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Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

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Unmarked? Criminal Record Clearing And Employment Outcomes, Jeffrey Selbin, Justin Mccrary, Joshua Epstein Jan 2018

Unmarked? Criminal Record Clearing And Employment Outcomes, Jeffrey Selbin, Justin Mccrary, Joshua Epstein

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

An estimated one in three American adults has a criminal record. While some records are for serious offenses, most are for arrests or relatively lowlevel misdemeanors. In an era of heightened security concerns, easily available data, and increased criminal background checks, these records act as a substantial barrier to gainful employment and other opportunities. Harvard sociologist Devah Pager describes people with criminal records as “marked” with a negative job credential. In response to this problem, lawyers have launched unmarking programs to help people take advantage of legal record clearing remedies. We studied a random sample of participants in one such ...


Technological Incarceration And The End Of The Prison Crisis, Mirko Bagaric, Dan Hunter, Gabrielle Wolf Jan 2018

Technological Incarceration And The End Of The Prison Crisis, Mirko Bagaric, Dan Hunter, Gabrielle Wolf

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The United States imprisons more of its people than any nation on Earth, and by a considerable margin. Criminals attract little empathy and have no political capital. Consequently, it is not surprising that, over the past forty years, there have been no concerted or unified efforts to stem the rapid increase in incarceration levels in the United States. Nevertheless, there has recently been a growing realization that even the world’s biggest economy cannot readily sustain the $80 billion annual cost of imprisoning more than two million of its citizens. No principled, wide-ranging solution has yet been advanced, however. To ...


Now You See Me: Problems And Strategies For Introducing Gender Self-Determination Into The Eighth Amendment For Gender Nonconforming Prisoners, Lizzie Bright Jan 2018

Now You See Me: Problems And Strategies For Introducing Gender Self-Determination Into The Eighth Amendment For Gender Nonconforming Prisoners, Lizzie Bright

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

As the fight for transgender rights becomes more visible in the United States, the plight of incarcerated transgender individuals seeking medical care behind bars is likewise gaining attention—and some trans prisoners are gaining access to gender-affirming care. However, progress for incarcerated members of the trans community has been slow, piecemeal, and not without problems. As federal court opinions in Eighth Amendment access-to-care cases brought by trans prisoners show, how a court interprets the subjective intent requirements of the Eighth Amendment and how the imprisoned plaintiff pleads his/her/their case can make or break the claim. Further, courts and ...


The Fourth Amendment In The Age Of Persistent Aerial Surveillance, John Pavletic Jan 2018

The Fourth Amendment In The Age Of Persistent Aerial Surveillance, John Pavletic

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

If Big Brother made movies, persistent aerial surveillance would be its masterpiece. Small airplanes are rigged with high-tech cameras that can continuously transmit real-time images to the ground. The aircraft is able to monitor an area of thirty square miles for ten hours at a time. This technology allows video analysts to zoom in and track the location of vehicles, and even people. It was originally designed for military use during the Iraq War, but since then, it has been adapted for civilian applications. In 2016, the Baltimore Police Department contracted with Persistent Surveillance Systems to carry out a trial ...


A More Just System Of Juvenile Justice: Creating A New Standard Of Accountability For Juveniles In Illinois, Brooke Troutman Jan 2018

A More Just System Of Juvenile Justice: Creating A New Standard Of Accountability For Juveniles In Illinois, Brooke Troutman

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

For over a century, America’s legal system has made substantial reforms to change its treatment of adolescents. Every day, we see that our legal system treats adolescents differently from their adult counterparts. With regards to driving privileges, voting rights, and the ability to drink, our laws recognize that adults and adolescents are different and therefore require a different set of standards. America extended this treatment to the realm of juvenile justice in 1899, when Cook County, Illinois, created the country’s first juvenile court. Originating in this court was the overarching purpose of America’s juvenile justice system—rehabilitation ...


Kassouf-The Sixth Circuit's Misguided Attempt To Rein In The Irs, Brian Valcarce Jan 2018

Kassouf-The Sixth Circuit's Misguided Attempt To Rein In The Irs, Brian Valcarce

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The omnibus clause of 26 U.S.C. § 7212(a) is a catch-all provision that broadly punishes people who corruptly endeavor to obstruct administration of the Internal Revenue Code. The Sixth Circuit, in United States v. Kassouf, improperly limited conviction under the omnibus clause to cases where the defendant had knowledge of a pending IRS investigation (a nexus test). The Sixth Circuit is the only circuit today applying this rule, with most others expressly or impliedly rejecting it. Even though the Sixth Circuit is an outlier in applying a nexus test, there has been pervasive discussion of the issue recently ...


