States decided one of the most important cases that has been before it for a number of years. The litigation referred to is the Northern Securities case. The question involved was whether the control of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railway companies through the ownership of the majority of the stock of each of those companies by the Securities company violated the national anti-trust act. The majority of the Supreme Court held it did, but four of the judges dissented.


Need Of A National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

Need Of A National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

When the report of the Committee on Uniformity of Iegislation was submitted to the last American Bar Association, and consideration of the legal problems growing out of modem commercial combinations, was urged as a matter proper for discussion and action by that association, it was gravely argued by distinguished lawyers present that there was no legal problem to be solved.


A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In an article in the February number of this magazine' the writer discussed the nee& of a national incorporation law. The following is proposed as such; its object is to set forth what, perhaps, may be possible under such a law; what some will think necessary or desirable; what some will think unnecessary and undesirable; and what others will undoubtedly think is all wrong, if not vicious.


Northwestern Railway Situation, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1903

Northwestern Railway Situation, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

What promises to be the most important corporate litigation that has or is likely to come before the Supreme Court for many years is involved in the various suits against the Northern Securities Company. To understand its full significance, it is desirable to recall something of the railroad history of the western states.


United States Steel Bond Conversion, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1903

United States Steel Bond Conversion, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

The litigation growing out of the plan of the United States Steel Corporation to retire $200,000,000 of its preferred stock by issuing bonds therefor has involved many interesting questions under the New Jersey law.


Northwestern Railway Situation, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1903

Northwestern Railway Situation, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

What promises to be the most important corporate litigation that has or is likely to come before the Supreme Court for many years is involved in the various suits against the Northern Securities Company. To understand its full significance, it is desirable to recall something of the railroad history of the western states.


State Regulation Of Corporate Profits, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1882

State Regulation Of Corporate Profits, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

At the time when the Federal Constitution was adopted, municipal government in America was a very simple affair, and was managed with ease and economy through local officers, who provided for the making and repairing of roads, looked after disorderly characters, abated local nuisances, and levied rates for the few and simple public needs. When the growing population of a particular locality appeared to need larger powers of local government, the legislature granted them, but they often involved little more than the holding of fairs as a means of building up local trade, the institution of a local court for ...


Limits To State Control Of Private Business, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1877

Limits To State Control Of Private Business, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

The present purpose is to inquire whether, in the matter of the regulation of property rights and of business, legislation has not of late been occupying doubtful, possibly unconstitutional grounds. The discussion in the main must be limited to fundamental.-principles, aided by such light as legal and constitutional history may throw upon them, since the express provisions of the constitutions can give little assistance. They always contain the general guaranty of due process of law to life, liberty, and property, but in other particulars they for the most part leave protection to principles which have come from the common ...