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Full-Text Articles in Law

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs Jan 2019

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

That the judge's task is to find the law, not to make it, was once a commonplace of our legal culture. Today, decades after Erie, the idea of a common law discovered by judges is commonly dismissed -- as a "fallacy," an "illusion," a "brooding omnipresence in the sky." That dismissive view is wrong. Expecting judges to find unwritten law is no childish fiction of the benighted past, but a real and plausible option for a modern legal system.

This Essay seeks to restore the respectability of finding law, in part by responding to two criticisms made by Erie and ...


Is Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle Imperiled?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jun 2018

Is Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle Imperiled?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust’s consumer welfare principle stands for the proposition that antitrust policy should encourage markets to produce output as high as is consistent with sustainable competition, and prices that are accordingly as low. Such a policy does not protect every interest group. For example, it opposes the interests of cartels or other competition-limiting associations who profit from lower output and higher prices. It also runs counter to the interest of less competitive firms that need higher prices in order to survive. Market structure is relevant to antitrust policy, but its importance is contingent rather than absolute – that is, market structure ...


Martin Luther King Jr. And Pretext Stops (And Arrests): Reflections On How Far We Have Not Come Fifty Years Later, Tracey Maclin, Maria Savarese Jun 2018

Martin Luther King Jr. And Pretext Stops (And Arrests): Reflections On How Far We Have Not Come Fifty Years Later, Tracey Maclin, Maria Savarese

Faculty Scholarship

By January, 1956, the Montgomery Bus boycott was in full-swing. Black citizens in Montgomery, Alabama were refusing to ride the city’s private buses to protest racially segregated seating. On the afternoon of January 26, 1956, twenty-seven-year-old Martin Luther King, Jr. had finished his day of work at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery. On his drive home, King stopped his vehicle to offer a ride to a group of bus boycotters standing at a downtown car-pool location. After the boycotters entered King’s car, two motorcycle policemen pulled-in behind King’s vehicle. While everyone in King’s car ...


Passive Investors, Jill E. Fisch, Asaf Hamdani, Steven Davidoff Solomon Jun 2018

Passive Investors, Jill E. Fisch, Asaf Hamdani, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Faculty Scholarship

The increasing percentage of the modern capital markets owned by passive investors – index funds and ETFs – has received extensive media and academic attention. This growing ownership concentration as well as the potential power of passive investors to affect both corporate governance and operational decision-making at their portfolio firms has led some commentators to call for passive investors to be subject to increased regulation and even disenfranchisement. These reactions fail to account for the institutional structure of passive investors and the market context in which they operate. Specifically, this literature assumes that passive investors compete primarily on cost and that, as ...


Regulation And The Marginalist Revolution, Herbert J. Hovenkamp May 2018

Regulation And The Marginalist Revolution, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

The marginalist revolution in economics became the foundation for the modern regulatory State with its “mixed” economy. Marginalism, whose development defines the boundary between classical political economy and neoclassical economics, completely overturned economists’ theory of value. It developed in the late nineteenth century in England, the Continent and the United States. For the classical political economists, value was a function of past averages. One good example is the wage-fund theory, which saw the optimal rate of wages as a function of the firm’s ability to save from previous profits. Another is the theory of corporate finance, which assessed a ...


A Brief Summary And Critique Of Criminal Liability Rules For Intoxicated Conduct, Paul H. Robinson May 2018

A Brief Summary And Critique Of Criminal Liability Rules For Intoxicated Conduct, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This essay provides an overview of the legal issues relating to intoxication, including the effect of voluntary intoxication in imputing to an offender a required offense culpable state of mind that he may not actually have had at the time of the offense; the effect of involuntary intoxication in providing a defense by negating a required offense culpability element or by satisfying the conditions of a general excuse; the legal effect of alcoholism or addiction in rendering intoxication involuntary; and the limitation on using alcoholism or addiction in this way if the offender can be judged to be reasonably responsible ...


Es Fema El Problema? Hurricane Maria And The Slow Road To Recovery In Puerto Rico, Clifford Villa May 2018

Es Fema El Problema? Hurricane Maria And The Slow Road To Recovery In Puerto Rico, Clifford Villa

Faculty Scholarship

A critical and sympathetic look at FEMA's work in post-Hurricane Maria Puerto Rico.


