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Notre Dame Law Review

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Internet Safe Harbors And The Transformation Of Copyright Law, Matthew Sag Jan 2018

Internet Safe Harbors And The Transformation Of Copyright Law, Matthew Sag

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article explores the potential displacement of substantive copyright law in the increasingly important online environment. In 1998, Congress enacted a system of intermediary safe harbors as part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The internet safe harbors and the associated system of notice-and-takedown fundamentally changed the incentives of platforms, users, and rightsholders in relation to claims of copyright infringement. These different incentives interact to yield a functional balance of copyright online that diverges markedly from the experience of copyright law in traditional media environments. More recently, private agreements between rightsholders and large commercial internet platforms have been made ...


Active Judging And Access To Justice, Anna E. Carpenter Jan 2018

Active Judging And Access To Justice, Anna E. Carpenter

Notre Dame Law Review

“Being a good judge in this environment means unlearning what you learned in law school about what a judge is supposed to do. Fairness is doing things a federal judge would never do.”

Active judging, where judges step away from the traditional, passive role to assist those without counsel, is a central feature of recent proposals aimed at solving the pro se crisis in America’s state civil courts. Despite growing support for active judging as an access to justice intervention, we know little, empirically, about how judges interact with pro se parties as a general matter, and even less ...


Convicting With Reasonable Doubt: An Evidentiary Theory Of Criminal Law, Doron Teichman Jan 2018

Convicting With Reasonable Doubt: An Evidentiary Theory Of Criminal Law, Doron Teichman

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article presents an evidentiary theory of substantive criminal law according to which sanctions are distributed in proportion to the strength of the evidence mounted against the defendant. It highlights the potential advantages associated with grading penalties in proportion to the probability of wrongdoing and situates this claim within both consequentialist and deontological theories of punishment. Building on this analysis, the Article reviews the doctrinal tools used to achieve the goal of evidentiary grading of sanctions and shows that key factors in criminal law are geared towards dealing with evidentiary uncertainty. Finally, the Article explores the underlying logic of the ...


Precedent And Preclusion, Alan M. Trammell Jan 2018

Precedent And Preclusion, Alan M. Trammell

Notre Dame Law Review

Preclusion rules prevent parties from revisiting matters that they have already litigated. A corollary of that principle is that preclusion usually does not apply to nonparties, who have not yet benefited from their own “day in court.” But precedent works the other way around. Binding precedent applies to litigants in a future case, even those who never had an opportunity to participate in the precedent-creating lawsuit. The doctrines once operated in distinct spheres, but today they often govern the same questions and apply under the same circumstances, yet to achieve opposite ends. Why, then, does due process promise someone a ...


The Nondelegation Doctrine: Alive And Well, Jason Iuliano, Keith E. Whittington Jan 2018

The Nondelegation Doctrine: Alive And Well, Jason Iuliano, Keith E. Whittington

Notre Dame Law Review

The nondelegation doctrine is dead. It is difficult to think of a more frequently repeated or widely accepted legal conclusion. For generations, scholars have maintained that the doctrine was cast aside by the New Deal Court and is now nothing more than a historical curiosity. In this Article, we argue that the conventional wisdom is mistaken in an important respect.

Drawing on an original dataset of more than one thousand nondelegation challenges, we find that, although the doctrine has disappeared at the federal level, it has thrived at the state level. In fact, in the decades since the New Deal ...


Trademarks And Private Environmental Governance, David E. Adelman, Graeme W. Austin Jan 2018

Trademarks And Private Environmental Governance, David E. Adelman, Graeme W. Austin

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article examines the relationship between private environmental governance and trademark law. Over the past two decades, green trademarks and other forms of private governance have flourished in tandem with the retreat from national and international public law modalities of environmental regulation. The rising political opposition to environmental regulation partly accounts for this change. Also relevant is the rise of globalization, which due to jurisdictional and trade constraints has diminished the effective regulatory control countries have over products sold in their markets.

Private environmental governance is premised on consumers “voting with their wallets” by selecting products that reflect not just ...


