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Full-Text Articles in Law

Race Decriminalization And Criminal Legal System Reform, Michael Pinard Jan 2020

Race Decriminalization And Criminal Legal System Reform, Michael Pinard

Faculty Scholarship

There is emerging consensus that various components of the criminal legal system have gone too far in capturing and punishing masses of Black men, women, and children. This evolving recognition has helped propel important and pathbreaking criminal legal reforms in recent years, with significant bipartisan support. These reforms have targeted the criminal legal system itself. They strive to address the pain inflicted by the system. However, by concerning themselves solely with the criminal legal system, these reforms do not confront the reality that Black men, women, and children will continue to be devastatingly overrepresented in each stitch of the system ...


Teaching Justice-Connectivity, Michael Pinard Jan 2019

Teaching Justice-Connectivity, Michael Pinard

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay conveys the importance of building in law students the foundation to recognize the various systems, institutions, and conditions that often crash into the lives of their clients, as well as the residents of the communities that are just outside law schools’ doors. It does so through proposing a teaching model that I call Justice-Connectivity. This model aims for students to understand and be humbled by the ways in which different institutions, systems, and strands of law converge upon, oppress, isolate, and shun individuals, families, and communities. The ultimate teaching lesson is that individuals, families, and communities are often ...


Sexual Privacy, Danielle Keats Citron Jan 2018

Sexual Privacy, Danielle Keats Citron

Faculty Scholarship

Those who wish to control and expose the identities of women and people from marginalized communities routinely do so by invading their privacy. People are secretly recorded in bedrooms and public bathrooms, and “up their skirts.” They are coerced into sharing nude photographs and filming sex acts under the threat of public disclosure of their nude images. People’s nude images are posted online without permission. Machine-learning technology is used to create digitally manipulated “deep fake” sex videos that swap people’s faces into pornography.

At the heart of these abuses is an invasion of sexual privacy—the behaviors and ...


Multiracial Malaise: Multiracial As A Legal Racial Category, Taunya L. Banks Jan 2018

Multiracial Malaise: Multiracial As A Legal Racial Category, Taunya L. Banks

Faculty Scholarship

One byproduct of increased interracial marriages post Loving is a growing number of multiracial children. This cohort of multiracials tends to overshadow older and larger generations of multiracial people whose genealogical mixture is more distant. Some interracial couples, their multiracial children and others support a multiracial category on the U.S. Census. Proponents argued that multiracial individuals experience a unique type of discrimination that warrants treating them as a separate racial category. This article concedes that multiracial individuals should enjoy the freedom to self-identify as they wish, and like others, be protected by anti-discrimination law. It concludes, however, that current ...


Preparing Law Students In The Wake Of #Metoo, Paula A. Monopoli Jan 2018

Preparing Law Students In The Wake Of #Metoo, Paula A. Monopoli

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Restorative Workplace: An Organizational Learning Approach To Discrimination, Deborah Thompson Eisenberg Jan 2016

The Restorative Workplace: An Organizational Learning Approach To Discrimination, Deborah Thompson Eisenberg

Faculty Scholarship

On the fiftieth anniversary of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, many employers continue to search for ways to implement the law’s antidiscrimination and equal opportunity mandates into the workplace. The current litigation-based approach to employment discrimination under Title VII and similar laws focuses on weeding out “bad apples” who are explicitly prejudiced. This “victim-villain” paradigm may fail to correct the complex, nuanced causes of workplace discrimination, or exacerbate the problem. This article explores an alternative approach—restorative practices—that may integrate the policy goals of antidiscrimination laws into the practical realities of managing an organization. Restorative practices ...


Keeping Cases From Black Juries: An Empirical Analysis Of How Race, Income Inequality, And Regional History Affect Tort Law, Donald G. Gifford, Brian Jones Jan 2016

Keeping Cases From Black Juries: An Empirical Analysis Of How Race, Income Inequality, And Regional History Affect Tort Law, Donald G. Gifford, Brian Jones

Faculty Scholarship

This Article presents an empirical analysis of how race, income inequality, the regional history of the South, and state politics affect the development of tort law. Beginning in the mid-1960s, most state appellate courts rejected doctrines such as contributory negligence that traditionally prevented plaintiffs’ cases from reaching the jury. We examine why some, mostly Southern states did not join this trend.

To enable cross-state comparisons, we design an innovative Jury Access Denial Index (JADI) that quantifies the extent to which each state’s tort doctrines enable judges to dismiss cases before they reach the jury. We then conduct a multivariate ...


