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Full-Text Articles in Law

Bespoke Discovery, Jessica Erickson Jan 2018

Bespoke Discovery, Jessica Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

The U.S. legal system gives contracting parties significant freedom to customize the procedures that will govern their future disputes. With forum selection clauses, parties can decide where they will litigate future disputes. With fee-shifting provisions, they can choose who will pay for these suits. And with arbitration clauses, they can make upfront decisions to opt out of the traditional legal system altogether. Parties can also waive their right to appeal, their right to a jury trial, and their right to file a class action. Bespoke procedure, in other words, is commonplace in the United States.

Far less common, however ...


Corporate Governance: Overview, Case Studies, And Reforms, William O. Fisher Jan 2017

Corporate Governance: Overview, Case Studies, And Reforms, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

Corporate Governance: Overview, Case Studies, and Reforms provides a broad view, with chapters identifying principal governance participants and sources of existing law. The book also provides a focused view, with extensive excerpts from investigations of WorldCom, Enron, and Lehman―as well as documents from WorldCom and Enron. It includes Sarbanes-Oxley reforms, including those targeted on auditors. It covers the credit crisis―its causes, government control at companies receiving financial assistance, and new law and regulatory action emerging from that crisis, including regulation of compensation in the financial industry. The book quotes significant passages from laws, regulations, and listing standards―all ...


To Thine Own Ceo Be True: Tailoring Ceo Compensation To Individual Personality And Circumstances, William O. Fisher Jan 2017

To Thine Own Ceo Be True: Tailoring Ceo Compensation To Individual Personality And Circumstances, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

Eight-figure compensation. Cash. Restricted stock. Options. Performance shares. And more. Companies shower their CEOs with pay in large amounts, delivered in multiple ways, and dependent on complex and intricate formulae. It is all intended to motivate the top officers to make decisions that will best benefit their companies. Common sense tells us that the value of a complicated, multifaceted pay package- and hence its ability to motivate- will depend on the psychological characteristics and financial circumstances of the particular executive being paid. Economic theory and empirical studies confirm this intuition. Yet, companies generally ignore these vital factors. Substantive and disclosure ...


Piling On? An Empirical Study Of Parallel Derivative Suits, Jessica Erickson Jan 2017

Piling On? An Empirical Study Of Parallel Derivative Suits, Jessica Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Using a sample of all companies named as defendants in securities class actions between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008, we study parallel suits relying on state corporate law arising out of the same allegations as the securities class actions. We test several ways that parallel suits may add value to a securities class action. Most parallel suits target cases involving obvious indicia of wrongdoing. Moreover, we find that although a modest percentage of parallel suits are filed first, over 80 percent are filed after a securities class action (termed “follow-on” parallel suits). We find that parallel suits and ...


Restoring Pre-Existing Compliance Through The Fcpa Pilot Program, Andrew B. Spalding Jan 2017

Restoring Pre-Existing Compliance Through The Fcpa Pilot Program, Andrew B. Spalding

Law Faculty Publications

For a quarter-century, incentives to invest in corporate compliance programs have been a cornerstone of federal white-collar enforcement. But the U.S. Department of Justice's most recent announcement of anti-bribery enforcement policy-the FCPA Pilot Program-takes a peculiar and possibly inadvertent turn. In providing newly transparent and explicit penalty reductions, and rolling out the Department's declination policy, the program neglects to incentivize investments in pre-existing compliance. Though remedial, or postviolation, compliance receives a newly heightened importance, pre-existing compliance receives virtually no attention. This is strange, but should not be understood as a new policy change on the benefits of ...


The Gatekeepers Of Shareholder Litigation, Jessica Erickson Jan 2017

The Gatekeepers Of Shareholder Litigation, Jessica Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Concerns over agency costs dominate corporate law. The central challenge is ensuring that directors act in the corporation's best interests, rather than their own best interests. Shareholder litigation is a key tool in controlling these agency costs. If directors cross the line, the law provides an array of litigation options that shareholders can use to hold directors accountable. Shareholders can file securities class actions if directors lie to them. They can file shareholder derivative suits if directors engage in egregious misconduct. And they can file lawsuits under both state and federal law if directors try to sell the company ...