Structural Change In State Postconviction Review, Lee Kovarsky Jan 2018

Structural Change In State Postconviction Review, Lee Kovarsky

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article's ultimate objectives are to diagnose, predict, and evaluate structural change in State PCR. Because claims and evidence necessary to enforce constitutional rights increasingly require a meaningful collateral forum, and because the federal collateral forum is so limited, State PCR is, for lack of a better term, the Last Man Standing. That status is not lost on the Supreme Court and lower federal judges, who are adapting available legal rules to try to improve the efficacy of collateral process in state court. And such adaptation does add to the bite of criminal-process rights, the underenforcement of which is ...


Disciplining Deference: Strengthening The Role Of The Federal Courts In The National Security Realm, Dominic X. Barceleau Jan 2018

Disciplining Deference: Strengthening The Role Of The Federal Courts In The National Security Realm, Dominic X. Barceleau

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will argue that federal courts need to be more “disciplined” in their deference determinations in order to effectively check the Executive’s power. Part I will look at the Constitution and its allocation of foreign relations powers for evidence of the appropriate amount of deference that ought to be shown by the judiciary. While the text of the Constitution is largely silent on this question, Part I will show that this silence does not exclude a role for the judiciary in foreign affairs. Part II will proceed to discuss several important Supreme Court decisions that have helped to ...


Michigan's Religious Exemption For Faith-Based Adoption Agencies: State-Sanctioned Discrimination Or Guardian Of Religious Liberty?, Allison L. Mcqueen Jan 2018

Michigan's Religious Exemption For Faith-Based Adoption Agencies: State-Sanctioned Discrimination Or Guardian Of Religious Liberty?, Allison L. Mcqueen

Notre Dame Law Review

Historically, most of the legal obstacles faced by gay couples hoping to expand their families through adoption stemmed from prohibitions on marriage. That was until Obergefell. Barriers to same-sex adoption have been steadily falling over the past decade, and, in the wake of the Supreme Court’s decision, married couples are now able to adopt in every state. However, there remains one pressing barrier to adoption for same-sex couples: “conscience clause” adoption laws enacted to allow faith-based adoption agencies to turn away prospective parents whose sexuality conflicts with their “sincerely held religious beliefs.” Though Ms. DeBoer and Ms. Rowse successfully ...


Valuing Residual Goodwill After Trademark Forfeiture, Jake Linford Jan 2018

Valuing Residual Goodwill After Trademark Forfeiture, Jake Linford

Notre Dame Law Review

Trademarks contribute to an efficient market by helping consumers find products they like from sources they trust. This information-transmission function of trademarks can be upset if the law fails to reflect both how trademark owners communicate through marks and how consumers understand and use them. But many of trademark law’s forfeiture mechanisms (the ways a trademark can lose protection) ignore or discount consumer perception. This failure threatens not only to increase consumer search costs and consumer confusion, but also to distort markets.

For example, trademark protection may be forfeited when the mark owner interrupts or abandons use, even though ...


The Privatized American Family, Maxine Eichner Nov 2017

The Privatized American Family, Maxine Eichner

Notre Dame Law Review

Part I of this Article describes the privatized-family model that dominates U.S. law and policy today, as well as the negative effects this model is having in the contemporary United States. Part II turns to U.S. history, investigating the national conversation regarding the appropriate relationship among the government-market-family triad. As historian Robert Self put it, competing narratives of the place of families are “deeply etched in competing narratives of national identity,” and are fundamental to our social contract. Part II first considers the narratives that supported the rise of the twentieth-century welfare state, which regulated the market to ...


Kingsley Breathes New Life Into Substantive Due Process As A Check On Abuse Of Government Power, Rosalie Berger Levinson Nov 2017

Kingsley Breathes New Life Into Substantive Due Process As A Check On Abuse Of Government Power, Rosalie Berger Levinson

Notre Dame Law Review

Part I of this Article briefly summarizes the origin and judicial development of substantive due process, focusing on the lead cases that have led appellate courts to narrowly construe the substantive due process guarantee. Part II discusses the Kingsley opinion, both the majority’s analysis and the dissent’s objection to the use of an objective reasonableness test. Part III suggests how Kingsley can be used by litigators seeking to protect pretrial detainees, not only from excessive force, but also from an official’s failure to protect or failure to care for the medical and other needs of pretrial detainees ...