Helping Our Students Reach Their Full Potential: The Insidious Consequences Of Stereotype Threat, Russell A. Mcclain Jan 2016

Helping Our Students Reach Their Full Potential: The Insidious Consequences Of Stereotype Threat, Russell A. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Poor, Black And "Wanted": Criminal Justice In Ferguson And Baltimore, Michael Pinard Jan 2015

Poor, Black And "Wanted": Criminal Justice In Ferguson And Baltimore, Michael Pinard

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Colorism Among South Asians: Title Vii And Skin Tone Discrimination, Taunya L. Banks Jan 2015

Colorism Among South Asians: Title Vii And Skin Tone Discrimination, Taunya L. Banks

Faculty Scholarship

In 2013 Nina Davuluri, an Asian Indian from Syracuse, NY, became the first South Asian-American Miss America. The largely congratulatory comments from South Asian bloggers while reveling in the significance of her win, also commented on her skin tone, characterizing the new Miss America as dark brown, some adding that Davuluri would have never won the Miss Indian America USA title because she is “too dark.” Early discussions of colorism, skin tone bias, by legal scholars focus on how the practice impacts black Americans or other persons with some African ancestry. Yet the comments from South Asians about Davuluri’s ...


Race, Place And Historic Moment – Black And Japanese American World War Ii Veterans: The G.I. Bill Of Rights And The Model Minority Myth, Taunya L. Banks Jan 2015

Race, Place And Historic Moment – Black And Japanese American World War Ii Veterans: The G.I. Bill Of Rights And The Model Minority Myth, Taunya L. Banks

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Post-Katrina Suppression Of Black Working-Class Political Expression, Taunya L. Banks Jan 2015

Post-Katrina Suppression Of Black Working-Class Political Expression, Taunya L. Banks

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Convergeing Around The Study Of Gender Violence: The Gender Violence Clinic At The University Of Maryland Carey School Of Law, Leigh S. Goodmark Jan 2015

Convergeing Around The Study Of Gender Violence: The Gender Violence Clinic At The University Of Maryland Carey School Of Law, Leigh S. Goodmark

Faculty Scholarship

Domestic violence clinics have been a staple of law school clinical programs since the 1980s. The University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law recently created the nation’s first Gender Violence Clinic, however. This article describes the motivation for taking a broader approach to gender based violence, the types of cases handled by the clinic, the challenges posed by the clinic structure, and the pedagogical goals for the clinic.


The Status Gap: Female Faculty In The Legal Academy, Paula A. Monopoli Jan 2014

The Status Gap: Female Faculty In The Legal Academy, Paula A. Monopoli

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Border Fixation: The Appearance Of Security And Control In Immigration Reform, Katherine L. Vaughns Jan 2014

Border Fixation: The Appearance Of Security And Control In Immigration Reform, Katherine L. Vaughns

Faculty Scholarship

Immigration reform is the subject of intense discussion among politicians, policy experts, analysts, and advocacy groups alike; America’s never-ending debate which today has been infected with shameless demagoguery, rendering sound policy choices virtually impossible. And in this political cauldron, the appearance of border security and control through symbolism and political rhetoric substitute for the practical realities that are essential to inform policymakers about the appropriate administration and enforcement of U.S. immigration laws. For Congress has had an ongoing, unsound focus on sealing the border it shares with Mexico, its southwestern neighbor, seemingly without regard to costs especially in ...


Promoting Innovation While Preventing Discrimination: Policy Goals For The Scored Society, Frank A. Pasquale, Danielle Keats Citron Jan 2014

Promoting Innovation While Preventing Discrimination: Policy Goals For The Scored Society, Frank A. Pasquale, Danielle Keats Citron

Faculty Scholarship

There are several normative theories of jurisprudence supporting our critique of the scored society, which complement the social theory and political economy presented in our 2014 article on that topic in the Washington Law Review. This response to Professor Tal Zarsky clarifies our antidiscrimination argument while showing that is only one of many bases for the critique of scoring practices. The concerns raised by Big Data may exceed the capacity of extant legal doctrines. Addressing the potential injustice may require the hard work of legal reform.