Corporate Family Law, Allison Anna Tait Jan 2017

Corporate Family Law, Allison Anna Tait

Law Faculty Publications

There is no such thing as corporate family law. But there are corporate families, and corporate families fight. What happens when corporate family members fight and the conflict is so severe that one or more of the parties wants out of the corporate relationship? Corporate law provides some solutions, but they are shaped by the assumption that all parties will bargain effectively for protections when seeking to exit a corporate relationship. Under this theory, family business is, after all, just business. The problem with this assumption is that corporate family members do not bargain the way that corporate law expects ...


On Maximizing Deterrence Per Dollar: Thoughts Inspired By Peter Reilly, Andrew B. Spalding Jan 2016

On Maximizing Deterrence Per Dollar: Thoughts Inspired By Peter Reilly, Andrew B. Spalding

Law Faculty Publications

Professor Peter Reilly addresses concerns that practitioners in this space have privately and publicly debated for years. What exactly is cooperation credit? Can we quantify it? The government promises that self-reporting is in our self-interest, but the government’s interest in saying so is obvious enough. What evidence can the government provide?

The difficulty of measuring this credit is somewhat ironic, given the government’s dependence on cooperation. As this essay will show, our modern enforcement regime, which has four components—the internal or independent investigation, voluntary disclosure, cooperation credit, and a negotiated settlement—is the government’s method of ...


Caselaw Developments 2015, William O. Fisher Jan 2016

Caselaw Developments 2015, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

This report was prepared for the ABA Business Law Section’s Federal Regulation of Securities Committee, Subcommittee on Annual Review. The paper contains sections on relevant Supreme Court decisions, SEC rulemaking, SEC enforcement actions, proxy solicitation, forward-looking statements, insider trading, materiality, duty to disclose, Scienter and scienter pleading, and the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act ("SLUSA").


Business Structures, David G. Epstein Jan 2015

Business Structures, David G. Epstein

Law Faculty Publications

All law students and lawyers need to understand business structures. For law students, business structures are building blocks in other courses. For lawyers, business structures are building blocks in the lives of their clients, in the lives of their communities.

And, like law students, lawyers, clients and communities, business structures have "lives." This book covers the life cycle of a business, Bubba's Burritos, from birth to death. We will see how Bubba's Burritos' life and legal issues change as the business changes from a sole proprietorship to a partnership, to a corporation, to a limited partnership, to a ...


The Market For Leadership In Corporate Litigation, Jessica M. Erickson Jan 2015

The Market For Leadership In Corporate Litigation, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Conventional wisdom has long held that leadership decisions in corporate litigation are best left to the lawyers. Even as the world of corporate litigation has changed dramatically, courts have consistently relied on the lawyers themselves to decide who among them will control litigation decisions. As a result, leadership decisions in corporate litigation are almost always made in private negotiations and back room deals. This Article pulls back the curtain on these decisions, using empirical data to conduct the first in-depth examination into the market for leadership in corporate litigation. This examination reveals a market that bears little resemblance to the ...


Corruption, Corporations, And The New Human Right, Andrew B. Spalding Jan 2014

Corruption, Corporations, And The New Human Right, Andrew B. Spalding

Law Faculty Publications

We should no longer expect the Alien Tort Statute to be the principal federal statute that deters overseas corporate rights violations. That distinction rightly belongs to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, an antibribery statute that rests on undisputed principles of corporate liability, contains a clear congressional statement of extraterritorial application, and routinely collects penalties from multinational corporate defendants. Scholars have not associated the FCPA with human rights, owing principally to a thin understanding of rights theory. But freedom from corruption can and should be understood as a human right, one that is as old as social contract theory but new ...


The New Professional Plaintiffs In Shareholder Litigation, Jessica M. Erickson Jan 2013

The New Professional Plaintiffs In Shareholder Litigation, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

This Article proceeds in three parts. Part I describes the old professional plaintiffs in shareholder litigation, detailing Congress's efforts in the 1990s to eliminate these plaintiffs. Part II describes the new professional plaintiffs in shareholder litigation, combining empirical data with a discussion of illustrative cases. Part III builds on this discussion by proposing a·new conceptual framework to address the problem of professional plaintiffs in corporate litigation.


Is The Quest For Corporate Responsibility A Wild Goose Chase? The Story Of Lovenheim V. Iroquois Brands, Ltd., D. A. Jeremy Telman Jan 2012

Is The Quest For Corporate Responsibility A Wild Goose Chase? The Story Of Lovenheim V. Iroquois Brands, Ltd., D. A. Jeremy Telman

Law Faculty Publications

Peter Lovenheim owned a small stake in Iroquois Brands, Ltd (Iroquois). He proposed that the corporation discontinue its distribution of one product, pâté de foie gras, because he objected to the treatment of the geese necessary to the production of the product. Under federal regulations, Iroquois was required to include such proposals in the proxy materials it sent out in advance of its annual shareholder meeting unless an exception applied. Iroquois Brands thought it could exclude the proposal because the product in question constituted a trivial part of its business. Lovenheim went to the District Court seeking an order requiring ...