Advocating A Carryover Tax Basis Regime, Richard Schmalbeck, Jay A. Soled, Kathleen Delaney Thomas Nov 2017

Advocating A Carryover Tax Basis Regime, Richard Schmalbeck, Jay A. Soled, Kathleen Delaney Thomas

Notre Dame Law Review

For close to a century, an important (but unfortunate) feature of the Internal Revenue Code has been a rule that the tax basis of any inherited asset is made equal to its fair market value at the time of the decedent’s death. Notwithstanding the substantial revenue losses associated with this rule, Congress has retained it for reasons of administrative convenience.

But from three different vantage points, pressure has been mounting to change what is commonly referred to as the “step-up in basis rule.” First, politicians and commentators have historically tied the step-up in basis rule to the estate tax ...


Honest Copying Practices, Joseph P. Fishman Nov 2017

Honest Copying Practices, Joseph P. Fishman

Notre Dame Law Review

One of intellectual property theory’s operating assumptions is that creating is hard while copying is easy. But it is not always so. Copies, though outwardly identical, can come from different processes, from cheap digital duplication to laborious handmade re-creation. Policymakers around the world face a choice whether such distinctions should affect liability. The two branches of intellectual property that condition liability on actual copying, copyright and trade secrecy, give different answers. Both in the United States and elsewhere, trade secrecy regimes distinguish between copying methods deemed illegitimate and those deemed legitimate, what international treaties call “honest commercial practices.” Copyright ...


Courting Disaster: Climate Change And The Adjudication Of Catastrophe, R. Henry Weaver, Douglas A. Kysar Nov 2017

Courting Disaster: Climate Change And The Adjudication Of Catastrophe, R. Henry Weaver, Douglas A. Kysar

Notre Dame Law Review

Do we court disaster by stretching the bounds of judicial authority to address problems of massive scale and complexity? Or does disaster lie in refusing to engage the jurisgenerative potential of courts in a domain of such vast significance? This Article examines global climate change adjudication to shed light on these questions, focusing particularly on cases that seek to invoke the norm articulation and enforcement functions of courts. The attempt to configure climate-related harms within such substantive frameworks as tort and constitutional law is fraught with analytical and practical difficulties. Yet the exercise, we argue, is essential. Against the backdrop ...


An Avoidable Conundrum: How American Indian Legislation Unnecessarily Forces Tribal Governments To Choose Between Cultural Preservation And Women's Vindication, Catherine M. Redlingshafer Nov 2017

An Avoidable Conundrum: How American Indian Legislation Unnecessarily Forces Tribal Governments To Choose Between Cultural Preservation And Women's Vindication, Catherine M. Redlingshafer

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note makes two arguments concerning the state of American Indian legislation, and then proposes an alternative. First, this Note argues that the recently enacted legislation regarding criminal justice in American Indian societies will work to encourage cultural assimilation and result in the loss of tribal traditions and autonomy. In effect, the legislation is putting tribes in an impossible position: it is unfairly coercing them to choose between (1) the preservation of their own culture and customs, and (2) the ability to prosecute those victimizing their members. Second, this Note argues that even if a tribe decides to risk its ...


(Un)Common Law Protection Of Certification Marks, Michelle B. Smit Nov 2017

(Un)Common Law Protection Of Certification Marks, Michelle B. Smit

Notre Dame Law Review

Part I of this Note defines and examines the general principles of certification marks. From that foundation, Part II provides an overview of the case law on unregistered common law certification marks. Part III analyzes the reasons why abuses of certification marks would increase under a commonlaw regime and posits that certification marks, therefore, should only exist under federal law. Finally, Part IV proposes several adjustments that should be made to the current certification mark registration system in order to address existing shortcomings that affect both consumers and third-party businesses.