The Thin Blue Line From Crime To Punishment, Alice Ristroph Jan 2018

The Thin Blue Line From Crime To Punishment, Alice Ristroph

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Criminal law scholarship is marked by a sharp fault line separating substantive criminal law from criminal procedure. Philosophical work focuses almost exclusively on the substantive side of that line, addressing adjudicative procedure (the trial process) rarely and investigative procedure (especially police conduct) almost never. Instead, criminal law theorists devote substantial attention to just two questions: what conduct should be criminal, and why is punishment justified? This essay argues that criminal law theory cannot adequately address these favored subjects—the definition of crime and the justification of punishment—without also addressing the enforcement mechanisms that link crimes to punishments. Specifically, philosophers ...


Employment Discrimination On The Basis Of Criminal History: Why An Anti-Discrimination Statute Is A Necessary Remedy, Elizabeth Westrope Jan 2018

Employment Discrimination On The Basis Of Criminal History: Why An Anti-Discrimination Statute Is A Necessary Remedy, Elizabeth Westrope

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The harms of mass incarceration do not end when an individual is released from prison. Instead, criminal records haunt approximately 70 million people throughout the United States today. Criminal histories follow persons convicted of crimes for the rest of their lives, creating collateral consequences that make it difficult for these individuals to get back on their feet and re-integrate into society. Gaining employment is one of the most crucial steps for returning citizens to take in order to regain stability in their lives. Yet, it remains one of the biggest obstacles. Employers are often wary of hiring persons with criminal ...


The Republican Party, Conservatives, And The Future Of Capital Punishment, Ben Jones Jan 2018

The Republican Party, Conservatives, And The Future Of Capital Punishment, Ben Jones

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The United States has experienced a significant decline in the death penalty during the first part of the twenty-first century, as death sentences, executions, public support, and states with capital punishment all have declined. Many recent reforms banning or placing a moratorium on executions have occurred in blue states, in line with the notion that ending the death penalty is a progressive cause. Challenging this narrative, however, is the emergence of Republican lawmakers as champions of death penalty repeal legislation in red states. This Article puts these efforts by Republican lawmakers into historical context and explains the conservative case against ...


The Effects Of Body-Worn Cameras On Police Activity And Police-Citizen Encounters: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Anthony A. Braga, William H. Sousa, James R. Coldren, Jr., Denise Rodriguez Jan 2018

The Effects Of Body-Worn Cameras On Police Activity And Police-Citizen Encounters: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Anthony A. Braga, William H. Sousa, James R. Coldren, Jr., Denise Rodriguez

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Many have suggested that placing body-worn cameras (BWCs) on police officers improves the civility of police-citizen encounters and enhances citizen perceptions of police transparency and legitimacy. In response, many police departments have adopted this technology to address public concerns over the quality of policing in their communities. The existing program evaluation evidence on the intended and unintended consequences of outfitting police officers with BWCs is still developing, however. This study reports the findings of a randomized controlled trial involving more than 400 police officers in Las Vegas, Nevada. We find that officers equipped with body-worn cameras generated fewer complaints and ...


Parental Prisoners: The Incarcerated Mother's Constitutional Right To Parent, Emily Halter Jan 2018

Parental Prisoners: The Incarcerated Mother's Constitutional Right To Parent, Emily Halter

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The United States prison population has grown at alarming and unprecedented rates in recent decades, with certain states imprisoning more individuals than entire countries. Recently, the number of incarcerated women has climbed faster than that of men. The high rate of female incarceration has devastating effects on society, as many women are mothers and primary caregivers. Furthermore, every year, a number of mothers give birth in prison. When this happens, the mother’s family and loved ones are often not permitted to be present. The mother gives birth in a room with only medical personnel and prison guards. She then ...


