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Is Free Trade "Free?" Is It Even "Trade?" Oppression And Consent In Hemispheric Trade Agreements, Frank J. Garcia Oct 2011

Is Free Trade "Free?" Is It Even "Trade?" Oppression And Consent In Hemispheric Trade Agreements, Frank J. Garcia

Frank J. Garcia

In order for free trade as a policy to deliver fully on its social promise, it must be both “free” and “trade.” In fact, it must be free, in the sense of voluntary, to be trade at all. In other words, for normative and practical reasons, free trade requires that global economic relations be structured through agreements which reflect the consent of those subject to them. The neoliberal trading system today only imperfectly lives up to this obligation. In this essay, I will examine the role of consent in trade agreements, drawing on examples from CAFTA as representative of important ...


The ‘Fair’ Trade Law Of Nations, Or A ‘Fair’ Global Law Of Economic Relations?, Frank J. Garcia Oct 2011

The ‘Fair’ Trade Law Of Nations, Or A ‘Fair’ Global Law Of Economic Relations?, Frank J. Garcia

Frank J. Garcia

No abstract provided.


The Moral Hazard Problem In Global Economic Regulation, Frank J. Garcia Oct 2011

The Moral Hazard Problem In Global Economic Regulation, Frank J. Garcia

Frank J. Garcia

Global regulation of international business transactions presents a particular form of the moral hazard problem. Global firms use economic and political power to manipulate state and state-controlled multilateral regulation to preserve their opportunity to externalize the social costs of global economic activity with impunity. Unless other actors can effectively counter this at the national and global regulatory levels, globalization re-creates the conditions for under-regulated or “robber baron” capitalism at the global level. This model of economic activity has been rejected at the national level by the same modern democratic capitalist states which currently dominate globalization, creating a crisis of legitimacy ...


Save The Economy: Break Up The Big Banks And Shape Up The Regulators, Charles W. Murdock Oct 2011

Save The Economy: Break Up The Big Banks And Shape Up The Regulators, Charles W. Murdock

Charles W. Murdock

Save the Economy: Break Up the Big Banks and Shape Up the Regulators

The U.S. economy is still reeling from the financial crisis that exploded in the fall of 2008. This article asserts that the big banks were major culprits in causing the crisis, by funding the non-bank lenders that created the toxic mortgages which the big banks securitized and sold to unwary investors. Paradoxically, banks which were then too big to fail are even larger today.

The article briefly reviews the history of banking from the Founding Fathers to the deregulatory mindset that has been present since 1980 ...


Eliminating Wall Street's Safety Net: How A Systemic Risk Premium Can Solve "Too Big To Fail", Jason Rudderman Aug 2011

Eliminating Wall Street's Safety Net: How A Systemic Risk Premium Can Solve "Too Big To Fail", Jason Rudderman

Jason Rudderman

Eliminating Wall Street’s Safety Net: How a Systemic Risk Premium Can Solve “Too Big to Fail” The financial crisis of 2007 – 2009 sent the United States and the global economy into its worst recession since the great depression. Large, interconnected financial and non-financial institutions were at the center of the financial crisis. The institutions highly leveraged positions during the crisis led the government to take extreme measures, including bailing out some of these “too big to fail,” but failing institutions. The crisis led the United States Congress to pass the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank ...


The Case Against The Dodd-Frank Act’S Living Wills: Contingency Planning Following The Financial Crisis, Nizan Geslevich Packin Aug 2011

The Case Against The Dodd-Frank Act’S Living Wills: Contingency Planning Following The Financial Crisis, Nizan Geslevich Packin

Nizan Geslevich Packin

The Dodd-Frank Act’s “living will” requirement mandates that systemically important financial institutions develop wide-ranging strategic analyses of their business affairs, and submit comprehensive contingency plans for reorganization or resolution of their operations to regulators. The goal is to mitigate risks to the financial stability of the US and encourage last-resort planning, which will allow for a rapid and efficient response in the event of an emergency. Beyond the general framework set forth in the Dodd-Frank Act, very little is known about living wills; no legal literature currently exists on what the concept entails, and regulators have not yet created ...


