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Full-Text Articles in Law

Mootness Fees, Matthew D. Cain, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon, Randall Thomas May 2019

Mootness Fees, Matthew D. Cain, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon, Randall Thomas

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We examine the latest development in merger litigation: the mootness fee. Utilizing a hand-collected sample of 2,320 unique deals from 2003-2018, we find that Delaware’s crackdown on merger litigation substantially altered the merger litigation landscape. Although merger litigation rates remain high, and in 2018 83% of deals experienced litigation, plaintiffs’ lawyers have fled Delaware. In 2018 only 5% of completed deals experienced merger litigation in Delaware compared to 50%-60% in prior years. These cases have migrated to federal court where in 2018 92% of deals with litigation experienced a filing. We find that at least 65% of ...


Mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility? Legislative Innovation And Judicial Application In China, Li-Wen Lin Mar 2019

Mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility? Legislative Innovation And Judicial Application In China, Li-Wen Lin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility? Legislative Innovation And Judicial Application In China, Li-Wen Lin Mar 2019

Mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility? Legislative Innovation And Judicial Application In China, Li-Wen Lin

Faculty Publications

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is often understood as voluntary corporate behavior beyond legal compliance. The recent emergence of CSR legislation is challenging this typical understanding. A number of countries including China, Indonesia and India have expressly stated in corporate law that companies shall undertake CSR. The CSR law is controversial. Critics of CSR see the law as an unwise effort to challenge profit maximization as the only social responsibility of the corporation. Even CSR advocates welcome the CSR law with great caution. Given the vague statutory language of CSR, the practical application of the law places high demands on the ...


Viken Securities Limited, Order Granting Defendants' Motion For Summary Judgment And Denying Plaintiffs' Motion For Partial Summary Judgement As To Counts I & Ii, Melvin K. Westmoreland May 2015

Viken Securities Limited, Order Granting Defendants' Motion For Summary Judgment And Denying Plaintiffs' Motion For Partial Summary Judgement As To Counts I & Ii, Melvin K. Westmoreland

Georgia Business Court Opinions

No abstract provided.


The Tort Foundation Of Duty Of Care And Business Judgment, Robert J. Rhee Jan 2013

The Tort Foundation Of Duty Of Care And Business Judgment, Robert J. Rhee

Faculty Scholarship

This Article corrects a misconception in corporation law – the belief that principles of tort law do not apply to the liability scheme of fiduciary duty. A board’s duty of care implies exposure to liability, but the business judgment rule precludes it. Tort law finds fault; corporation law excuses it. The conventional wisdom says that the tort analogy fails. This dismissal of tort prinicples is wrong. Although shareholder derivative suits and ordinary tort cases properly yield systemically antipodal outcomes, they are bound by a common analytical framework. The principles of board liability are rooted in tort doctrines governing duty, customs ...


Can An Old Dog Learn New Tricks? Applying Traditional Corporate Law Principles To New Social Enterprise Legislation, Alicia E. Plerhoples Jan 2012

Can An Old Dog Learn New Tricks? Applying Traditional Corporate Law Principles To New Social Enterprise Legislation, Alicia E. Plerhoples

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Seven U.S. states have recently adopted the benefit corporation or the flexible purpose corporation—two novel corporate forms intended to house social enterprises, i.e., those ventures that pursue social and environmental missions along with profits. And yet, these corporate forms are not viable or sustainable if they do not attract social entrepreneurs or social investors due to the lack of understanding and inquiry into how traditional corporate law principles will be applied to them. This article begins this necessary examination. As a first approach, this article assesses shareholder primacy and the shareholder wealth maximization norm in the context ...


Equity Swaps And Implications In Company Law: An Examination Of Singapore Law, Chao-Hung Christopher Chen Jan 2012

Equity Swaps And Implications In Company Law: An Examination Of Singapore Law, Chao-Hung Christopher Chen

Research Collection School Of Law

This article explores issues from the use of equity swaps by corporate stakeholders under Singapore law. The article accepts that non-disclosure of economic interests might have an impact on market efficiency and corporate governance. To address potential problems, Singapore should consider revising the Takeover Code, while it requires further regulatory impact analysis to decide whether amendments to the Securities and Futures Act and the Companies Act are needed. As an alternative, companies can use their articles of association to impose a duty of disclosure before statutory intervention. In addition, the trading of equity swaps by directors raises issues about fiduciary ...