Overlitigating Corporate Fraud: An Empirical Examination, Jessica M. Erickson Nov 2011

Overlitigating Corporate Fraud: An Empirical Examination, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Corporate law leaves no stone unturned when it comes to litigating corporate fraud. The legal system has developed a remarkable array of litigation options shareholder derivative suits, securities class actions, SEC enforcement actions, even criminal prosecutions all aimed at preventing the next corporate scandal. Scholars have long assumed that these different lawsuits offer different avenues for deterring the masterminds of corporate fraud yet this assumption has gone untested in the legal literature. This Article aims to fill that gap through the first empirical examination of the broader world of corporate fraud litigation. Analyzing over 700 lawsuits, the study reveals that ...


Corporate Governance In The Courtroom: An Empirical Analysis, Jessica M. Erickson Apr 2010

Corporate Governance In The Courtroom: An Empirical Analysis, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Conventional wisdom is that shareholder derivative suits are dead. Yet this death knell is decidedly premature. The current conception of shareholder derivative suits is based on an empirical record limited to suits filed in Delaware or on behalf of Delaware corporations, leaving suits outside this sphere in the shadows of corporate law scholarship. This Article aims to fill this gap by presenting the first empirical examination of shareholder derivative suits in the federal courts. Using an original, hand-collected data set, my study reveals that shareholder derivative suits are far from dead. Shareholders file more shareholder derivative suits than securities class ...


Business Structures, David G. Epstein Jan 2010

Business Structures, David G. Epstein

Law Faculty Publications

This book covers the life cycle of a business, Bubba's Burritos, from birth to death. We will see how Bubba's Burritos' "life" and legal issues change as the business changes from a sole proprietorship to a partnership, to a corporation, to a limited partnership, to a limited liability company. We will also consider how the life and legal issues of Bubba's Burritos differ from those of a larger, more mature business such as McDonalds. We will look not only at businesses but also at their owners. Generally, people buy a business or an interest in a business ...


Corporate Misconduct And The Perfect Storm Of Shareholder Litigation, Jessica M. Erickson Jan 2008

Corporate Misconduct And The Perfect Storm Of Shareholder Litigation, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

When it comes to combating corporate misconduct, is more litigation necessarily better? The conventional wisdom is that we should deploy every weapon in the law's arsenal to combat corporate misconduct. This wisdom, however, reflects legal scholarship that is confined to analyzing securities class actions and derivative suits in isolation, with little inquiry into the interplay between them. By Jailing to take a broader view of shareholder litigation, legal scholars have missed an opportunity to provide courts with the conceptual tools necessary to meet the complex challenges of complex corporate litigation. In courtrooms and boardrooms across the country, a debate ...


The Business Judgment Rule, Disclosure, And Executive Compensation, D. A. Jeremy Telman Jan 2007

The Business Judgment Rule, Disclosure, And Executive Compensation, D. A. Jeremy Telman

Law Faculty Publications

Despite its ubiquity in corporate law, the business judgment rule remains a doctrinal puzzle. Both courts and scholars offer different understandings of the Rule's role in litigation brought against corporate directors and different justifications for its deployment to insulate such directors from liability for breaches of fiduciary duties. This Article rejects all existing justifications for the Rule and argues that the Rule is no longer needed to protect directors from liability either because the justifications offered never made any sense or because directors are now protected by other, statutory means. Rather, the Rule is needed today not to protect ...


Don't Call Me A Securities Law Groupie: The Rise And Possible Demise Of The Group Pleading Protocol In 10b-5 Cases, William O. Fisher Jan 2001

Don't Call Me A Securities Law Groupie: The Rise And Possible Demise Of The Group Pleading Protocol In 10b-5 Cases, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

Corporations often speak through documents. Some, like press releases, may not identify an author. Others, like 10-Ks, bear the signatures of many who did not write them but sign as required by law. In many cases, groups of individuals, working together, prepare these documents. When such documents contain misstatements, plaintiffs may not know initially who wrote them. To address this difficulty, the U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Ninth and Second Circuits created a judge-made pleading protocol. This protocol permits plaintiffs to name officers, and in some cases directors, as defendants in securities fraud cases without pleading specific facts ...


