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Full-Text Articles in Law

Partnership Tax Allocations: The Basics, Walter D. Schwidetzky May 2017

Partnership Tax Allocations: The Basics, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

This article endeavors to help practitioners who are not partnership tax allocation experts identify when they should consult with those with that expertise. The partnership-allocation Treasury Regulations have been called "a creation of prodigious complexity ... essentially impenetrable to all but those with the time, talent, and determination to become thoroughly prepared experts on the subject." This article is written for those, to date at least, without that time and determination. At the same time, the article provides an introduction to the partnership tax allocation rules for those contemplating making the requisite investment of time and determination.

The term "partnership," for ...


Reflections On Teaching Business Associations: The Case For Teaching More Agency And Unincorporated Business Entity Law, Mark J. Loewenstein Jan 2015

Reflections On Teaching Business Associations: The Case For Teaching More Agency And Unincorporated Business Entity Law, Mark J. Loewenstein

Articles

This paper argues for increased coverage of the law of agency and alternative entities in business associations courses.


The Naked Fiduciary, Michelle M. Harner, Jamie Marincic Jan 2012

The Naked Fiduciary, Michelle M. Harner, Jamie Marincic

Faculty Scholarship

Business law is grounded in the common law of fiduciary duty. Courts and policymakers have been loath to abandon that principle. Yet, particularly in the contractual context of limited liability companies (LLCs), the fiduciary label is illusory and may undercut sound governance practices for those entities. This Article presents an in-depth empirical study about governance provisions included in LLC operating agreements and examines the implications of the data in the context of various types of businesses that might choose to organize as LLCs. The Article uses the data and related case studies to offer a new approach to LLC governance ...


Aba Business Law Section, On Behalf Of Its Committees On Llcs And Nonprofit Organizations, Opposes Legislation For Low Profit Limited Liability Companies (L3cs), Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2012

Aba Business Law Section, On Behalf Of Its Committees On Llcs And Nonprofit Organizations, Opposes Legislation For Low Profit Limited Liability Companies (L3cs), Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

This document comprises a letter and attachment “submitted by the ABA Business Law Section on behalf of its Committee on Limited Liability Companies, Partnerships, and Unincorporated Entities and its Committee on Nonprofit Organizations … and states our views on … a bill ‘relating to limited liability companies [and] providing for the creation and operation of low-profit limited liability companies.’” The letter and attachment “have not been approved by the House of Delegates or the Board of Governors of the American Bar Association and should not be construed as representing the policy of the ABA.”

Supported by detailed analysis of both tax and ...


Now You See It, Now You Don’T: The Comings And Goings Of Disregarded Entities, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr. Jan 2012

Now You See It, Now You Don’T: The Comings And Goings Of Disregarded Entities, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr.

UF Law Faculty Publications

While state law recognizes an LLC as a distinct type of entity, an LLC is not a distinct entity for federal tax purposes. An LLC that has two or more owners is treated as either a corporation or a partnership, while an LLC with a single owner will be disregarded for federal income tax purposes unless it elects to be treated as a corporation. In addition to single-member LLCs, the Code and Regulations recognize a second type of disregarded entity – the qualified subchapter S subsidiary (commonly called a QSub). The first part of this Article examines the tax consequences of ...


A Contractual Approach To Shareholder Oppression Law, Benjamin Means Dec 2010

A Contractual Approach To Shareholder Oppression Law, Benjamin Means

Faculty Publications

According to standard law and economics, minority shareholders in closely held corporations must bargain against opportunism by controlling shareholders before investing. Put simply, you made your bed, now you must lie in it. Yet most courts offer a remedy for shareholder oppression, often premised on the notion that controlling shareholders owe fiduciary duties to the minority or must honor the minority's reasonable expectations. Thus, law and economics, the dominant mode of corporate law scholarship, appears irreconcilably opposed to minority shareholder protection, a defining feature of the existing law of close corporations.

This Article contends that a more nuanced theory ...


The Fatal Design Defects Of L3cs, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2010

The Fatal Design Defects Of L3cs, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

This article argues that the L3C is an unnecessary and unwise contrivance, and it's very existence is inherently misleading. The notion that an L3C should have privileged status under the Internal Revenue Code (known as the Code) for access to tax-exempt foundation resources is inescapably at odds with the key policies that underpin the relevant Code sections, and L3Cs are not on track-let alone on a fast track-to receive special status under the Code. An ordinary limited liability company (LLC) can perform precisely the same functions proclaimed of L3Cs. In addition, because of technical flaws, the L3C legislation adopted ...


The Single Member Limited Liability Company As Disregarded Entity: Now You See It, Now You Don’T, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2010

The Single Member Limited Liability Company As Disregarded Entity: Now You See It, Now You Don’T, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

The power and complexity of the single member limited liability company (“SMLLC”) comes from a conceptual contradiction: the conflation of owner and organization for tax purposes and the separation of owner and entity for non-tax, state law purposes. The contraction has significant practical consequences, which this article explores and illustrates, considering: • The SMLLC in federal court (single member not permitted to represent the LLC) • The IRS’s tortuous path to determining whether an SMLLC’s sole member is liable for the SMLLC’s unpaid employment taxes (yes; yes vindicated by the courts; then no, as a matter of policy) • Transfer ...