Innovation And Tradition: A Survey Of Intellectual Property And Technology Legal Clinics, Cynthia L. Dahl, Victoria F. Phillips May 2018

Innovation And Tradition: A Survey Of Intellectual Property And Technology Legal Clinics, Cynthia L. Dahl, Victoria F. Phillips

Faculty Scholarship

For artists, nonprofits, community organizations and small-business clients of limited means, securing intellectual property rights and getting counseling involving patent, copyright and trademark law are critical to their success and growth. These clients need expert IP and technology legal assistance, but very often cannot afford services in the legal marketplace. In addition, legal services and state bar pro bono programs have generally been ill-equipped to assist in these more specialized areas. An expanding community of IP and Technology clinics has emerged across the country to meet these needs. But while law review articles have described and examined other sectors of ...


Class Actions, Statutes Of Limitations And Repose, And Federal Common Law, Stephen B. Burbank, Tobias Barrington Wolff May 2018

Class Actions, Statutes Of Limitations And Repose, And Federal Common Law, Stephen B. Burbank, Tobias Barrington Wolff

Faculty Scholarship

After more than three decades during which it gave the issue scant attention, the Supreme Court has again made the American Pipe doctrine an active part of its docket. American Pipe addresses the tolling of statutes of limitations in federal class action litigation. When plaintiffs file a putative class action in federal court and class certification is denied, absent members of the putative class may wish to pursue their claims in some kind of further proceeding. If the statute of limitations would otherwise have expired while the class certification issue was being resolved, these claimants may need the benefit of ...


Rights And Retrenchment In The Trump Era, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang May 2018

Rights And Retrenchment In The Trump Era, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Faculty Scholarship

Our aim in this essay is to leverage archival research, data and theoretical perspectives presented in our book, Rights and Retrenchment: The Counterrevolution against Federal Litigation, as a means to illuminate the prospects for retrenchment in the current political landscape. We follow the scheme of the book by separately considering the prospects for federal litigation retrenchment in three lawmaking sites: Congress, federal court rulemaking under the Rules Enabling Act, and the Supreme Court. Although pertinent data on current retrenchment initiatives are limited, our historical data and comparative institutional perspectives should afford a basis for informed prediction. Of course, little in ...


Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction (Book Review), Mark Patrick Nevitt May 2018

Military Justice: A Very Short Introduction (Book Review), Mark Patrick Nevitt

Faculty Scholarship

This short essay reviews Professor Eugene Fidell’s recently published book, “Military Justice A Very Short Introduction” (Oxford Press). This book is a welcome addition to military law and military justice literature more generally. Eugene Fidell, a professor at Yale Law School, brings a tremendous breadth of experience as both a scholar and military justice practitioner. He also possesses a keen observational and critical eye to the subject of military justice practiced here and abroad.

The book review first provides an overview of Professor Fidell’s book, its organizational set-up, and where it sits in the broader context of military ...


The Afterlife Of Homophobia, Russell K. Robinson, David M. Frost May 2018

The Afterlife Of Homophobia, Russell K. Robinson, David M. Frost

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Was The Amt Effectively Repealed?, Reed Shuldiner Apr 2018

Was The Amt Effectively Repealed?, Reed Shuldiner

Faculty Scholarship

The individual alternative minimum tax (AMT) was a much disliked feature of the tax law prior to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). Yet, despite repeated promises to repeal the AMT as part of tax reform, the TCJA dropped AMT repeal in favor of increasing the AMT exemption and its phaseout threshold. The question raised by this development is whether the AMT changes should be viewed as yet another stop-gap tweak of the AMT or whether the changes should be viewed as returning the AMT to its roots as a tax on high-income taxpayers using excessive loopholes. In this ...


Oligopoly Pricing And Richard Posner, Keith Hylton Apr 2018

Oligopoly Pricing And Richard Posner, Keith Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

Over a span of nearly 50 years Richard Posner’s voice has loomed large over the subject of oligopoly pricingand antitrust. The span begins in 1969 with Posner’s publication of “Oligopoly and the Antitrust Laws: A Suggested Approach,” which argues for more aggressive enforcement of Section 1 in cases involving circumstantial evidence of conspiracy. The span ends with Posner’s opinion in In re Text Messaging Antitrust Litigation, in 2015. The two writings, the first an academic article published early in Posner’s career and the second a judicial opinion published near the end of his time on the ...


The Operational And Administrative Militaries, Mark P. Nevitt Apr 2018

The Operational And Administrative Militaries, Mark P. Nevitt

Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers a new way of thinking about the military. The U.S. military’s existing legal architecture arose from tragedy: in response to operational military failures in Vietnam, the 1980 failed Iranian hostage rescue attempt and other military misadventures, Congress revamped the Department of Defense (DoD)’s organization. The resulting law, the Goldwater-Nichols Act, formed two militaries within the DoD that endure to this day. These two militaries – the operational military and the administrative military – were once opaque to the outside observer but have emerged from the shadows in light of recent conflicts. The operational military remains the ...