Reduced Culpability Without Reduced Punishment: A Case For Why Lead Poisoning Should Be Considered A Mitigating Factor In Criminal Sentencing, Eleanor Kittilstad Jan 2018

Reduced Culpability Without Reduced Punishment: A Case For Why Lead Poisoning Should Be Considered A Mitigating Factor In Criminal Sentencing, Eleanor Kittilstad

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The water crisis in Flint, Michigan, where residents discovered dangerous levels of lead in their water supply in 2015, has continued to unfold over the past three years and has brought the damaging effects of lead exposure to national attention. When developing children are exposed to even low levels of lead, they are at risk of developing cognitive impairments—disorders that cause aggressive behavior and diminished intellectual functioning. This Comment seeks to bring criminal law into the conversation about lead exposure and its damaging effects. Researchers have found that children exposed to lead have a higher risk of engaging in ...


Not Yet Gone, And Not Yet Forgotten: The Reasonableness Of Continued Mandatory Detention Of Noncitizens Without A Bond Hearing, Miriam Peguero Medrano Jan 2018

Not Yet Gone, And Not Yet Forgotten: The Reasonableness Of Continued Mandatory Detention Of Noncitizens Without A Bond Hearing, Miriam Peguero Medrano

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Section 1226(c) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) authorizes the mandatory detention, without the possibility of bond, of noncitizens convicted of certain qualifying offenses for the duration of their removal proceedings. Congress enacted the mandatory detention statute because it was concerned that noncitizens who are convicted of crimes will further engage in criminal activity and fail to appear for their removal hearings. To ensure noncitizens are not deprived of their constitutional right to due process, federal courts have construed § 1226(c) to contain an implicit time limitation against unreasonably prolonged detention. These courts have adopted ...


Virtual Shackles: Electronic Surveillance And The Adultification Of Juvenile Courts, Chaz Arnett Jan 2018

Virtual Shackles: Electronic Surveillance And The Adultification Of Juvenile Courts, Chaz Arnett

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

In recent years, there has been a groundswell of attention directed at problems within the American criminal justice system, led in part by Michelle Alexander’s groundbreaking book, The New Jim Crow, and most recently through the efforts of the Black Lives Matter movement. This increased focus on the harms of over-incarceration and net-widening, has had the benefit of introducing to the public other practices utilized in the criminal justice system, such as the widespread use of ankle monitors to track the location of defendants and released offenders. Yet, despite this greater attention, legal scholarship has only recently begun to ...


A Broken Windows Theory Of Sexual Assault Enforcement, Erin Sheley Jan 2018

A Broken Windows Theory Of Sexual Assault Enforcement, Erin Sheley

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The law of sexual assault is in conflict. Jurisdictions struggle with the conceptual shift from thinking of rape as forcible sex to a broader understanding that turns on the meaning of consent. Due to resource, evidentiary, and reporting problems there is a mismatch between the new substantive understanding of sexual assault and its actual enforcement. This has led to something of a cultural war by survivors and many women generally against the idea of “rape culture,” which runs the risk of categorizing all sexualized or gendered speech and much of male behavior as implicitly rape-supportive. This article proposes that lessons ...


The Regulatory Challenge Of Public Corruption, Lauren M. Ouziel Jan 2018

The Regulatory Challenge Of Public Corruption, Lauren M. Ouziel

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


The Local-Control Model Of The Fourth Amendment, Michael J. Zydney Mannheimer Jan 2018

The Local-Control Model Of The Fourth Amendment, Michael J. Zydney Mannheimer

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Fourth Amendment doctrine has been home to two competing models: the Warrant Model and the Reasonableness Model. The Warrant Model, emphasizing the Amendment’s Warrant Clause, holds that search and arrest via warrant is the preferred method and the default rule, though allowing for exceptions when obtaining a warrant is impracticable. The Reasonableness Model, which stresses the Amendment’s Reasonableness Clause, holds that the Amendment imposes a generalized reasonableness standard on searches and seizures by which the question is not whether dispensing with a warrant is reasonable but whether the search or seizure itself is reasonable. These polar positions have ...


Congress Blewett By Not Explicitly Making The Fair Sentencing Act Of 2010 Retroactive, Andrew Cockroft Jan 2017

Congress Blewett By Not Explicitly Making The Fair Sentencing Act Of 2010 Retroactive, Andrew Cockroft

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

In 2013, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals was the first Circuit Court to retroactively apply the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010. The Fair Sentencing Act sought to end the discriminatory effects of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 and its treatment of one gram of crack cocaine as the equivalent to one hundred grams of powder cocaine. The Fair Sentencing Act was meant to remedy the injustices brought about by the infamous 100:1 ratio in crack-cocaine and powder cocaine minimum sentencing. Despite this purpose, the Fair Sentencing Act does not contain language that explicitly and unequivocally requires that ...