The Plight Of The Bare Naked Assignee, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2009

The Plight Of The Bare Naked Assignee, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

A new and separate opportunity for oppression exists because LLC law purports to (1) recognize a species of persons holding legal rights vis-á-vis the LLC (assignees) while (2) denying those persons any remedies whatsoever in connection with those rights. This article addresses the conceptual mechanics, history, and ultimate instability of that denial. The article also considers a note of irony­—namely, that the plight of the "bare naked assignee" derives from a construct, the organization as "aggregate," that LLC law has in all other respects emphatically transcended. To understand the plight of the assignee of an LLC interest, one must ...


Direct Versus Derivative And The Law Of Limited Liability Companies, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2006

Direct Versus Derivative And The Law Of Limited Liability Companies, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

The hybrid nature of limited liability companies causes us to re-invent, or at least re-examine, many doctrinal wheels. This Article will reexamine one of the most practical of those wheels-the distinction between direct and derivative claims in the context of a closely-held limited liability company.

Case law concerning the direct/derivative distinction is still overwhelmingly from the law of corporations, although LLC cases are now being reported with some frequency. LLC cases routinely analogize to, or borrow from, the corporate law. This Article encompasses that law, analyzes LLC developments, and argues that courts should (i) avoid the "special injury" rule ...


Slides: New England Forestry Foundation: Private Forests For The Public Good Since 1944, Frank Reed Jun 2005

Slides: New England Forestry Foundation: Private Forests For The Public Good Since 1944, Frank Reed

Community-Owned Forests: Possibilities, Experiences, and Lessons Learned (June 16-19)

Presenter: Frank Reed, New England Forestry Foundation

9 slides


Limited Liability Companies And Estate Planning, Michael D. Larobina J.D., L.L.M. Mar 2005

Limited Liability Companies And Estate Planning, Michael D. Larobina J.D., L.L.M.

WCBT Faculty Publications

Discusses court cases involving the use of limited liability companies as an estate planning tool in the U.S. Facts of the case of Estate of Strangi versus Commissioner; Stance of the court on the transfers made to the limited partnership; Impact of the case of Kimbell versus U.S. on the use of limited liability companies as estate planning vehicles.


Business Law Reform In The United States: Thinking Too Small?, Douglas C. Michael Jan 2003

Business Law Reform In The United States: Thinking Too Small?, Douglas C. Michael

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Dean Johan Henning presents the South African experience with business entity reform as one part of a coordinated whole. It included, for example, government funding for business, tax reforms, accounting and securities changes. Henning says that these reforms, though multi-faceted, had a uniform purpose: to use small business as an engine to improve the economy and to move “historically and socially disadvantaged groups” into the mainstream of the economy and the society.

These are noble goals and far reaching efforts, and a lot to ask of business entity reform. But because the South African experience was nonetheless successful by all ...


Never-Ending Limitations On S Corporation Losses: The Slippery Slope Of S Corporation Debt Guarantees, Francine J. Lipman Jan 2002

Never-Ending Limitations On S Corporation Losses: The Slippery Slope Of S Corporation Debt Guarantees, Francine J. Lipman

Scholarly Works

Francine Lipman explains S corporation loss limitations in the area of shareholder guarantees, focusing on the recent tax court and seventh circuit decisions in T.F. Grojean and concludes with a summary of the lessons s corporation shareholders can learn from the Grojeans' missteps.


Revamping Veil Piercing For All Limited Liability Entities: Forcing The Common Law Doctrine Into The Statutory Age, Rebecca J. Huss Jan 2001

Revamping Veil Piercing For All Limited Liability Entities: Forcing The Common Law Doctrine Into The Statutory Age, Rebecca J. Huss

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


To Know A Veil, Douglas C. Michael Oct 2000

To Know A Veil, Douglas C. Michael

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Lawyers, judges, law students, and law professors have a love-hate relationship with the doctrine of “piercing the corporate veil”—the idea that shareholders might sometimes be personally liable for the debts of the corporation. It is the subject covered more than all others in courses on corporation law. It is widely litigated, being the subject of thousands of opinions. Yet, for all this attention, it is routinely vilified by the experts. Most commentators recognize that it is jurisprudence without substance.

This Article is an attempt to form a basis for rigorous analysis of virtually every veil-piercing case and to rid ...


Taxation Of U.S. Llc With Foreign Participation, Victor Ianovitch Jan 2000

Taxation Of U.S. Llc With Foreign Participation, Victor Ianovitch

LLM Theses and Essays

The instant thesis is organized in three main parts. The first contains an overview of U.S. law including constitutional issues of the topic focusing on the separation of tax powers between federal and state authorities with special attention to the basis and extent to which a State is entitled to impose levies on business organizations; a brief analysis of federal legislation allowing the pass-through regime; and summary concerning LLC legislation in the States. The second analyzes the application of the main, basic principles of international taxation (such as residence, source rules, application of international treaties, and connected with it ...


Foreword, J. Dennis Hynes Jan 1995

Foreword, J. Dennis Hynes

Articles

No abstract provided.


Limited Liability For Corporate Shareholders: Myth Or Matter-Of-Fact, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 1975

Limited Liability For Corporate Shareholders: Myth Or Matter-Of-Fact, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

One of the most important and firmly entrenched concepts of modern corporate law is the concept of limited liability. The digests abound with ringing phrases granting the owners of corporations immunity from liability beyond their initial investment. There are, however, numerous cases in which the courts have denied the owners of corporations the protection of limited liability and have held the owners liable for an obligation incurred by the corporation. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the theories under which the owners of corporations have been held liable for the contractual obligation of corporations.