Good Faith In Revlon-Land, Christopher M. Bruner Jan 2011

Good Faith In Revlon-Land, Christopher M. Bruner

Scholarly Works

The Delaware Supreme Court has set a very high hurdle for plaintiffs challenging directors' good faith in the sale of a company. In Lyondell Chemical Company v. Ryan, the court held that unconflicted directors could be found to have breached the good faith component of their duty of loyalty in the transactional context only if they "knowingly and completely failed to undertake," and "utterly failed to attempt" to discharge their duties.

In this essay I argue that the Lyondell standard effectively imports into the transactional context the exacting standard previously applied in the oversight context — a move clearly aimed at ...


Normative Justifications For Lax (Or No) Corporate Fiduciary Duties: A Tale Of Problematic Principles, Imagined Facts And Inefficient Outcomes, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 2011

Normative Justifications For Lax (Or No) Corporate Fiduciary Duties: A Tale Of Problematic Principles, Imagined Facts And Inefficient Outcomes, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Corporate fiduciary duty standards are at an all-time low in this country. Ironically, the deterioration in standards has come to full maturity during the last two decades, a period of significant and notorious corporate managerial failures.

The deterioration in the standards by which we measure the appropriateness of the actions of corporate managers has been fueled by influential judges' and scholars' ("Advocates"'), who vigorously-and seemingly quite effectively-argue in favor of a lax fiduciary duty regime for corporate managers.

Normative justifications for lax corporate fiduciary duty standards, however, are weak. The justifications fail to provide a persuasive reason to abandon the ...


Insider Trading, Congressional Officials, And Duties Of Entrustment, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2011

Insider Trading, Congressional Officials, And Duties Of Entrustment, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article refutes what has become the conventional wisdom that insider trading by members of Congress and legislative staffers is “totally legal” because such congressional officials are immune from federal insider trading law. It argues that this well-worn claim is rooted in twin misconceptions based on: (1) a lack of regard for the broad and sweeping duties of entrustment which attach to public office and (2) an unduly restrictive view of Supreme Court precedents, which have interpreted Rule 10b-5 of the Securities Exchange Act to impose liability whenever a person trades securities on the basis of material nonpublic information in ...


Corporate Control And The Need For Meaningful Board Accountability, Michelle M. Harner Jan 2010

Corporate Control And The Need For Meaningful Board Accountability, Michelle M. Harner

Faculty Scholarship

Corporations are vulnerable to the greed, self-dealing and conflicts of those in control of the corporation. Courts historically have regulated this potential abuse by designating the board of directors and senior management as fiduciaries. In some instances, however, shareholders, creditors or others outside of corporate management may influence corporate decisions and, in the process, extract corporate value. Courts generally address this type of corporate damage in one of two ways: they designate controlling shareholders as corporate fiduciaries and they characterize creditors, customers and others as contract parties with no fiduciary duties. The traditional roles of corporate shareholders and creditors may ...


The “New” Fiduciary Standards Under The Revised Uniform Liability Company Act: More Bottom Bumping From Nccusl, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 2009

The “New” Fiduciary Standards Under The Revised Uniform Liability Company Act: More Bottom Bumping From Nccusl, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Between 1995 and 2001, the influential National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) promulgated iterations of uniform laws pertaining to partnerships, limited partnerships and limited liability companies. One or more of those acts have been widely adopted by state legislatures.

Each of the three acts—the Uniform Partnership Act (1997) (RUPA), the Uniform Limited Partnership Act (2001) (ULPA (2001)), and the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act (1996) (ULLCA)—contains identical fiduciary duty provisions. The acts all adopt the same standards for the duty of care and the duty of loyalty, and offer parties the same limited rights to ...