Fashion's Function In Intellectual Property Law, Christopher Buccafusco, Jeanne C. Fromer Nov 2017

Fashion's Function In Intellectual Property Law, Christopher Buccafusco, Jeanne C. Fromer

Notre Dame Law Review

Clothing designs can be beautiful. But they are also functional. Fashion’s dual nature sits uneasily in intellectual property law, and its treatment by copyright, trademark, and design patent laws has often been perplexing. Much of this difficulty arises from an unclear understanding of the nature of functionality in fashion design. This Article proposes a robust account of fashion’s function. It argues that aspects of garment designs are functional not only when they affect the physical or technological performance of a garment but also when they affect the perception of the wearer’s body. Generally, clothes are not designed ...


Flint Of Outrage, Toni M. Massaro, Ellen Elizabeth Brooks Nov 2017

Flint Of Outrage, Toni M. Massaro, Ellen Elizabeth Brooks

Notre Dame Law Review

Officials replaced safe water sources with contaminated water sources for tens of thousands of people living in Flint, Michigan, from April 2014 to October 2015. Overwhelming evidence indicates that the officials knew the water was potentially harmful to residents’ health and property. This unfathomable disregard for the residents of Flint sparked national outrage and prompted criminal charges as well as multiple civil suits.

Residents’ civil claims included two strands of substantive due process: that the actions infringed residents’ fundamental liberty rights to bodily integrity and to state protection from harmful acts by third parties, and that the government actions “shocked ...


In Defense Of The Fee Simple, Katrina M. Wyman Nov 2017

In Defense Of The Fee Simple, Katrina M. Wyman

Notre Dame Law Review

Prominent economically oriented legal academics are currently arguing that the fee simple, the dominant form of private landownership in the United States, is an inefficient way for society to allocate land. They maintain that the fee simple blocks transfers of land to higher value uses because it provides property owners with a perpetual monopoly. The critics propose that landownership be reformulated to enable private actors to forcibly purchase land from other private owners, similar to the way that governments can expropriate land for public uses using eminent domain. While recognizing the significance of the critique, this Article takes issue with ...


Justice Scalia And Class Actions: A Loving Critique, Brian T. Fitzpatrick Jul 2017

Justice Scalia And Class Actions: A Loving Critique, Brian T. Fitzpatrick

Notre Dame Law Review

I am not sure any other Justice of the Supreme Court in American history has done more to hinder the class action lawsuit than Justice Scalia did. Under the auspices of the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), the Justice authored two majority opinions giving a green light to corporations that want to opt out of class-wide liability entirely so long as they do so using arbitration contracts. It is very hard to square these opinions with either the text or the history of the FAA.

In Part I of this Essay, I review the Justice’s class action opinions; I give ...


Reviewability And The "Law Of Rules": An Essay In Honor Of Justice Scalia, Adrian Vermeule Jul 2017

Reviewability And The "Law Of Rules": An Essay In Honor Of Justice Scalia, Adrian Vermeule

Notre Dame Law Review

Justice Scalia developed a consistent approach to questions of reviewability: roughly, the idea that “general programs” and “general policies” are to be excluded from judicial review, and even general and legally binding agency rules may or may not be reviewable before enforcement. On this approach, the proper business of courts is to review specific applications of agency rules to particular parties.


The More? Uniform Code Of Military Justice (And A Practical Way To Make It Better), Sean Patrick Flynn Jul 2017

The More? Uniform Code Of Military Justice (And A Practical Way To Make It Better), Sean Patrick Flynn

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note offers suggestions for the successful transition of the military sentencing system, in light of the responses to the federal sentencing system. It goes on to argue that ,because sentencing guidelines are detrimental to the defendant, the military sentencing process should offer a guaranteed, but waivable, two days of preparation to the defendant post-conviction and presentencing.


Compensatory Damages Are Not For Everyone: Section 1997e(E) Of The Prison Litigation Reform Act And The Overlooked Amendment, Eleanor M. Levine Jul 2017

Compensatory Damages Are Not For Everyone: Section 1997e(E) Of The Prison Litigation Reform Act And The Overlooked Amendment, Eleanor M. Levine

Notre Dame Law Review

Since the 2013 Amendment was passed, courts have continued to split regarding how to interpret § 1997e(e), but they have failed to consider whether the 2013 Amendment alters the meaning or clarifies Congress’s intentions with respect to § 1997e(e). This Note argues that the 2013 Amendment changes the plain meaning of § 1997e(e) such that it could lead to different outcomes in cases on both sides of the circuit split, ultimately concluding that it shows Congress intended the more restrictive interpretive approach to prevail. This Note further illustrates how the 2013 Amendment fails to adhere to the goals of ...