Cisg Article 6 And Issues Of Formation: The Problem Of Circularity, Jack M. Graves Jul 2011

Cisg Article 6 And Issues Of Formation: The Problem Of Circularity, Jack M. Graves

Jack Graves

CISG Article 6 broadly allows parties to exclude the application of the CISG or derogate from its provisions. The application of Article 6 is relatively straightforward when addressing the rights and obligations of the parties, but encounters a challenge of circularity when addressing issues of contract formation. How can the parties agree to exclude or derogate from the application of the CISG if it is not yet clear whether they have agreed to anything at all? This article explores this narrow, but important question. Can the parties effectively exclude the application of the CISG or derogate from its provisions (i ...


The Shareholders' Role To Foster Corporate Governance In Bangladesh : A Suggestive Review, Dr. Zahid Rafique Zr Jun 2011

The Shareholders' Role To Foster Corporate Governance In Bangladesh : A Suggestive Review, Dr. Zahid Rafique Zr

Dr. Zahid Rafique ZR

Abstract This paper unveils the issues on shareholders’ activism to secure the desirable corporate governance in Bangladesh .The focal point is the motive and the nature of shareholders in company dealings. Factually, the prime agenda as observed of the shareholders to get profit affects the activities of a company and in Bangladesh, corruption has a curious link with shareholders some of whom thinks of dividend only irrespective of transparency and accountability. The dominating and controlling thought obsesses some shareholders who fear the disclosure and the losing of control over company they have set up. This creates rational apathy into the ...


Demystifying The Determination Of Foreign Law In U.S. Courts: Opening The Door To A Greater Global Understanding, Matthew J. Wilson Jun 2011

Demystifying The Determination Of Foreign Law In U.S. Courts: Opening The Door To A Greater Global Understanding, Matthew J. Wilson

Matthew J. Wilson

With globalization and the proliferation of international commercial interaction, U.S. courts commonly encounter issues governed by the laws of other sovereigns. These encounters arise by virtue of private agreements or choice-of-law rules covering contractual relationships, cross-border conduct, tortuous acts, employment matters, intellectual property rights, and various other legal foundations. Because the substantive law applied in an international lawsuit can be outcome-determinative, it is important to accurately ascertain and determine the relevant law. In fact, the proper functioning of private international law in a domestic system is based on the appropriate application of law.

U.S. federal and state courts ...


No More Abuse: The Dodd-Frank And Consumer Financial Protection Act's "Abusive" Standard, Tiffany S. Lee May 2011

No More Abuse: The Dodd-Frank And Consumer Financial Protection Act's "Abusive" Standard, Tiffany S. Lee

Tiffany S Lee

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act creates the new Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. This consumer watchdog will be responsible for the most powerful consumer protections in American history. Under section 1031(d) of the Act, the Bureau may ban acts and practices that are unfair, deceptive, or abusive. While the unfair and deceptive standards have existed for some time, “abusive” is a relatively new legal standard with limited jurisprudential history. Thus, ironically, critics assert that the inclusion of the abusive standard is itself an abuse of legislative power. This Article asserts that despite some criticism ...


The Interplay Between U.S. Statutory Rights And Public Policy Under The Faa And New York Convention In International Disputes, Daniel Schwarz Apr 2011

The Interplay Between U.S. Statutory Rights And Public Policy Under The Faa And New York Convention In International Disputes, Daniel Schwarz

Daniel M. Schwarz

The “prospective waiver” doctrine allows U.S. courts to invalidate or sever arbitration clauses in otherwise valid agreements to arbitrate where arbitrating under foreign law would prevent a U.S. party from seeking relief under a U.S. statute. The loss of this opportunity is said to affront U.S. public policy. This paper acknowledges that courts’ application of this idea has resulted in the need for a more fundamental revisiting of the question of whose law should be “mandatory” in international arbitration. But more specifically, this paper proposes appropriate sets of factors for pre-arbitration courts, arbitrators, and post-arbitration enforcement ...


