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Full-Text Articles in Law

Sex-Segregation, Economic Opportunity, And Roberts V. U.S. Jaycees, Elizabeth Sepper May 2020

Sex-Segregation, Economic Opportunity, And Roberts V. U.S. Jaycees, Elizabeth Sepper

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Epistemic Function Of Fusing Equal Protection And Due Process, Deborah Hellman May 2020

The Epistemic Function Of Fusing Equal Protection And Due Process, Deborah Hellman

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The fusion of equal protection and due process has attracted significant attention with scholars offering varied accounts of its purpose and function. Some see the combination as productive, creating a constitutional violation that neither clause would generate alone. Others see the combination as merely strategic, offered to make a claim acceptable at a particular historical moment but not genuinely necessary. This Article offers a third alternative. Judges have and should bring both equal protection and due process together to learn what each clause independently requires. On this Epistemic vision of constitutional fusion, a focus on equality helps judges learn what ...


Four Responses To Constitutional Overlap, Michael Coenen May 2020

Four Responses To Constitutional Overlap, Michael Coenen

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Sometimes government action implicates more than one constitutional right. For example, a prohibition on religious expression might be said to violate both the Free Speech Clause and the Free Exercise Clause, a rule regarding same-sex marriage might be said to violate both equal protection and substantive due process, an exercise of the eminent domain power might be said to violate both procedural due process and the Takings Clause, a disproportionate criminal sentence based on judge-found facts might be said to violate both the defendant’s right to trial by jury and that defendant’s right against cruel and unusual punishment ...


A Reparative Justice Approach To Assessing Ancestral Classifications Aimed At Colonization’S Harms, Susan K. Serrano Dec 2018

A Reparative Justice Approach To Assessing Ancestral Classifications Aimed At Colonization’S Harms, Susan K. Serrano

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Civil Rights Notes: American Indians And Banishment, Jury Trials, And The Doctrine Of Lenity, Grant Christensen Dec 2018

Civil Rights Notes: American Indians And Banishment, Jury Trials, And The Doctrine Of Lenity, Grant Christensen

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Father Of Modern Constitutional Liberalism, John Lawrence Hill Dec 2018

The Father Of Modern Constitutional Liberalism, John Lawrence Hill

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The New Jim Crow’S Equal Protection Potential, Katherine Macfarlane Oct 2018

The New Jim Crow’S Equal Protection Potential, Katherine Macfarlane

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

In 1954, the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education opinion relied on social science research to overturn Plessy v. Ferguson’s separate but equal doctrine. Since Brown, social science research has been considered by the Court in cases involving equal protection challenges to grand jury selection, death penalty sentences, and affirmative action. In 2016, Justice Sotomayor cited an influential piece of social science research, Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, in her powerful Utah v. Strieff dissent. Sotomayor contended that the Court’s holding overlooked the unequal racial impact of ...


The Lawfulness Of The Same-Sex Marriage Decisions: Charles Black On Obergefell, Toni M. Massaro Oct 2016

The Lawfulness Of The Same-Sex Marriage Decisions: Charles Black On Obergefell, Toni M. Massaro

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Trouble With Racial Quotas In Disparate Impact Remedial Orders, Wencong Fa Jun 2016

The Trouble With Racial Quotas In Disparate Impact Remedial Orders, Wencong Fa

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Justice Scalia’s concurring opinion in Ricci v. DeStefano highlighted severe conceptual tensions between the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which protects individuals from racial discrimination, and disparate impact liability, which protects racial groups from adverse effects. Last year’s Supreme Court decision in Texas Department of Housing & Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project, Inc. suggested that disparate impact liability under the Fair Housing Act was constitutionally unproblematic because successful fair housing lawsuits over the past four decades have led to only race-neutral remedial orders enjoining the practice causing the disparate impact.

This Article analyzes the constitutionality of ...


Orange Is The New Equal Protection Violation: How Evidence-Based Sentencing Harms Male Offenders, Shaina D. Massie Dec 2015

Orange Is The New Equal Protection Violation: How Evidence-Based Sentencing Harms Male Offenders, Shaina D. Massie

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Incorporation, Total Incorporation, And Nothing But Incorporation?, Christopher R. Green Oct 2015

Incorporation, Total Incorporation, And Nothing But Incorporation?, Christopher R. Green

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Kurt T. Lash’s The Fourteenth Amendment and the Privileges and Immunities of American Citizenship (2014) defends the view that the Fourteenth Amendment’s “privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States” cover only rights enumerated elsewhere in the Constitution. My own book, however, Equal Citizenship, Civil Rights, and the Constitution: The Original Sense of the Privileges or Immunities Clause (2015), reads the Clause to guarantee equality broadly among similarly situated citizens of the United States. Incorporation of an enumerated right into the Fourteenth Amendment requires, I say, national consensus such that an outlier state’s invasion of the ...