Revamping Veil Piercing For All Limited Liability Entities: Forcing The Common Law Doctrine Into The Statutory Age, Rebecca J. Huss Jan 2001

Revamping Veil Piercing For All Limited Liability Entities: Forcing The Common Law Doctrine Into The Statutory Age, Rebecca J. Huss

Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The American Corporation In The Twenty-First Century: Future Forms Of Structure And Governance, Azizah Y. Al-Hibri Dec 1997

The American Corporation In The Twenty-First Century: Future Forms Of Structure And Governance, Azizah Y. Al-Hibri

Law Faculty Publications

This article focuses on corporate governance issues as they relate to the new technological developments and the issue of leapfrogging. I examine various theories about the new technologies and the changes in corporate governance that they may necessitate. I then assess and critique these theories in light of historical and other data. I suggest that our very concept of the corporation will be transformed by the Information Age. I also offer my own view as to the optimal forms of corporate governance that can equip American corporations with sufficient tools to win the accelerating competition anticipated for the next century ...


On Being A Muslim Corporate Lawyer, Azizah Y. Al-Hibri Jan 1996

On Being A Muslim Corporate Lawyer, Azizah Y. Al-Hibri

Law Faculty Publications

It appears to me that religion subconsciously informs our individual professional practice and that a non-humanitarian form of secularism has quietly shaped our corporate laws. The attendant dissonance causes severe dissatisfaction, and at times even disfunction, in our society. The claim that our present corporate laws are imbued with a non-humanist secularist perspective deserves closer examination from a religious vantage point. Given our constitutional guarantees, our present legal structure appears to place undue burdens on persons of faith in this country. A more just balance between religious and various forms of secular perspectives is, I submit, a worthy goal for ...


The New Virginia Stock Corporation Act: A Primer, Daniel T. Murphy Jan 1985

The New Virginia Stock Corporation Act: A Primer, Daniel T. Murphy

Law Faculty Publications

During its 1985 session, the Virginia General Assembly enacted a new stock corporation statute for Virginia ("Revised Statute"). The new statute became effective January 1, 1986. The Revised Statute represents a complete revision of the Virginia corporation statute and is the result of a thorough review of prior law. This article will discuss some of the significant changes in Virginia corporate law effected by the Revised Statute and will offer some guidelines for the interpretation and application of its provisions.


Equity Insolvency And The New Model Business Corporation Act, Daniel T. Murphy Jan 1981

Equity Insolvency And The New Model Business Corporation Act, Daniel T. Murphy

Law Faculty Publications

By eliminating earned and capital surplus, the new Model Business Corporation Act may be perceived as providing directors with some additional flexibility regarding distributions to shareholders. As a practical matter however, the statute does not dramatically enlarge the ambit of their discretion. Directors have always had the flexibility to make distributions from both earned or capital surplus. The distributions are still tempered, as they were under the old statute, by the notion of equity solvency. On the other hand, the Comment to new section 45 provides the board of directors with substantial guidance of the proper methodology to use in ...


Incorporation And The Securities Acts, Daniel T. Murphy Oct 1980

Incorporation And The Securities Acts, Daniel T. Murphy

Law Faculty Publications

ATTORNEYS, when advising clients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating a business, must carefully consider the applicability of the securities laws, state and federal, to the venture from its inception. If a business were run as a proprietorship or a general partnership, the principals could dispose of their interests in the business without consideration of the securities laws. The issuance of stock by a corporation to such individuals in exchange for cash or their interests in the business triggers the application of both state and federal securities laws. More importantly, however, the attorney must recognize that these statutes will ...


Redemption Of Stock Under The Model Business Corporations Act And The Virginia Stock Corporation Act, Daniel T. Murphy Jan 1980

Redemption Of Stock Under The Model Business Corporations Act And The Virginia Stock Corporation Act, Daniel T. Murphy

Law Faculty Publications

The Model Business Corporation Act (hereinafter the "Model Act") has been in existence for more than twenty-five years, and has served as the paradigm for the revised corporation statutes of approximately twenty-five states, including Virginia. Despite its age, certain of its provisions have been infrequently applied and interpreted in judicial opinions. One such set of provisions is that dealing with a corporation's right to redeem shares of its stock. The purpose of this article is to analyze the Model Act's provisions regarding the redemption of shares; and to review, in contrast thereto, the relevant provisions of the Virginia ...