Course Of Performance As Evidence Of Intent Or Waiver: A Meaningful Preference For The Latter And Implications For Newly Broadened Use Under Revised U.C.C. Section 1-303, Jack Graves Mar 2011

Course Of Performance As Evidence Of Intent Or Waiver: A Meaningful Preference For The Latter And Implications For Newly Broadened Use Under Revised U.C.C. Section 1-303, Jack Graves

Jack Graves

No abstract provided.


The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection Act: What Caused The Financial Crisis And Will Dodd-Frank Succeed In Preventing Future Crises?, Charles W. Murdock Feb 2011

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection Act: What Caused The Financial Crisis And Will Dodd-Frank Succeed In Preventing Future Crises?, Charles W. Murdock

Charles W. Murdock

Summary: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act: What Caused the Financial Crisis and Will Dodd-Frank Succeed in Preventing Future Crises?

We are still experiencing the devastating impact of the financial crisis which came to a head on September 18, 2008 when Secretary Paulson told Congressional leaders that “[u]nless you act, the financial system of this country and the world will melt down in a matter of days.”

To prevent future crises of this magnitude, last year Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. However, this year, legislation has already been introduced to ...


Allowing Dual Status For Purchase-Money Security Interests In Consumer-Goods Transactions, Richard Nowka Feb 2011

Allowing Dual Status For Purchase-Money Security Interests In Consumer-Goods Transactions, Richard Nowka

Richard H. Nowka

This article advocates that courts should allow a purchase-money security interest in consumer goods to have dual status—part purchase-money and part nonpurchase-money—after the parties refinance the purchase-money obligation or after the secured party makes a future advance. Courts have struggled with this issue since the enactment of Article 9 because the definition of purchase-money security interest (U.C.C. 9-103) arguably permits a court to apply dual status or to hold that a refinancing or future advance “transforms” the purchase-money security interest into a nonpurchase-money security interest. Although Revised Article 9 adopts the dual status rule, a compromise ...


Financial Crises In The United States And The European Union: Policy Responses, Successes And Failures And The Need For Further, Cross-National Reform, Jason Rudderman Feb 2011

Financial Crises In The United States And The European Union: Policy Responses, Successes And Failures And The Need For Further, Cross-National Reform, Jason Rudderman

Jason Rudderman

This paper examines the causes of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 and explores the major financial reforms in the United States and the EU, offers comparisons of the legislation and recommends changes to the legislations that are aimed at minimizing the burden on taxpayers, and balancing the necessary intervention of governments in financial markets and the economy with capitalistic ideals. The lack of government oversight, predatory lending practices, and an overall environment of deregulation leading up to the financial crisis ultimately led to its collapse in late 2008. In response to the collapse of the global financial system, the ...


The Legal Aspects Of Non-Financial Market Central Counterparties (Ccp): A Case Comment On Iata V. Ansett, Christian Chamorro-Courtland Jan 2011

The Legal Aspects Of Non-Financial Market Central Counterparties (Ccp): A Case Comment On Iata V. Ansett, Christian Chamorro-Courtland

Christian Chamorro-Courtland

International Air Transportation Association (IATA) v. Ansett (2008) was decided correctly by the High Court of Australia. However, the reasoning of the judges was unsound due to their apparent unfamiliarity with the operation of Central Counterparty (CCP) systems. The judges failed to recognize that ‘open offer’ was the mechanism of counterparty substitution used in the IATA clearing rules to create mutuality and guarantee multilateral insolvency set-off. This article analyses the Ansett decision and describes the legal principles that should have been used to decide the case. Only financial market CCPs receive special statutory protections from burdensome corporate insolvency laws. Therefore ...