Anthony Kennedy: A Most Principled Justice, Mitchell N. Berman, David Peters Apr 2018

Anthony Kennedy: A Most Principled Justice, Mitchell N. Berman, David Peters

Faculty Scholarship

After three decades on the Court, Justice Anthony Kennedy remains its most widely maligned member. Concentrating on his constitutional jurisprudence, critics from across the ideological spectrum have derided Justice Kennedy as “a self-aggrandizing turncoat,” “an unprincipled weathervane,” and, succinctly, “America’s worst Justice.” We believe that Kennedy is not as bereft of a constitutional theory as common wisdom maintains. To the contrary, this Article argues, his constitutional decisionmaking reflects a genuine grasp (less than perfect, more than rudimentary) of a coherent and, we think, compelling theory of constitutional law—the account, more or less, that one of has introduced in ...


What Is The Eye In The Sky Actually Looking At And Who Is Controlling It: An International Comparative Analysis On How To Fill The Cybersecurity And Privacy Gaps To Strengthen Existing U.S. Drone Laws, Jennifer Urban Apr 2018

What Is The Eye In The Sky Actually Looking At And Who Is Controlling It: An International Comparative Analysis On How To Fill The Cybersecurity And Privacy Gaps To Strengthen Existing U.S. Drone Laws, Jennifer Urban

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Transactional Administration, Steven Davidoff Solomon, David Zaring Apr 2018

Transactional Administration, Steven Davidoff Solomon, David Zaring

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Deterrence And Aggregate Litigation, Keith N. Hylton Apr 2018

Deterrence And Aggregate Litigation, Keith N. Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

This paper examines the deterrence properties of aggregate litigation and class actions, with an emphasis on positive value claims. In the multiple victim scenario with positive value claims, the probability that an individual victim will bring suit falls toward zero with geometric decay as the number of victims increases. The reason is that the incentive to free ride increases with the number of victims. Deterrence does not collapse but is degraded. Undercompliance is observed, which worsens as the number of victims increases. Compliance is never socially optimal, and the shortfall from optimality increases with the number of victims. These results ...


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (112:2 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith Apr 2018

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (112:2 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship

This article is reproduced with permission from the April 2018 issue of the American Journal of International Law © 2018 American Society of International Law. All rights reserved.

Once the PDF is open, individual articles are accessible either by scrolling down or by clicking on the bookmark symbol.


A Vatcoin Solution To Mtic Fraud: Past Efforts, Present Technology, And The Eu's 2017 Proposal, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Mar 2018

A Vatcoin Solution To Mtic Fraud: Past Efforts, Present Technology, And The Eu's 2017 Proposal, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

On October 4, 2017, in an effort to recover some of the VAT lost annually, the European Commission proposed “far-reaching reforms.” The immediate target is a €50 billion slice of an estimated €150 billion overall annual loss. In its proposal the Commission is looking only at Missing Trader Intra-Community (MTIC) fraud in goods.

Goods (alone) are targeted.

If we have learned anything about MTIC fraud since January 1, 1993, it is that fraudsters engaged in this activity are exceptionally agile. MTIC frauds migrate and mutate on command. For example, MTIC fraud in cell phones quickly migrated to computer chips in ...


The Rhetoric Of Bigotry And Conscience In Battles Over "Religious Liberty V. Lgbt Rights", Linda Mcclain Mar 2018

The Rhetoric Of Bigotry And Conscience In Battles Over "Religious Liberty V. Lgbt Rights", Linda Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

Charges, denials, and countercharges of “bigotry” are a familiar feature in debates over the evident conflict between LGBT rights and religious liberty. A frequent claim is that religious individuals who reject the extension of civil marriage to same-sex couples and seek conscience-based exemptions from state public accommodations law that protect against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation are being “branded” as bigots. The rhetoric of bigotry raises a number of puzzles. Is sincerity or the appeal to conscience a defense to charge of bigotry? Is a charge of bigotry inferred simply from asserting that society should learn lessons from ...