Perspectives On Outpatient Commitment, Richard C. Boldt Jan 2014

Perspectives On Outpatient Commitment, Richard C. Boldt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Hosanna-Tabor In The Religious Freedom Panopticon, Peter G. Danchin Jan 2014

Hosanna-Tabor In The Religious Freedom Panopticon, Peter G. Danchin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Still Drowning In Segregation: Limits Of Law In Post-Civil Rights America, Taunya L. Banks Jan 2014

Still Drowning In Segregation: Limits Of Law In Post-Civil Rights America, Taunya L. Banks

Faculty Scholarship

Approximately 40% of the deaths attributed to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were caused by drowning. Blacks in the New Orleans area accounted for slightly more than one half of all deaths. Some of the drowning deaths were preventable. Too many black Americans do not know how to swim. Up to seventy percent of all black children in the United States have no or low ability to swim. Thus it is unsurprising that black youth between 5 and 19 are more likely to drown than white youths of the same age. The Centers for Disease Control concludes that a major factor ...


More Than A "Quick Glimpse Of The Life": The Relationship Between Victim Impact Evidence And Death Sentencing, Jerome E. Deise, Raymond Paternoster Jan 2013

More Than A "Quick Glimpse Of The Life": The Relationship Between Victim Impact Evidence And Death Sentencing, Jerome E. Deise, Raymond Paternoster

Faculty Scholarship

In striking down the use of victim impact evidence (VIE) during the penalty phase of a capital trial, the Supreme Court in Booth v. Maryland and South Carolina v. Gathers argued that such testimony would appeal to the emotions of jurors with the consequence that death sentences would not be based upon a reasoned consideration of the blameworthiness of the offender. After a change in personnel, the Court overturned both decisions in Payne v. Tennessee, decided just two years after Gathers. The majority in Payne were decidedly less concerned with the emotional appeal of VIE, arguing that it would only ...


Equality Standards For Health Insurance Coverage: Will The Mental Health Parity And Addiction Equity Act End The Discrimination?, Ellen M. Weber Jan 2013

Equality Standards For Health Insurance Coverage: Will The Mental Health Parity And Addiction Equity Act End The Discrimination?, Ellen M. Weber

Faculty Scholarship

Congress enacted the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in 2008 to end discriminatory health insurance coverage for persons with mental health and substance use disorders in large employer health plans. Adopting a comprehensive regulatory approach akin to other civil rights laws, the Parity Act requires “equity” in all plan features, including cost-sharing, durational limits and, most critically, the plan management practices that are used to deny many families medically necessary behavioral health care. Beginning in 2014, all health plans regulated by the Affordable Care Act must also comply with parity standards, effectively ending the second-class insurance status of ...


The Unfinished Journey - Education, Equality And Martin Luther King, Jr., Revisited, Taunya Lovell Banks Jan 2013

The Unfinished Journey - Education, Equality And Martin Luther King, Jr., Revisited, Taunya Lovell Banks

Faculty Scholarship

An educated society is important to the survival of a democracy, a sentiment echoed by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education. Today most commentators concede that the implementation of Brown was a failure and that over the years there has been retrenchment. Although America’s schools are no longer racially segregated by law, a substantial percentage of school children are consigned to racially isolated schools. While commentators continue to argue for racially integrated schools, this article argues that racial integration alone is insufficient--schools must receive adequate financial resources and be even more diverse socio-economically to adequately prepare ...


Has The Roberts Court Plurality's Colorblind Rhetoric Finally Broken Brown's Promise?, Phoebe A. Haddon Jan 2013

Has The Roberts Court Plurality's Colorblind Rhetoric Finally Broken Brown's Promise?, Phoebe A. Haddon

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay examines the continuing significance of the Keyes decision to the judicial vision of equality and racial isolation in public education. By comparing efforts to promote educational equality from the Keyes era through today, this Essay asserts that the judiciary has wrongly embraced a colorblind interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause. In so doing, courts have impeded the progress of children in Denver and around the country, ignored highly instructive social science studies on the benefits of desegregation, and broken the constitutional promise of equal citizenship. For future policy makers and lawyers to address these persistent problems, legal educators ...


Of Civil Wrongs And Rights: Kiyemba V. Obama And The Meaning Of Freedom, Separation Of Powers, And The Rule Of Law Ten Years After 9/11, Katherine L. Vaughns, Heather L. Williams Jan 2013

Of Civil Wrongs And Rights: Kiyemba V. Obama And The Meaning Of Freedom, Separation Of Powers, And The Rule Of Law Ten Years After 9/11, Katherine L. Vaughns, Heather L. Williams

Faculty Scholarship

This article is about the rise and fall of continued adherence to the rule of law, proper application of the separation of powers doctrine, and the meaning of freedom for a group of seventeen Uighurs—a Turkic Muslim ethnic minority whose members reside in the Xinjiang province of China—who had been held at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base since 2002. Most scholars regard the trilogy of Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, and Boumediene v. Bush as demonstrating the Supreme Court’s willingness to uphold the rule of law during the war on terror. The recent experience of the ...