Mortgage Modification, Equitable Subordination, And The Honest But Unfortunate Creditor, Juliet Moringiello Dec 2010

Mortgage Modification, Equitable Subordination, And The Honest But Unfortunate Creditor, Juliet Moringiello

Juliet M Moringiello

Mortgage foreclosures are at an all-time high and property values in many parts of the country have declined precipitously. Yet bankruptcy, which is often a last resort for individuals in financial distress, provides little relief to a homeowner who finds that her mortgage debt exceeds the value of her home. The reason for bankruptcy’s inadequacy in this regard is the Bankruptcy Code’s prohibition on the modification of home mortgages, a prohibition that became part of bankruptcy law in 1978, when most home mortgage loans were 30-year fixed rate loans made by savings and loan associations. While most secured ...


The Convention On International Interests In Mobile Equipment (Cape Town Convention), Steven Harris Dec 2010

The Convention On International Interests In Mobile Equipment (Cape Town Convention), Steven Harris

Steven L. Harris

No abstract provided.


Sailing A Sea Of Doubt: A Critique Of The Rule Of Reason In U.S. Antitrust Law, Jesse W. Markham Jr. Dec 2010

Sailing A Sea Of Doubt: A Critique Of The Rule Of Reason In U.S. Antitrust Law, Jesse W. Markham Jr.

Jesse Markham

The purpose of the article is to offer a critique of the rule of reason, tracing its disintegration from its original articulation 100 years ago in Standard Oil Co. v. United States, 221 U.S. 1, 60 (1911). The article then describes a construct for restoring transparency and content to the rule of reason. The rule of reason is the default standard for assessing restraints under the Sherman Act. The role for the rule of reason has expanded in recent years as the Supreme Court has reversed a number of per se rules, thus relegating additional categories of restraints to ...


Will Green Building Contracts Transform Construction And Design Law?, Carl J. Circo Dec 2010

Will Green Building Contracts Transform Construction And Design Law?, Carl J. Circo

Carl J. Circo

The sustainable construction movement may eventually transform construction law and practice. Alternatively, sustainability in the built environment may simply be absorbed into the existing fabric of construction contracting. Using the lens of design and construction law theory, this article examines selected project structures and contract provisions being used or proposed in the design and construction industry to allocate the special risks associated with green building standards and objectives. Green building contracts will inevitably reflect industry practices derived from theories of liability and risk allocation that have dominated construction and design law for decades. But established practices and legal theories do ...


Teaching Transactional Skills In Partnership With The Bar, Carl J. Circo Dec 2010

Teaching Transactional Skills In Partnership With The Bar, Carl J. Circo

Carl J. Circo

For several years, business and transactional lawyers have increased the pressure on law schools to produce more practice-ready graduates. This article explores the practical skills reform movement with two goals in mind. First, it seeks to articulate and reconcile some of the fundamental differences in the perspectives of the practicing bar and the legal academy. Second, it highlights the special challenges and opportunities involved in making legal education more effective for students who will practice business and transactional law. In addition to reviewing recent literature from the bar and the academy on the practical skills gap, the article also reports ...


Justice, Employment, And The Psychological Contract, Larry Dimatteo, Robert Bird, Jason Colquitt Dec 2010

Justice, Employment, And The Psychological Contract, Larry Dimatteo, Robert Bird, Jason Colquitt

Larry A DiMatteo

The paper is a multidisciplinary collaboration between contract law, employment law and management scholars and draws from the fields of law, management, and psychology. After reviewing and noting the gaps in the employment and justice literatures, this paper presents the findings of a survey of 763 participants to measure whether certain variables—procedural and substantive fairness, as well as educating employees on the principle of employment at will—impact the propensities of employees to retaliate and litigate at the time of discharge.

The survey results are significant and striking. We find statistically significant reductions in retaliation and litigation rates when ...


Comparative Efficiency In Internatonal Sales Law, Larry A. Dimatteo, Daniel Ostas Dec 2010

Comparative Efficiency In Internatonal Sales Law, Larry A. Dimatteo, Daniel Ostas

Larry A DiMatteo

The article employs the method of the economic analysis of law (EAL) in a comparative context. In particular, it assesses the efficiency of select provisions of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The CISG is the law of the United States and over 70 other countries. It reflects a culmination of a century-old process of failed attempts to achieve an international sales law. The drafting process involved intense negotiation and compromise between representatives of the common and civil law legal traditions. As a result, the CISG provides in an interesting amalgam of civil ...