Let Them Frye: Frye Hearings For Determination Of "Mental Disorders" In The Sexually Violent Persons Act, Hannah Henkel Jan 2017

Let Them Frye: Frye Hearings For Determination Of "Mental Disorders" In The Sexually Violent Persons Act, Hannah Henkel

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Specific laws aimed at the confinement of mentally disabled sexually violent persons have existed for years. Originally, these laws aimed to rehabilitate a person within a mental hospital and help him with his disorders, aiming to help him enter back into society. However, throughout the years, the laws morphed into ways to keep convicted criminals from society after their prison sentence ended for fear of potential future crimes. In Illinois, the courts find a man falls within the sexually violent persons law when he remains too dangerous to be released after his criminal confinement. A person must have a “mental ...


Revisiting The Public Safety Exception To Miranda For Suspected Terrorists: Dzhokhar Tsarnaev And The Bombing Of The 2013 Boston Marathon, Hannah Lonky Jan 2017

Revisiting The Public Safety Exception To Miranda For Suspected Terrorists: Dzhokhar Tsarnaev And The Bombing Of The 2013 Boston Marathon, Hannah Lonky

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This Comment examines the application of the public safety exception to Miranda to cases of domestic terrorism, looking particularly at the case of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. By comparing the Department of Justice’s War on Terror policies to the Warren Court’s rationale for Miranda, this Comment argues that courts should require law enforcement officers to have reasonable knowledge of an immediate threat to public safety before they may properly invoke the Quarles public safety exception.


A Means To An Element: The Supreme Court's Modified Categorical Approach After Mathis V. United States, Michael Mcgivney Jan 2017

A Means To An Element: The Supreme Court's Modified Categorical Approach After Mathis V. United States, Michael Mcgivney

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


A Right To Know How You'll Die: A First Amendment Challenge To State Secrecy Statutes Regarding Lethal Injection Drugs, Kelly A. Mennemeier Jan 2017

A Right To Know How You'll Die: A First Amendment Challenge To State Secrecy Statutes Regarding Lethal Injection Drugs, Kelly A. Mennemeier

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

In the years since 2008, when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a commonly used lethal injection protocol in Baze v. Rees, states have shifted away from the approved protocol and turned towards new drugs, drug protocols, and drug sources to carry out state-sponsored executions by lethal injection. Even as states have shifted to new, untested protocols and less-regulated sources than they used in pre-Baze years, state legislatures have enacted and amended secrecy statutes that hide information about the drug protocols and sources of lethal injection drugs from the press, the public, and condemned prisoners. Meanwhile, a number ...


What Happens After The Right To Counsel Ends? Using Technology To Assist Petitioners In State Post-Conviction Petitions And Federal Habeas Review, Margaret Smilowitz Jan 2017

What Happens After The Right To Counsel Ends? Using Technology To Assist Petitioners In State Post-Conviction Petitions And Federal Habeas Review, Margaret Smilowitz

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


The Law Of Abolition, Kevin M. Barry Jan 2017

The Law Of Abolition, Kevin M. Barry

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Three themes have characterized death penalty abolition throughout the Western world: a sustained period of de facto abolition; an understanding of those in government that the death penalty implicates human rights; and a willingness of those in government to defy popular support for the death penalty. The first two themes are present in the U.S.; what remains is for the U.S. Supreme Court to manifest a willingness to act against the weight of public opinion and to live up to history’s demands.

When the Supreme Court abolishes the death penalty, it will be traveling a well-worn road ...


A Culture That Is Hard To Defend: Extralegal Factors In Federal Death Penalty Cases, Jon B. Gould, Kenneth S. Leon Jan 2017

A Culture That Is Hard To Defend: Extralegal Factors In Federal Death Penalty Cases, Jon B. Gould, Kenneth S. Leon

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Empirical research has exposed a troubling pattern of capital punishment in the United States, with extralegal factors such as race, class, and gender strongly correlated with the probability of a death sentence. Capital sentencing also shows significant geographic disparities, although existing research tends to be more descriptive than explanatory. This study offers an alternative conception of local legal culture to explain place-based variation in the outcomes of federal capital trials, accounting for the level of attorney time and expert resources granted by the federal courts to defend against a death sentence. Using frequentist and Bayesian methods—supplemented with expert interviews ...


