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Full-Text Articles in Law

Making A Market For Corporate Disclosure, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson Apr 2018

Making A Market For Corporate Disclosure, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson

Faculty Publications

It has long been said that market forces alone will result in a problematic under-sharing of information by public companies. Since the 1930s, the main regulatory response to this market failure has come in the form of the massive mandatory-disclosure regime that sits at the foundation of modern securities law. But this regime—especially when viewed along with its speech-chilling antifraud overlay—no doubt leaves society without all the corporate information from which it would benefit. The typical fix offered to the problem has been more of the same: add to the 100-plus-page list of what firms must disclose, often ...


Grave Crimes And Weak Evidence: Fact-Finding Evolution In International Criminal Law, Nancy Amoury Combs Jan 2017

Grave Crimes And Weak Evidence: Fact-Finding Evolution In International Criminal Law, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

International criminal courts carry out some of the most important work that a legal system can conduct: prosecuting those who have visited death and destruction on millions. Despite the significance of their work--or perhaps because of it--international courts face tremendous challenges. Chief among them is accurate fact-finding. With alarming regularity, international criminal trials feature inconsistent, vague, and sometimes false testimony that renders judges unable to assess with any measure of certainty who did what to whom in the context of a mass atrocity. This Article provides the first-ever empirical study quantifying fact-finding in an international criminal court. The study shines ...


Patents Absent Adversaries, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Apr 2016

Patents Absent Adversaries, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Customary Constraints On The Use Of Force: Article 51 With An American Accent, William C. Banks, Evan J. Criddle Mar 2016

Customary Constraints On The Use Of Force: Article 51 With An American Accent, William C. Banks, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

This article, prepared for the symposium on ‘The Future of Restrictivist Scholarship on the Use of Force’, examines the current trajectory of restrictivist scholarship in the United States. In contrast to their counterparts in continental Europe, American restrictivists tend to devote less energy to defending narrow constructions of theUNCharter. Instead, they generally focus on legal constraints outside the Charter’s text, including customary norms and general principles of law such as necessity, proportionality, deliberative rationality, and robust evidentiary burdens. The article considers how these features of the American restrictivist tradition reflect distinctive characteristics of American legal culture, and it explores ...


Seeking Inconsistency: Advancing Pluralism In International Criminal Sentencing, Nancy Amoury Combs Jan 2016

Seeking Inconsistency: Advancing Pluralism In International Criminal Sentencing, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Book Review Of Fraudulent Evidence Before Public International Tribunals: The Dirty Stories Of International Law, Nancy Amoury Combs Jul 2015

Book Review Of Fraudulent Evidence Before Public International Tribunals: The Dirty Stories Of International Law, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Three Grotian Theories Of Humanitarian Intervention, Evan J. Criddle Jul 2015

Three Grotian Theories Of Humanitarian Intervention, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

This Article explores three theories of humanitarian intervention that appear in, or are inspired by, the writings of Hugo Grotius. One theory asserts that natural law authorizes all states to punish violations of the law of nations, irrespective of where or against whom the violations occur, to preserve the integrity of international law. A second theory, which also appears in Grotius’s writings, proposes that states may intervene as temporary legal guardians for peoples who have suffered intolerable cruelties at the hands of their own state. Each of these theories has fallen out of fashion today based on skepticism about ...


Maturing Justice: Integrating The Convention On The Rights Of The Child Into The Judgments And Processes Of The International Criminal Court, Linda A. Malone Apr 2015

Maturing Justice: Integrating The Convention On The Rights Of The Child Into The Judgments And Processes Of The International Criminal Court, Linda A. Malone

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Standing For Human Rights Abroad, Evan J. Criddle Jan 2015

Standing For Human Rights Abroad, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

When may states impose coercive measures such as asset freezes, trade embargos, and investment restrictions to protect the human rights of foreign nationals abroad? Drawing inspiration from Hugo Grotius’s guardianship account of humanitarian intervention, this Article offers a new theory of states’ standing to enforce human rights abroad: under some circumstances, international law authorizes states to impose countermeasures as fiduciary representatives, asserting the human rights of oppressed foreign peoples for the benefit of those peoples. The fiduciary theory explains why all states may use countermeasures to vindicate the human rights of foreign nationals abroad despite the fact that they ...


Protecting Human Rights During Emergencies: Delegation, Derogation, And Deference, Evan J. Criddle Dec 2014

Protecting Human Rights During Emergencies: Delegation, Derogation, And Deference, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

Leading human rights treaties permit states as a temporary measure to suspend a variety of human rights guarantees during national crises. This chapter argues that human rights derogation is best justified as a temporary mechanism for empowering states to protect human rights, rather than as a device for enabling national authorities to advance their own interests in a manner that compromises human rights protection. Human rights treaties use broad legal standards to entrust states with responsibility for deciding what measures are best calculated to maximize human right protection during emergencies. For this delegation of authority to operate effectively, international tribunals ...