Habeas Corpus Petitions In Federal And Tribal Courts: A Search For Individualized Justice, Carrie E. Garrow Oct 2015

Habeas Corpus Petitions In Federal And Tribal Courts: A Search For Individualized Justice, Carrie E. Garrow

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Good Faith Discrimination, Girardeau A. Spann Apr 2015

Good Faith Discrimination, Girardeau A. Spann

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The Supreme Court’s current doctrinal rules governing racial discrimination and affirmative action are unsatisfying. They often seem artificial, internally inconsistent, and even conceptually incoherent. Despite a long and continuing history of racial discrimination in the United States, many of the problems with the Supreme Court’s racial jurisprudence stem from the Court’s willingness to view the current distribution of societal resources as establishing a colorblind, race-neutral baseline that can be used to make equality determinations. As a result, the current rules are as likely to facilitate racial discrimination as to prevent it, or to remedy the lingering effects ...


Unmuting The Volume: Fisher, Affirmative Action Jurisprudence, And The Legacy Of Racial Silence, Mae Kuykendall, Charles Adside Iii May 2014

Unmuting The Volume: Fisher, Affirmative Action Jurisprudence, And The Legacy Of Racial Silence, Mae Kuykendall, Charles Adside Iii

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

As typified by its recent decisions in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin and Shelby County v. Holder, the Supreme Court’s jurisprudence concerning race has long imposed strict judicial oversight over any use of race for the formulation of public policy. This top-down approach has invited various undesirable outcomes, the most pernicious of which are the endorsement of silence on the subject of race and the delegitimizing of most public deliberations about race by non-Court actors. Consequently, speech within universities and other learning environments regarding race has become a psychologically challenging risk for both students and faculty, who ...


Shaping California's Prisons: How The Alternative Custody Program, Designed To Remedy The State's Eighth Amendment Violations In The Prison System, Encroaches On Equal Protection, Emilie A. Whitehurst Nov 2012

Shaping California's Prisons: How The Alternative Custody Program, Designed To Remedy The State's Eighth Amendment Violations In The Prison System, Encroaches On Equal Protection, Emilie A. Whitehurst

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Embryo Fundamentalism, June Carbone, Naomi Cahn May 2010

Embryo Fundamentalism, June Carbone, Naomi Cahn

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Setting The Boundaries Of The Census Clause: Normitive And Legal Concerns Regarding The American Community Survey, Carrie Pixler May 2010

Setting The Boundaries Of The Census Clause: Normitive And Legal Concerns Regarding The American Community Survey, Carrie Pixler

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Discriminatory Acquittal, Tania Tetlow Oct 2009

Discriminatory Acquittal, Tania Tetlow

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This article is the first to analyze a pervasive and unexplored constitutional problem: the rights of crime victims against unconstitutional discrimination by juries. From the Emmett Till trial to that of Rodney King, there is a long history of juries acquitting white defendants charged with violence against black victims. Modem empirical evidence continues to show a devaluation of black victims; dramatic disparities exist in death sentence and rape conviction rates according to the race of the victim. Moreover, just as juries have permitted violence against those who allegedly violated the racial order, juries use acquittals to punish female victims of ...


How The Diversity Rationale Lays The Groundwork For New Discrimination: Examining The Trajectory Of Equal Protection Doctrine, Michael A. Helfand Mar 2009

How The Diversity Rationale Lays The Groundwork For New Discrimination: Examining The Trajectory Of Equal Protection Doctrine, Michael A. Helfand

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Article advocates differentiating between two distinct categories of equal protection cases. The first-what I have termed indicator cases-are instances where courts consider whether there are sufficient factual indications to demonstrate the existence of aprimafacie equal protection violation. The second-violation casesare instances where courts consider, having already determined the existence of an equal protection violation, whether there is a good enough justification for a prima facie equal protection violation. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court has not differentiated between these two different types of cases. This has led to a string of decisions where the Supreme Court has erroneously looked for justifications ...


A Welfare State Of Civil Rights: The Triumph Of The Therapeutic In American Constitutional Law, Daniel F. Piar Mar 2008

A Welfare State Of Civil Rights: The Triumph Of The Therapeutic In American Constitutional Law, Daniel F. Piar

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Article examines the influence of the therapeutic culture on the modem constitutional law of civil rights. The therapeutic culture is defined as one in which the central moral question is individual fulfillment. That culture has sprung up to replace older cultures such as Protestantism and classical republicanism, which are no longer capable of appealing to a nation as diverse as the United States. Instead of asking whether individuals or the nation conform to some external moral system, the therapeutic culture asks whether individuals are happy or fulfilled. This Article demonstrates that the therapeutic culture has had a significant effect ...