Finessing Well-Plead Derivative Lawsuits: The Implications Of The Minnesota Supreme Court's Selection Of Auerbach Over Zapata, James F. Hogg Jan 2009

Finessing Well-Plead Derivative Lawsuits: The Implications Of The Minnesota Supreme Court's Selection Of Auerbach Over Zapata, James F. Hogg

Faculty Scholarship

This article begins with the factual background and subsequent procedural history of the UnitedHealth Group Inc. shareholder derivitve litigation, as an instance where Minnesota courts effectively disposed of the factual allegations in a well-pleaded derivative action, directed at the behavior and actions of members of a board of directors, without reviewing finding of facts or reasoning behind the SLC's report or conclusions. The purpose of this article is to understand how a board-appointed committee can convince a court to dismiss and settle a derivative suit without showing detailed justification, and this is achieved by reviewing the statutes, case law ...


The Diverging Meaning Of Good Faith, Mark J. Loewenstein Jan 2009

The Diverging Meaning Of Good Faith, Mark J. Loewenstein

Articles

This article explores the meaning of "good faith" in the context of corporations and unincorporated entities. The courts, particularly in Delaware, have developed two different approaches. In the corporate arena, the courts are fashioning a notion of good faith that seems to require an examination of director motivations. In the unincorporated arena, good faith has a meaning grounded in contract law. These are two different concepts and reflect the fundamental differences between corporations and unincorporated entities, with the former based on fiduciary duties and the latter on contract. There are, however, indications that this "divergence" is starting to disappear, and ...


Bumping Along The Bottom: Abandoned Principles And Failed Fiduciary Standards In Uniform Partnership And Llc Statutes, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 2008

Bumping Along The Bottom: Abandoned Principles And Failed Fiduciary Standards In Uniform Partnership And Llc Statutes, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Over the last decade or so, the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) has promulgated a series of uniform laws dealing with unincorporated business entitites. The Uniform Partnership Act (1997) (RUPA), the Uniform Limited Partnership Act (2001) (ULPA (2001)), and the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act (1996) (ULLCA) are recent and important iterations of these uniform laws. One or more of these Acts have been adopted in many states and are certain to garner additional adoptions in the coming years.

Each of the Acts contains provisions that prescribe the fiduciary duties of the entity's managers. The ...


Class Action Criminality, Lisa L. Casey Jan 2008

Class Action Criminality, Lisa L. Casey

Journal Articles

This paper examines the criminal prosecution of Milberg Weiss, formerly the most successful plaintiffs’ securities class action firm in the country, for allegedly making undisclosed incentive payments to class representatives. In particular, the article examines the government’s primary charge - that the firm’s practice violated the “honest services” theory of mail and wire fraud. The government’s application of this theory presumes a fiduciary relationship between the class representatives and the class which has never been clearly delineated and, indeed, is against the weight of case law and the realities of class action litigation.

The Article proceeds on two ...


Managers’ Fiduciary Duties In Financially Distressed Corporations: Chaos In Delaware (And Elsewhere), Rutheford B. Campbell Jr., Christopher W. Frost Apr 2007

Managers’ Fiduciary Duties In Financially Distressed Corporations: Chaos In Delaware (And Elsewhere), Rutheford B. Campbell Jr., Christopher W. Frost

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The inherent conflict between creditors and shareholders has long occupied courts and commentators interested in corporate governance. Creditors holding fixed claims to the corporation's assets generally prefer corporate decision making that minimizes the risk of firm failure. Shareholders, in contrast, have a greater appetite for risk, because, as residual owners, they reap the rewards of firm success while sharing the risk of loss with creditors.

Traditionally, this conflict is mediated by a governance structure that imposes a fiduciary duty on the corporation's managers-its officers and directors-to maximize the value of the shareholders' interests in the firm. In this ...