The American Death Penalty Decline, Brandon L. Garrett, Alexander Jakubow, Ankur Desai Jan 2017

The American Death Penalty Decline, Brandon L. Garrett, Alexander Jakubow, Ankur Desai

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

American death sentences have both declined and become concentrated in a small group of counties. In his dissenting opinion in Glossip v. Gross in 2014, Justice Stephen Breyer highlighted how from 2004 to 2006, “just 29 counties (fewer than 1% of counties in the country) accounted for approximately half of all death sentences imposed nationwide.” That decline has become more dramatic. In 2015, fifty-one defendants were sentenced to death in thirty-eight counties. In 2016, thirty-one defendants were sentenced to death in twenty-eight counties. In the mid-1990s, by way of contrast, over 300 people were sentenced to death in as many ...


Examining Jurors: Applying Conversation Analysis To Voir Dire In Capital Cases, A First Look, Barbara O'Brien, Catherine M. Grosso, Abijah P. Taylor Jan 2017

Examining Jurors: Applying Conversation Analysis To Voir Dire In Capital Cases, A First Look, Barbara O'Brien, Catherine M. Grosso, Abijah P. Taylor

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Scholarship about racial disparities in jury selection is extensive, but the data about how parties examine potential jurors in actual trials is limited. This study of jury selection for 792 potential jurors across twelve randomly selected North Carolina capital cases uses conversation analysis to examine the process that produces decisions about who serves on juries. To examine how race influences conversations in voir dire, we adapted the Roter Interaction Analysis System, a widely used framework for understanding the dynamics of patient–clinician communication during clinical encounters, to the legal setting for the first time. This method allows us to document ...


Race And Death Sentencing For Oklahoma Homicides Committed Between 1990 And 2012, Glenn L. Pierce, Michael L. Radelet, Susan Sharp Jan 2017

Race And Death Sentencing For Oklahoma Homicides Committed Between 1990 And 2012, Glenn L. Pierce, Michael L. Radelet, Susan Sharp

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This Article examines 4,668 Oklahoma homicide cases with an identified suspect that occurred during a twenty-three year period between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2012. Among these, we identified 153 cases that ended with a death sentence. Overall we found that while the defendant’s race did not correlate with a death sentence, there was a strong correlation with the race of the victim, with cases with white victims significantly more likely to end with a death sentence than cases with non-white victims. Homicides with female victims were also more likely to result in a death sentence than ...


The Rhetoric Of Abolition: Continuity And Change In The Struggle Against America's Death Penalty, 1900-2010, Austin Sarat, Robert Kermes, Haley Cambra, Adelyn Curran, Margaret Kiley, Keshav Pant Jan 2017

The Rhetoric Of Abolition: Continuity And Change In The Struggle Against America's Death Penalty, 1900-2010, Austin Sarat, Robert Kermes, Haley Cambra, Adelyn Curran, Margaret Kiley, Keshav Pant

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This article seeks to understand when, how, and where the framing of arguments against capital punishment has changed. While others have focused exclusively on the national level, we studied the framing of abolitionist arguments in three American states: Connecticut, Kansas, and Texas. Each is located in a different region of the country, and each has its own distinctive death penalty history. We studied the framing of arguments against the death penalty from 1900 to 2010. Our study suggests that the rhetorical reframing of the campaign against capital punishment that has occurred at the national level has had deep resonance at ...


Looking Backwards At Old Cases: When Science Moves Forward, Jules Epstein Jan 2016

Looking Backwards At Old Cases: When Science Moves Forward, Jules Epstein

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Forensic evidence—be it in the form of science-derived analyses such as DNA profiling or drug identification, or in more subjective analyses such as pattern or impression [latent print, handwriting, firearms] examinations—is prevalent and often critical in criminal prosecutions. Yet, while the criminal court processes prize finality of verdicts, science evolves and often proves that earlier analyses were inadequate or plainly wrong. This article examines the tension between those two concerns by focusing on the 2015 decision of the United States Supreme Court in Maryland v. Kulbicki, addresses the inadequacies of the Court’s analysis, and suggests some factors ...