Anti-Zionism As Racism: Campus Anti-Semitism And The Civil Rights Act Of 1964, Kenneth L. Marcus Feb 2007

Anti-Zionism As Racism: Campus Anti-Semitism And The Civil Rights Act Of 1964, Kenneth L. Marcus

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Contradiction Between Equal Protection's Meaning And Its Legal Substance: How Deliberate Indifference Can Cure It, Derek W. Black Dec 2006

The Contradiction Between Equal Protection's Meaning And Its Legal Substance: How Deliberate Indifference Can Cure It, Derek W. Black

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Article highlights the inherent ambiguities of racial antidiscrimination's core legal language: "equal protection under the law" and "discrimination based on race." It then analyzes how and why the Court has never answered fundamental questions regarding the meaning of these terms. Thus, this Article answers these fundamental questions itself by exploring the original intent behind the Equal Protection Clause. Against this backdrop, this Article reveals how the Court's standard for assessing discrimination claims, the intent doctrine, assumes a meaning for equal protection that is inconsistent with its original meaning. Rather than reflecting equal protection's meaning, the standard ...


Majority Rights, Minority Freedoms: Protestant Culture, Personal Autonomy, And Civil Liberties In Nineteenth Century America, Daniel F. Piar Feb 2006

Majority Rights, Minority Freedoms: Protestant Culture, Personal Autonomy, And Civil Liberties In Nineteenth Century America, Daniel F. Piar

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Prison Privatization And The Development Of A "Good Faith" Defense For Private-Party Defendents To 42 U.S.C. § 1983 Actions, Mark N. Ohrenberger Feb 2005

Prison Privatization And The Development Of A "Good Faith" Defense For Private-Party Defendents To 42 U.S.C. § 1983 Actions, Mark N. Ohrenberger

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Civil Rights And Civil Liberties: Whose "Rule Of Law"?, William W. Van Alstyne Feb 2003

Civil Rights And Civil Liberties: Whose "Rule Of Law"?, William W. Van Alstyne

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


You Can't Ask (Or Say) That: The First Amendment And Civil Rights Restrictions On Decisionmaker Speech, Helen Norton Feb 2003

You Can't Ask (Or Say) That: The First Amendment And Civil Rights Restrictions On Decisionmaker Speech, Helen Norton

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Federal, state, and local civil rights laws regulate private decisionmaking about whom an employer may hire or fire, to whom a landlord may rent an apartment, or to whom a creditor may extend credit. In prohibiting discriminatory conduct, however, these laws also limit the speech of those making these decisions. In this Article, Professor Norton explores how we might think about these civil rights laws in the context of the First Amendment, and their place within the Supreme Court's commercial speech jurisprudence. She concludes that the speech restricted by these laws may be characterized as falling outside the protection ...


Shrinking Domain Of Individious Intent, K.G. Jan Pillai Apr 2001

Shrinking Domain Of Individious Intent, K.G. Jan Pillai

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The landmark case of Washington v. Davis made invidious intent the touchstone of violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In this Article, Professor K G. Jan Pillai discusses the current state of the doctrine of invidious intent and its evolving role in Supreme Court jurisprudence. In the area of criminal law enforcement, strict application of the doctrine often produces harsh results. Among the existing three-tiered scrutiny standards, the doctrine appears out of place. In recent racial gerrymandering cases, the Supreme Court substantively modified the meaning of the doctrine. Despite the apparent instability of the doctrine, Professor Pillai concludes the solution ...


Introduction To Perspectives On Constitutional Exemptions To Civil Rights Laws: Boy Scouts Of America V. Dale, Bryson J. Hunter Apr 2001

Introduction To Perspectives On Constitutional Exemptions To Civil Rights Laws: Boy Scouts Of America V. Dale, Bryson J. Hunter

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Transcript Of Speech On American Atheists' Position On Religion In The Public Schools, Ellen Johnson Feb 2001

Transcript Of Speech On American Atheists' Position On Religion In The Public Schools, Ellen Johnson

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Religious discussion in American public schools is one of the more controversial issues in modern education. Ellen Johnson not only explains the American Atheists 'position on the issue, but also presents observations from the often-ignored Atheist perspective. Johnson's remarks serve to remind us that there are other views on the subject besides the popular opinions concerning accommodation and access to school facilities.


The Absolution Of Reynolds: The Constitutionality Of Religious Polygamy, Todd M. Gillett Feb 2000

The Absolution Of Reynolds: The Constitutionality Of Religious Polygamy, Todd M. Gillett

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The ancient practice of polygamy became prevalent in parts of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, when the Mormon Church canonized the doctrine of polygamy and encouraged its practice among its members. Today, there are nearly 40, 000 polygamists in the United States, mostly living in Utah. The Supreme Court has ruled on polygamy several times in decisions and dicta, each time finding it to be unconstitutional within the United States. In Reynolds v. United States, a 1878 decision upholding a statute that criminalized polygamy, the Court introduced the belief/action distinction that controls religious First Amendment doctrine today ...