The Expressive Function Of Directors’ Duties To Creditors, Jonathan C. Lipson Apr 2007

The Expressive Function Of Directors’ Duties To Creditors, Jonathan C. Lipson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article offers an explanation of the “doctrine” of directors’ duties to creditors. Courts frequently say—but rarely hold—that corporate directors owe duties to or for the benefit of corporate creditors when the corporation is in distress. These cases are puzzling for at least two reasons. First, they link fiduciary duty to priority in right of payment, effectively treating creditors as if they were shareholders, at least for certain purposes. But this ignores the fact that priority is a complex and volatile concept. Moreover, contract and other rights at law usually protect creditors, even (especially) when a firm is ...


The Duty To Creditors Reconsidered - Filling A Much Needed Gap In Corporation Law, Richard A. Booth Jan 2007

The Duty To Creditors Reconsidered - Filling A Much Needed Gap In Corporation Law, Richard A. Booth

Faculty Scholarship

The most fundamental question of corporation law is to whom does the board of directors of a corporation owe its fiduciary duty. Recently, the question has tended to be whether and under what circumstances the board of directors has the duty to maximize stockholder wealth. But if a corporation is insolvent (or close to it), business decisions designed to maximize stockholder wealth may result in a reduction of creditor wealth. Although the conventional wisdom is that creditors must protect themselves by contractual means, there is a substantial body of case law that says that creditors can assert claims sounding in ...


Twilight In The Zone Of Insolvency: Fiduciary Duty And Creditors In Troubled Companies, Royce De R. Barondes, Lisa M. Fairfax, Lawrence A. Hamermesh, Robert Lawless, Jonathan C. Lipson, Russell C. Silberglied Jan 2007

Twilight In The Zone Of Insolvency: Fiduciary Duty And Creditors In Troubled Companies, Royce De R. Barondes, Lisa M. Fairfax, Lawrence A. Hamermesh, Robert Lawless, Jonathan C. Lipson, Russell C. Silberglied

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Kentucky Corporate Fiduciary Duties, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 2005

Kentucky Corporate Fiduciary Duties, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In this article I offer an interpretation of Kentucky's corporate fiduciary law. The article is positive, in that it attempts to explain our law by reference to certain principles. The article is also normative, however, in that it offers constructive criticism regarding parts of Kentucky fiduciary law and suggests changes, refinements, and clarifications intended to promote fairness and economic efficiency in Kentucky corporations.

Both the positive and the normative aspects of this piece recognize the importance of the common law developments in Delaware (and other states) and the importance of the law and economics movement. I suggest, however, that ...


Enron And The Corporate Lawyer: A Primer On Legal And Ethical Issues, Roger C. Cramton Nov 2002

Enron And The Corporate Lawyer: A Primer On Legal And Ethical Issues, Roger C. Cramton

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The stunning collapse of Enron, coupled with the large number of accounting irregularities and apparent corporate fraud, have created a climate in which reform and improvement of the law governing corporate lawyers is underway. The ABA Task Force on Corporate Responsibility has issued a preliminary report that recommends promising changes in the rules of professional conduct. And, the Corporate Reform Act of 2002 has changed the landscape by authorizing the SEC to promulgate rules of professional conduct for securities lawyers and directing the SEC to issue a rule requiring securities lawyers to climb the corporate ladder to prevent or rectify ...


In Praise Of Procedure: An Economic And Behavioral Defense Of Smith V. Van Gorkom And The Business Judgment Rule, Lynn A. Stout Jan 2002

In Praise Of Procedure: An Economic And Behavioral Defense Of Smith V. Van Gorkom And The Business Judgment Rule, Lynn A. Stout

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Fair Value And Fair Price In Corporate Acquisitions, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Nov 1999

Fair Value And Fair Price In Corporate Acquisitions, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In statutory corporate acquisitions, dissenters' rights entitle shareholders of acquired corporations to obtain a "fair value" for their consideration, while common-law fiduciary duties ensure that such shareholders receive a "fair price" in the transaction. Courts, however, have had difficulty defining and measuring fair value and fair price, leaving this area of the law in disarray. This Article reviews the current framework of appraisal rights and fiduciary duties and proposes refined definitions of fair value and fair price that are based on attractive moral and economic values widely shared by society. The proposal respects the expectations of shareholders and provides guidance ...