Revelation And Reaction: The Struggle To Shape American Arbitration, Thomas J. Stipanowich Dec 2010

Revelation And Reaction: The Struggle To Shape American Arbitration, Thomas J. Stipanowich

Thomas J. Stipanowich

In this article, Professor Stipanowich explores recent decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court and the implications for the respective domains of courts of law and arbitration tribunals regarding so-called “gateway” determinations surrounding the enforcement of arbitration agreements and the contracts of which they are a part. The decisions address the complex interplay between federal substantive law focusing on questions of arbitrability, a body of law defined and expanded by the Court under the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), and the law of the states and bring into play competing judicial philosophies of contractual assent and contrasting views about the balance ...


The Third Arbitration Trilogy: Stolt-Nielsen, Rent-A-Center, Concepcion And The Future Of American Arbitration, Thomas J. Stipanowich Dec 2010

The Third Arbitration Trilogy: Stolt-Nielsen, Rent-A-Center, Concepcion And The Future Of American Arbitration, Thomas J. Stipanowich

Thomas J. Stipanowich

For the third time in the modern era, a triad of key Supreme Court decisions represents a milestone in American arbitration. In this highly controversial “Third Arbitration Trilogy,” the U.S. Supreme Court aggressively expands the “revealed” penumbra of substantive arbitration law under the Federal Arbitration Act and shores up the bulwarks of private, binding dispute resolution under standardized contracts of adhesion binding employees and consumers. In Stolt-Nielsen S.A. v. AnimalFeeds International, 130 S. Ct. 1758 (2010), the Court, against the backdrop of an international commercial contract scheme and a unique procedural scenario, draws upon the wellspring of divined ...


The Corporation As Imperfect Society, Brian M. Mccall Dec 2010

The Corporation As Imperfect Society, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

Corporations are ubiquitous in modern society. They pervade every aspect of our life, consumer, professional, investment activity. Probably, people have more contact with corporations on a daily basis than any other institution, including government. From the South Sea Bubble to the Stock market Crash of 1929 to Enron to General Motors and Countrywide Mortgage, corporate scandals and controversies invite fundamental questions about corporate law. This article attempts to bring a fresh perspective to the question: “what is a corporation and how should the law treat it?” The article articulates a corporate metaphysics rooted in political philosophy. The dominant models of ...


International Jurisdictional Competition Under Globalization: From The U.S. Regulation Of Foreign Private Issuers To Taiwan’S Restrictions On Outward Investment In Mainland China, Chang-Hsien Tsai Dec 2010

International Jurisdictional Competition Under Globalization: From The U.S. Regulation Of Foreign Private Issuers To Taiwan’S Restrictions On Outward Investment In Mainland China, Chang-Hsien Tsai

Chang-hsien (Robert) TSAI

Drawing a lesson from the story that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act drives away foreign issuers and then their physical exit provokes a change in the U.S. regulation of non-U.S. issuers, this article takes as another case study the phenomenon that Taiwanese firms list shares overseas, to further test how usual law market demand and supply forces (or underlying exit and voice rights) interplay under international jurisdictional competition. Put simply, both cases of the U.S. and Taiwan significantly elaborate that law market forces underlying international jurisdictional competition are similarly at work even on both sides of the Pacific Ocean ...


Construction Defects: Are They “Occurrences”?, Chris French Dec 2010

Construction Defects: Are They “Occurrences”?, Chris French

Christopher C. French

An issue in the area of insurance law that has been litigated frequently in recent years is whether construction defects are “occurrences” under Commercial General Liability (“CGL”) insurance policies. The courts have been divided in deciding the issue and in their approaches to analyzing the issue. This article addresses how the issue should be analyzed and concludes that construction defects are “occurrences”.

The relevant rules of insurance policy interpretation dictate that construction defects are “occurrences”. Policy language should be interpreted in such a way as to fulfill the reasonable expectations of the policyholder when the policy is construed as a ...