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Corporate Restrictions In Mexico And The United States, Dennis Rios Jan 2007

Corporate Restrictions In Mexico And The United States, Dennis Rios

LLM Theses and Essays

Mexico and the United States have had throughout their history very different experiences in their international relations and thus different approaches towards foreign investment. Both Mexican and American corporations looking to invest in each others countries have to face several restrictions in their attempt to conduct business. These restrictions are constantly changing as the needs and circumstances in each country change. The United States throughout most of its history has had for the most part, a very open policy towards foreign investment. Mexico has been throughout most of its history, on the other side, adopting very restrictive measures towards foreign ...


Shareholders' Agreements In Close Corporations And Their Enforcement, Ricardo Molano Leon Jan 2006

Shareholders' Agreements In Close Corporations And Their Enforcement, Ricardo Molano Leon

LLM Theses and Essays

Shareholders’ Agreements are contractual devices to manage tensions among shareholders of a corporation. These agreements have a wide scope related to shareholders’ interest. Nevertheless, before subscribing a shareholder agreement is important to determine the requirements to make it enforceable. This issue has been addressed in the last twenty years by state corporate statutes following the Model Business Corporation Act and the Delaware General Corporation Law and in different court decisions. Today, shareholders’ agreements will be enforced according to the terms defined by the parties unless the agreement injures non-participating shareholders, third parties or is against public policy.


Bankruptcy Reorganization: Legal Dynamics Associated With Economic Discontinuity, Young Rock Noh Jan 2000

Bankruptcy Reorganization: Legal Dynamics Associated With Economic Discontinuity, Young Rock Noh

LLM Theses and Essays

This thesis attempts to discover the factors leading to such failures and to propose a cure. It argues that the basic structure of Chapter 11 of the Code, the debtor in possession structure, is one of the essential factors causing such a high rate of failure. The thesis further asserts that it is possible to reduce the rate of unsuccessful reorganization if the bankruptcy court exercises its power of case management more actively and expeditiously. For example, the court can screen the debtors' filing for relief before the reorganization case proceeds too far. Chapter II of this thesis examines the ...


The Interpretation Of The Remedial Provisions Of The Cisg, Evelina Wilhelmina Innocentia Visser Jan 1998

The Interpretation Of The Remedial Provisions Of The Cisg, Evelina Wilhelmina Innocentia Visser

LLM Theses and Essays

The drafting process of the most successful international uniform law of the last decades, the 1980 United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG) reflected that in order to become a set of "well-balanced subsidiary rules," international uniform must be drafted and implemented carefully. It is essential that an international uniform law is adapted to diverse cultures. The different needs and demands of the varied socio-economic systems and legal structures, perceptions, procedures, and cultures of the distinct legal systems of this world are a main and omnipresent consideration and must be capable of absorbing the unified law. Either ...


Debt Instruments' Tax Treatment In Corporate Mergers And Acquisitions, Tae Oon Jang Jan 1998

Debt Instruments' Tax Treatment In Corporate Mergers And Acquisitions, Tae Oon Jang

LLM Theses and Essays

The increase of merger and acquisition(M&A) activity since 1992 has resulted mainly from a domestic economic recovery. The current M&A trend shows that M&A is still an important means of enhancing many corporations' competitive power and of stimulating growth in such areas as computer software and services, wholesale and distribution, miscellaneous services, banking and finance, and leisure and entertainment. Fundraising for mezzanine-fund financing, which reflects investors' foresight about current and future M&A trends, has also seen rapid growth. After the Tax Reform Act of 1986 and the repeal of the General Utilities doctrine, the elimination ...


Domestic Subsidies Under The Wto Agreement On Subsidies And Countervailing Measures And Their Treatment In Section 771 Of The Tariff Act Of 1930, Cecil Carl-Erich Kramer Jan 1998

Domestic Subsidies Under The Wto Agreement On Subsidies And Countervailing Measures And Their Treatment In Section 771 Of The Tariff Act Of 1930, Cecil Carl-Erich Kramer

LLM Theses and Essays

Governments provide subsidies for a variety of reasons and they are an important tool "to promote important objectives of national policy. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is comprised of industrialized countries, all of which are Members of the OECD Convention also have shown a steady rise in the provision of subsidies. The policy behind the fact that subsidies are addressed in international agreements is that they create a distortion in international trade and that they can quickly and destructively spread from nation to nation. They create a disparity between the actual costs incurred in producing a particular ...