Subtraction By Addition?: The Thirteenth And Fourteenth Amendments, Mark A. Graber Jan 2012

Subtraction By Addition?: The Thirteenth And Fourteenth Amendments, Mark A. Graber

Faculty Scholarship

The celebration of the Thirteenth Amendment in many Essays prepared for this Symposium may be premature. That the Thirteenth Amendment arguably protects a different and, perhaps, wider array of rights than the Fourteenth Amendment may be less important than the less controversial claim that the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified after the Thirteenth Amendment. If the Fourteenth Amendment covers similar ground as the Thirteenth Amendment, but protects a narrower set of rights than the Thirteenth Amendment, then the proper inference may be that the Fourteenth Amendment repealed or modified crucial rights originally protected by the Thirteenth Amendment. The broad interpretation of ...


Network Accountability For The Domestic Intelligence Apparatus, Danielle Keats Citron, Frank Pasquale Jan 2011

Network Accountability For The Domestic Intelligence Apparatus, Danielle Keats Citron, Frank Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

A new domestic intelligence network has made vast amounts of data available to federal and state agencies and law enforcement officials. The network is anchored by “fusion centers,” novel sites of intergovernmental collaboration that generate and share intelligence and information. Several fusion centers have generated controversy for engaging in extraordinary measures that place citizens on watch lists, invade citizens’ privacy, and chill free expression. In addition to eroding civil liberties, fusion center overreach has resulted in wasted resources without concomitant gains in security.

While many scholars have assumed that this network represents a trade-off between security and civil liberties, our ...


Black Pluralism In Post Loving America, Taunya Lovell Banks Jan 2011

Black Pluralism In Post Loving America, Taunya Lovell Banks

Faculty Scholarship

The face of late twentieth and early twenty-first century America has changed, as have attitudes about race, especially about persons with some African ancestry. Since 1967, the number of multi-racial individuals with some African ancestry living in the United States has increased dramatically as a result of increased out-marriage by black Americans and the immigration of large numbers of multiracial individuals from Mexico, the Caribbean, as well as Central and Latin America. Many members of the post-Loving generation came of age in the 1990s with no memories of de jure racial segregation laws or the need for the 1960s civil ...


Intermediaries And Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship For Our Information Age, Danielle Keats Citron, Helen L. Norton Jan 2011

Intermediaries And Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship For Our Information Age, Danielle Keats Citron, Helen L. Norton

Faculty Scholarship

No longer confined to isolated corners of the web, cyber hate now enjoys a major presence on popular social media sites. The Facebook group Kill a Jew Day, for instance, acquired thousands of friends within days of its formation, while YouTube has hosted videos with names like How to Kill Beaners, Execute the Gays, and Murder Muslim Scum. The mainstreaming of cyber hate has the troubling potential to shape public expectations of online discourse.

Internet intermediaries have the freedom and influence to seize this defining moment in cyber hate’s history. We believe that a thoughtful and nuanced intermediary-based approach ...


Cyber Civil Rights: Looking Forward, Danielle Keats Citron Jan 2010

Cyber Civil Rights: Looking Forward, Danielle Keats Citron

Faculty Scholarship

The Cyber Civil Rights conference raised many important questions about the practical and normative value of seeing online harassment as a discrimination problem. In these remarks, I highlight and address two important issues that must be tackled before moving forward with a cyber civil rights agenda. The first concerns the practical—whether we, in fact, have useful antidiscrimination tools at the state and federal level and, if not, how we might conceive of new ones. The second involves the normative—whether we should invoke technological solutions, such as traceability anonymity, as part of a cyber civil rights agenda given their ...


Defaming Muhammad: Dignity, Harm, And Incitement To Religious Hatred, Peter G. Danchin Jan 2010

Defaming Muhammad: Dignity, Harm, And Incitement To Religious Hatred, Peter G. Danchin

Faculty Scholarship

The Danish cartoons controversy has generated a torrent of commentary seeking to define and defend competing conceptions of the normative implications of the affair. This Article addresses the question of how liberal democratic states ought to respond to visible manifestations of hatred, especially speech that constitutes incitement to religious hatred. Taking the publication of the Danish cartoons as its point of departure, the Article interrogates the complex historical and normative relationship between free speech and freedom of religion in the liberal democratic order and discusses the two critical questions of whether the cartoons give rise to a genuine conflict of ...