Keynote Address: Two Challenges For The Judge As Umpire: Statutory Ambiguity And Constitutional Exceptions, Brett M. Kavanaugh Jul 2017

Keynote Address: Two Challenges For The Judge As Umpire: Statutory Ambiguity And Constitutional Exceptions, Brett M. Kavanaugh

Notre Dame Law Review

Justice Scalia believed in the rule of law as a law of rules. He wanted judges to be umpires, which ordinarily entails judges applying a settled legal principle to a particular set of facts. I agree with that vision of the judiciary. But there are two major impediments in current jurisprudence to achieving that vision of the judge as umpire. The first is the ambiguity trigger in statutory interpretation. The second is the amorphous tests employed in cases involving claimed constitutional exceptions. We should identify and study these issues. Inspired by Justice Scalia’s longstanding efforts to improve the law ...


Justice Scalia's Unfinished Business In Statutory Interpretation: Where Textualism's Formalism Gave Up, Abbe R. Gluck Jul 2017

Justice Scalia's Unfinished Business In Statutory Interpretation: Where Textualism's Formalism Gave Up, Abbe R. Gluck

Notre Dame Law Review

Justice Scalia, in the end, was no interpretive formalist. He would not be pleased to hear this claim, but the fact is that formalism has not succeeded in statutory interpretation, and in fact, the textualism that Justice Scalia deserves so much credit for creating never really embraced formalism at all.

Textualism lacks all the conditions necessary for formalism. It does not have a defined set of predictable rules ordered to ensure objective application. Instead, we have more than one hundred interpretive presumptions—the presumptions favored by textualists—with no defined method of choosing among them. These doctrines of the field ...


Justice Scalia, Implied Rights Of Action, And Historical Practice, Anthony J. Bellia Jr. Jul 2017

Justice Scalia, Implied Rights Of Action, And Historical Practice, Anthony J. Bellia Jr.

Notre Dame Law Review

This Essay examines a specific area that Justice Scalia influenced through the methods of interpretation that he applied—namely, the question of “implied rights of action.”

The idea that federal courts historically applied common law causes of action to remedy federal statutory violations without congressional authorization is a myth. From the first, federal courts heard only those causes of action that Congress had authorized them to hear. And there is reason to think that early federal courts would not have been understood to have power to define their own causes of action had Congress not provided this authorization from the ...


Justice Scalia And Sherman Act Textualism, Alan J. Meese Jul 2017

Justice Scalia And Sherman Act Textualism, Alan J. Meese

Notre Dame Law Review

This Essay offers a defense of Justice Scalia’s approach to the Sherman Act.


Originalism And Stare Decisis, Amy Coney Barrett Jul 2017

Originalism And Stare Decisis, Amy Coney Barrett

Notre Dame Law Review

The question whether stare decisis is compatible with originalism has occupied both originalists and their critics. In this Essay, I explore what light Justice Scalia’s approach to precedent casts on that question. I argue that while he did treat stare decisis as a pragmatic exception to originalism, that exception was not nearly so gaping as his “fainthearted” quip suggests. In fact, a survey of his opinions regarding precedent suggests new lines of inquiry for originalists grappling with the role of stare decisis in constitutional adjudication.


Beyond The Text: Justice Scalia's Originalism In Practice, Michael D. Ramsey Jul 2017

Beyond The Text: Justice Scalia's Originalism In Practice, Michael D. Ramsey

Notre Dame Law Review

This Essay considers the late Justice Antonin Scalia’s contributions to constitutional originalism as a practical methodology. Justice Scalia was the leading judicial theorist and advocate of originalism of his era, and his legacy has widely been assessed in those terms. He was also, along with Justice Clarence Thomas, the leading judicial practitioner of originalism of his era. This latter role has received less comprehensive attention. Although there are of course countless articles analyzing and critiquing his originalist methodology in particular cases, or seeking to demonstrate that certain of his opinions are inconsistent with his theoretical commitments, relatively few articles ...