Double Taxation - Treatment Of Corporate Earnings Under American And German Law, Roland Schmidt Jan 1997

Double Taxation - Treatment Of Corporate Earnings Under American And German Law, Roland Schmidt

LLM Theses and Essays

This thesis is going to describe the different ways the United States and Germany deal with the problem of double taxation in the legal context of corporate distributions to its shareholders in the form of dividends. Tax law is particularly one of the areas of laws that are subject to frequent and often substantial changes. This is true for the German as well as for the U.S. tax laws. Since some of the issues being discussed in the United States today in connection with the corporate tax law are similar if not identical to the issues discussed in Germany ...


Oppression Of Minority Shareholders In Close Corporations: The Dissolution And Buy Out Remedies, Alexis Wochenmarkt Jan 1997

Oppression Of Minority Shareholders In Close Corporations: The Dissolution And Buy Out Remedies, Alexis Wochenmarkt

LLM Theses and Essays

To understand the potentially dramatic consequences of oppression in a close corporation it is in the first instance necessary, to outline the specific characteristics of these corporations. This thesis concentrates on the peculiarities of close corporations. Most states enacted "oppression" as a generic ground for remedial action. This study evaluates the different standards emphasizing reasonable expectations. Reasonable expectations if properly limited appears to be an efficient tool to measure oppression. In other jurisdictions, mainly where oppression is not available as a ground for dissolution, courts encountered the needs of close corporations by enhancing the owed fiduciary duties. Thus, in some ...


Fiduciary Duties Of Bidder Directors In The Context Of Tender Offers - Fair Play In A War, Henning Bernd C. Lowe Jan 1996

Fiduciary Duties Of Bidder Directors In The Context Of Tender Offers - Fair Play In A War, Henning Bernd C. Lowe

LLM Theses and Essays

When discussing mergers and acquisitions, most of the focus is given to whether the board of directors of the target company has a right of “self-defense” to stay independent. However, this thesis focuses on the other side of the transaction and seeks to determine whether the bidder in making a tender offer is acting unlawfully. Since a director has unlimited personal liability for a breach of his or her fiduciary duties, the question of whether a takeover-bid can be a breach of a director’s fiduciary duty is of great importance, yet little literature and no case law are devoted ...


Agent’S Knowledge In An Era Of Corporate Restructuring: Imputation, Liability And Protection, Beate Buescher Jan 1996

Agent’S Knowledge In An Era Of Corporate Restructuring: Imputation, Liability And Protection, Beate Buescher

LLM Theses and Essays

Agents of partnerships and corporations often acquire important and secret incoming and outgoing information. Protecting this information becomes especially critical during corporate restructuring. In this paper, the author reviews current agency law, fiduciary duties, liability, and mechanisms utilized by companies to prevent the disclosure of confidential information and discusses the inadequacies of these traditional protections in current business realities. Specific examples of disclosing confidential information and trade secrets are provided. Also, the author critiques both long-term measures, such as improvement of the structural reorganization process and the development of a new business ethic, as well as short-term methods, like the ...


Internal Governance Standards, Suramya Balachandran Jan 1995

Internal Governance Standards, Suramya Balachandran

LLM Theses and Essays

Corporate control has a variety of connotations; it can mean the group of individuals who are regarded as “the control” of a corporation, the office of a corporation, or a fiduciary relationship between the office holder and the corporation. Corporate control transactions are changes in a corporation’s structure motivated by the desire for growth of the corporation, such as setting up new divisions, acquiring or being acquired by another corporation, selling or buying stock, and entering or leaving markets. Control transactions have been a successful business practice since the 1980s. The first part of this thesis analyzes the benefits ...


Fiduciary Duty Of Directors In Takeover Setting, Ladda Woravitlikit Jan 1995

Fiduciary Duty Of Directors In Takeover Setting, Ladda Woravitlikit

LLM Theses and Essays

Often, an outsider will purchase a block of shares in a target corporation and then formally announce an intention to take over the corporation with a tender offer. The motivation and various techniques that can be used to achieve such a takeover are explored in this paper. In this setting, the directors of the target corporation usually reject the outsider’s offer in an effort to keep the corporate entity and their positions. The target’s directors claim the business judgment rule protects their decision. This assertion is reviewed by the author along with other defensive tactics used by the ...