Using Empirical Studies As A Basis For Updating Intestacy Laws, Sergio Pareja Mar 2018

Using Empirical Studies As A Basis For Updating Intestacy Laws, Sergio Pareja

Faculty Scholarship

The principal goal of any intestacy statute is to determine the probable intent of individuals who die without a will. Professor Wright and Ms. Sterner analyze 493 wills that were probated in Escambia and Alachua Counties, Florida, in 2013. This blog post reviews their study as well as Wright and Sterner's final analysis. Pareja adds, new statutes, if properly considered, should pay attention to gender, race, and class differences that surfaced in the authors’ study


Taxing & Zapping Marijuana: Blockchain Compliance In The Trump Administration, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Mar 2018

Taxing & Zapping Marijuana: Blockchain Compliance In The Trump Administration, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

On January 4, 2018, the Trump Administration through Attorney General Sessions rescinded an Obama-era policy that discouraged federal prosecutors from bringing charges in all but the most serious marijuana cases under the federal Controlled Substances Act, as well as under the Bank Secrecy Act. Federal law is at odds with state law in the majority of states on the legalization and subsequent state taxation of marijuana. Twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia have at least partially legalized marijuana. Eight of these states have legalized both medicinal and recreational use. With limited exceptions, legalized sales of marijuana are taxed.

Aside ...


Could Official Climate Denial Revive The Common Law As A Regulatory Backstop?, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert Percival Mar 2018

Could Official Climate Denial Revive The Common Law As A Regulatory Backstop?, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert Percival

Faculty Scholarship

The Trump Administration is rapidly turning the clock back on climate policy and environmental regulation. Despite overwhelming, peer-reviewed scientific evidence, administration officials eager to promote greater use of fossil fuels are disregarding climate science. This Article argues that this massive and historic deregulation may spawn yet another wave of legal innovation as litigants, including states and their political subdivisions, return to the common law to protect the health of the planet. Prior to the emergence of the major federal environmental laws in the 1970s, the common law of nuisance gave rise to the earliest environmental decisions in U.S. history ...


Reforming The Pentagon: Reflections On How Everything Became War And The Military Became Everything, Mark P. Nevitt Mar 2018

Reforming The Pentagon: Reflections On How Everything Became War And The Military Became Everything, Mark P. Nevitt

Faculty Scholarship

What best explains how “Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything?”— the provocative title of a recent book by Professor Rosa Brooks of Georgetown Law. In this Essay, I turn to the Department of Defense’s (DoD) unique agency design as the vehicle to address this question. Specifically, I first describe and analyze the role that the 1947 National Security Act and 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act play in incentivizing organizational behavior within the DoD. These two Acts have broad implications for national security governance. Relatedly, I address the consequences of these two core national security laws, focusing on the rise ...


The Self-Delegation False Alarm: Analyzing Auer Deference's Effect On Agency Rules, Daniel E. Walters Mar 2018

The Self-Delegation False Alarm: Analyzing Auer Deference's Effect On Agency Rules, Daniel E. Walters

Faculty Scholarship

Auer deference holds that when agencies interpret their own pre-existing regulations, they receive deference from reviewing courts. The doctrine serves a critical function in the administrative process, obviating the need for agencies to undergo costly notice-and-comment rulemaking each time interpretation of existing regulations is necessary and guaranteeing that agencies’ good faith exercise of interpretive discretion will be respected by courts. But for some leading scholars and jurists, this benign-sounding doctrine actually encourages agencies to promulgate vague rules in the first instance, augmenting agency power and violating core separation-of-powers norms in the process. This “perverse incentives thesis” has become increasingly influential ...


Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters Mar 2018

Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters

Faculty Scholarship

A great deal of skepticism toward administrative agencies stems from the widespread perception that they excessively or even exclusively cater to business interests. From the political right comes the accusation that business interests use regulation to erect barriers to entry that protect profits and stifle competition. From the political left comes the claim that business interests use secretive interactions with agencies to erode and negate beneficial regulatory programs. Regulatory “capture” theory elevates many of these claims to the status of economic law. Despite growing skepticism about capture theory in academic circles, empirical studies of business influence and capture return ambiguous ...


Learning What Works In Regulation, Cary Coglianese, Todd Rubin Mar 2018

Learning What Works In Regulation, Cary Coglianese, Todd Rubin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Searchlight New Mexico Interviews Maryam Ahranjani On The Prisonization Of America's Public Schools, Maryam Ahranjani, Sara Solovitch Mar 2018

Searchlight New Mexico Interviews Maryam Ahranjani On The Prisonization Of America's Public Schools, Maryam Ahranjani, Sara Solovitch

Faculty Scholarship

Maryam Ahranjani writes about personal experiences with mass school shootings in "The Prisonization of America's Public Schools," published in October 2017 in Hofstra Law Review. The article takes a critical stance against what Ahranjani terms the growing "criminal infrastructure" metal detectors, surveillance cameras and police officers within our nation's schools. Searchlight New Mexico asked Ahranjani what kind of national response makes sense in the wake of the Parkland mass shooting.