Fiduciary Duty, Contract, And Waiver In Partnerships And Limited Liability Companies, Richard A. Booth Marbury Research Professor Of Law Jan 1997

Fiduciary Duty, Contract, And Waiver In Partnerships And Limited Liability Companies, Richard A. Booth Marbury Research Professor Of Law

Faculty Scholarship

Among the controversies swirling around the promulgations of new uniform statutes governing partnerships and LLCs is the question whether and to what extend fiduciary duties should be made mandatory or waivable. Although courts and commentators have not traditionally focused on the costs of fiduciary duties, the costs are significant in that such duties may preclude agents from engaging in other legitimate ventures. Indeed, fiduciary duty may be used by those to whom it is owed to prevent competition or extort side benefits form participants. Mandatory duties effectively require participants who may identify multiple business opportunities to overinvest their human capital ...


A Positive Analysis Of The Common Law Of Corporate Fiduciary Duties, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 1996

A Positive Analysis Of The Common Law Of Corporate Fiduciary Duties, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The purpose of this Article is to offer a positive analysis of the common law of corporate managers' fiduciary duties. The Article attempts to explain the present shape of these corporate fiduciary duties by reference to Pareto criteria.

A particular state of affairs ("state B") is considered to be Pareto superior to another state of affairs ("state A") if at least one person in state B is better off than he or she is in state A and no one in state B is worse off than he or she is in state A. Since in a move from state ...


Corporate Fiduciary Principles For The Post-Contractarian Era, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr. Jan 1996

Corporate Fiduciary Principles For The Post-Contractarian Era, Rutheford B. Campbell Jr.

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The impact of the law and economics movement on legal scholarship, legal analysis, and, ultimately, on the rules under which our society operates is substantial. The proponents of this movement ("Contractarians") articulate their positions skillfully and apply their principles broadly across the entire spectrum of our laws, including, of course, the area of corporate law.

The purpose of this Article is to propose, explain, and defend broad and unifying principles to guide the development of fiduciary duties of corporate managers in the post-Contractarian period. These principles are based on Pareto criteria, which are demonstrably appealing to society and provide workable ...


Resolving The Subsidiary Director's Dilemma, Eric J. Gouvin Jan 1996

Resolving The Subsidiary Director's Dilemma, Eric J. Gouvin

Faculty Scholarship

Although subsidiaries play a significant role in our economy, surprisingly little has been written about the duties of their directors. Despite widespread acceptance of holding companies as commonplace business entities, several legal problems inherent in the holding company form of ownership remain unresolved. Holding companies raise legal dilemmas for subsidiary directors that are easier to ignore than to resolve. This Article examines the subsidiary director's dilemma and demonstrates that traditional models of corporate structure are not adequate for the subsidiary-parent situation. The Author argues that the law should recognize the special relationship between a parent and its subsidiary and ...


The Forgotten Link: Control In Section 482, Wayne M. Gazur Jan 1994

The Forgotten Link: Control In Section 482, Wayne M. Gazur

Articles

The foundation of international taxable income allocations between related parties is formed by the imposition of an arm's length standard. The presence of "control" over a person invokes this measure. The author examines the implications of control presented by continuing developments in the global business environment, including the rise of cooperative interfirm arrangements.


Why Not Good Faith?-The Foibles Of Fairness In Closely Held Corporations, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 1990

Why Not Good Faith?-The Foibles Of Fairness In Closely Held Corporations, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

This essay describes the contours of the shareholder’s duty to be fair and explores some of the problems caused by the law’s imprecision in defining the duty of fairness. Because this duty is best understood as a rejection of old norms, part one of this essay describes the traditional doctrines of intra-corporate responsibility. Part two describes the special characteristics of a close corporation and outlines how those characteristics pushed close corporation law to new concepts of fairness and shareholder duties. Part three attempts to delineate those duties of fairness and also to highlight some of the dangers that ...