The Relevant Market In European Merger Law, Benedicte Haubold Jan 1995

The Relevant Market In European Merger Law, Benedicte Haubold

LLM Theses and Essays

Due to the rapid acceleration of merger movements in the 1980s, the adoption of new merger regulation was a must for the European market. Before the new merger regulation was adopted in 1989, the European Commission used to apply the general competition rules of the Rome Treaty when dealing with mergers. The Commission used to interpret Articles 85 and 86 of the Rome Treaty as a means to condemn mergers that would lead to an abuse of a dominant position at a European level; at that time, there was an absence of complete and systematic control as far as structural ...


International Arbitration And Procedures To Enforce Awards In The Relationship Between The United States And Germany, Michael Kronenburg Jan 1995

International Arbitration And Procedures To Enforce Awards In The Relationship Between The United States And Germany, Michael Kronenburg

LLM Theses and Essays

Arbitration has long been regarded as a process that combines finality of decision with speed, low expense, and flexibility in solving problems. For these reasons, arbitration is often favored over litigation for dispute resolution. Particularly in international cases, a businessman may avoid litigation in a foreign country for various reasons: he may be unfamiliar with the proceedings; he may be afraid to find a “forum hostile” because of the different legal and cultural background of the judges; and he may wish to avoid the uncertainty concerning the law arising from the contract. Arbitration proceedings have been held constitutional by the ...


Strategic Alliances: Emerging Trends In Future Corporate Business, Naresh Menghraj Gehi Jan 1995

Strategic Alliances: Emerging Trends In Future Corporate Business, Naresh Menghraj Gehi

LLM Theses and Essays

A strategic alliance is an arrangement for economic collaboration between firms at the same level of distribution, involving an exchange of critical skills aimed at buffering the core business strategy, technology, or markets of the partners. Research indicates that the care and thought of the strategic alliance partners increases with the importance of the venture to the strategic objectives of the entity. This paper describes the importance of strategic alliances in today’s competitive world. It examines the benefits of entering into strategic alliances, the legal implications of strategic alliances, and various industries where strategic alliances are dominant. Finally, this ...


Civil Liability For Damage Caused To The Environment By Hazardous Waste: Lessons For The European Union From The Us Experience, Artemis Hatzi-Hull Jan 1995

Civil Liability For Damage Caused To The Environment By Hazardous Waste: Lessons For The European Union From The Us Experience, Artemis Hatzi-Hull

LLM Theses and Essays

As environmental awareness has surged over the last two decades, environmental law has rapidly developed. In both agricultural and industrial countries, the environment is a sensitive and vital area where substantial economic interests are at stake. In the United States, many social, political, and economic reasons have spawned rapid expansion of environmental law. Congress has enacted numerous statutes and empowered federal agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to adopt standards and enforce these new laws. A decade ago, environmental liability was not a major concern for US businesses and was rarely dealt with in commercial contracts. However, the situation ...


Liberalization Of India’S Trade And Investment Policies: Pitfalls And Advantages For U.S. Firms Doing Business In India, Sanjiv Verma Jan 1994

Liberalization Of India’S Trade And Investment Policies: Pitfalls And Advantages For U.S. Firms Doing Business In India, Sanjiv Verma

LLM Theses and Essays

A rich history of trade and commerce ties America to India. This paper examines the contemporary trade issues between America and India, particularly in light of recent economic reforms in India. It inquires into and analyzes the various advantages India can provide for US businesses as a foreign investment destination. Various barriers to trade between these two nations are identified, such as tariff and nontariff barriers, quota restrictions, and infrastructural and social barriers. This paper gives a brief overview of some of the recent economic policy changes in India, suggests legislative and policy improvements required to attract more US investments ...


Legal Implications Of The Virtual Enterprise, Jan Gerhard Werner Jan 1993

Legal Implications Of The Virtual Enterprise, Jan Gerhard Werner

LLM Theses and Essays

With technologies changing so rapidly today, being competitive in the market often requires corporations to form alliances and new types of relationships. One of these relationships is a Virtual Enterprise, which are similar to joint ventures and strategic alliances but are less formal, short lived, and highly flexible. Virtual Enterprises are especially useful when developing or producing computer products, biotechnology, telecommunications, industrial equipment, and consumer electronics. The characteristics of a Virtual Enterprise along with the special problems attorneys face in supporting their development, maintenance, and termination are analyzed in this thesis. Due to the informal and fast change nature of ...


Reinsurance: Bad Faith Considerations And Insolvency Dilemma, Hui-Ju Hsieh Jan 1992

Reinsurance: Bad Faith Considerations And Insolvency Dilemma, Hui-Ju Hsieh

LLM Theses and Essays

Reinsurance is insurance that an insurance company purchases from another insurance company. The original insurance company is called the reinsured, and the insurance company that is contracted is called the reinsurer. The main purpose of reinsurance is to disperse or spread the risk of loss. The reinsurance relationship is frequently characterized as an exercise of fiduciary responsibility based upon an undertaking of utmost good faith between contracting parties. However, disputes arise; most litigation involving reinsurance has been between reinsurers and persons not party to the reinsurance agreement. This paper’s first major area of discussion is the relationship between the ...


Cable Traffic And The First Amendment Must-Carry Under A Diversity Approach And Antitrust As Possible Alternative, Bruno Vandermeulen Jan 1989

Cable Traffic And The First Amendment Must-Carry Under A Diversity Approach And Antitrust As Possible Alternative, Bruno Vandermeulen

LLM Theses and Essays

Recent technological progress in the field of telecommunications has greatly changed the competitive structure between broadcasters, cable operators, and telephone companies. The legal and economic environment for these media participants has shifted, and new problems have arisen. One major problem is the enhanced threat of concentration of media corporations, as corporate bigness becomes desirable and the number of diversified owners of media outlets continues to decrease. This paper analyzes broadcasting regulations and subsequent case law to show the concern by the legislature and regulatory agencies to preserve diversity in opinion and media-ownership through emphasis on “localism” and a “marketplace of ...


Legal Factors In The Acquisition Of A United State Corporation: Litigation By Hostile Targets, Johan E. Droogmans Jan 1987

Legal Factors In The Acquisition Of A United State Corporation: Litigation By Hostile Targets, Johan E. Droogmans

LLM Theses and Essays

Acquisitions of United States corporations have become increasingly complex takeover contests, where bidders and target corporations are forced into offensive and defensive litigation strategies to protect their respective interests. Targets often assert that the bidders have violated federal or state securities laws, federal antitrust laws, federal margin regulations, federal and state regulatory systems, and federal anti-racketeering laws. These lawsuits are primarily based on the principal federal regulation of takeovers in section 14(a) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 and the Williams Act. Target litigation is customary, but entails certain disadvantages; a lawsuit rarely stops an offer, is ...


The Role Of Efficiency Justifications In U.S.-American And West German Merger Control Law: A Comparison, Christian Westerhausen Jan 1986

The Role Of Efficiency Justifications In U.S.-American And West German Merger Control Law: A Comparison, Christian Westerhausen

LLM Theses and Essays

When merger control laws first emerged in the United States and West Germany in the early 1900s, some businessmen and economists argued that the efficiency of businesses was impeded by antimerger laws. They contended that only very large businesses could realize significant efficiencies, be internationally competitive, and attain technological progress. This paper analyzes the role that these efficiency arguments had on the laws in West Germany and the United States, respectively. German law mainly upheld the idea that preservation of competition was most important for business efficiency, but also included a provision that firms could put forward the social desirability ...


Small High Technology Companies And Public Policy: A Legal Analysis, Werner W. Mielke Jan 1984

Small High Technology Companies And Public Policy: A Legal Analysis, Werner W. Mielke

LLM Theses and Essays

This study analyzes the legal side of the public policy regarding high technology companies. It examines the role of small high technology firms in the national economy. The needs and problems of these firms are analyzed and categorized in order to have an analytical framework in which to examine their relationship with the prevailing legal environment. Finally, on the basis of selected laws and regulations, legal barriers and disincentives and the way to reduce them are examined as well as legal provisions intended to provide incentives and assistance.