Disability, Development, And Human Rights: A Mandate And Framework For International Financial Institutions, Michael Ashley Stein, Penelope J. S. Stein Apr 2014

Disability, Development, And Human Rights: A Mandate And Framework For International Financial Institutions, Michael Ashley Stein, Penelope J. S. Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Free Trade In Patented Goods: International Exhaustion For Patents, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Apr 2014

Free Trade In Patented Goods: International Exhaustion For Patents, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

Modern international trade law seeks to increase global welfare by lowering barriers to trade and encouraging international competition. This “free trade” approach, while originally applied to reduce tariffs on trade, has been extended to challenge non-tariff barriers, with modern trade agreements targeting telecommunication regulations, industrial and product safety standards, and intellectual property rules. Patent law, however, remains inconsistent with free-trade principles by allowing patent holders to subdivide the world market along national borders and to forbid trade in patented goods from one nation to another. This Article demonstrates that the doctrines thwarting free trade in patented goods are protectionist remnants ...


Responsibility For Regime Change, Jay Butler Apr 2014

Responsibility For Regime Change, Jay Butler

Faculty Publications

What obligations does a state have after it forcibly overthrows the regime of another state or territory? The Hague Regulations and the Fourth Geneva Convention provide some answers, but their prohibition on interfering with the governing structure of the targeted territory is outmoded. Based on a careful examination of subsequent practice of the parties to the conventions, this Article asserts a new interpretation of these treaties and argues that regime changers are now under positive obligations in the postwar period and beyond.

Through their conduct and evaluation of modern regime-change missions, states, both individually and acting collectively through international organizations ...


Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Dec 2013

Evaluating Flexibility In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

Global patent law has raced toward harmonization over the past decades. Countries with vastly different industries, values, and levels of development now offer robust patent rights with similar contours through membership in the World Trade Organization and consequent adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”). However, patent law is still far from harmonized among countries or static within countries. Jurisdictions tailor their patent laws to accommodate differences between industries, unforeseen inefficiencies, and diverse views of the costs and benefits associated with offering patent rights to stimulate innovation. Prior scholarly work consists of either doctrinal analyses ...


Inter-Country Adoption And The Special Rights Fallacy, James G. Dwyer Oct 2013

Inter-Country Adoption And The Special Rights Fallacy, James G. Dwyer

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Humanitarian Financial Intervention, Evan J. Criddle May 2013

Humanitarian Financial Intervention, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

Over the past several decades, states have used international asset freezes with increasing frequency as a mechanism for promoting human rights abroad. Yet the international law governing this mechanism, which I refer to as ‘humanitarian financial intervention’, remains fragmented. This article offers the first systematic legal analysis of humanitarian financial intervention. It identifies six humanitarian purposes that states may pursue through asset freezes: preserving foreign assets from misappropriation, incapacitating foreign states or foreign nationals, coercing foreign states or foreign nationals to forsake abusive practices, compensating victims, ameliorating humanitarian crises through humanitarian aid or postconflict reconstruction, and punishing human rights violators ...


Bargaining Practices: Negotiating The Kampala Compromise For The International Criminal Court, Noah Weisbord Jan 2013

Bargaining Practices: Negotiating The Kampala Compromise For The International Criminal Court, Noah Weisbord

Faculty Publications

At the International Criminal Court's (ICC) Review Conference in 2010, the ICC's Assembly of States Parties (ASP) agreed upon a definition of the crime of aggression, jurisdictional conditions, and a mechanism for its entry into force (the "Kampala Compromise"). These amendments give the ICC jurisdiction to prosecute political and military leaders of states for planning, preparing, initiating, or executing illegal wars, beginning as early as January 2017.

This article explains the bargaining practices of the diplomats that gave rise to this historic development in international law. This article argues that the international-practices framework, as currently conceived, does not ...


The Legal Dilemma Of Guantanamo Detainees From Bush To Obama, Linda A. Malone Dec 2012

The Legal Dilemma Of Guantanamo Detainees From Bush To Obama, Linda A. Malone

Faculty Publications

The stage for the Guantanamo detainees’ commission proceedings was set by the interplay between the Executive’s detention powers and the Judiciary’s habeas powers. The Bush administration turned to Congress to provide less than what was required by the court, instead of the minimum deemed necessary to comply with each decision, or to explore another legal argument for not complying. This article examines how the law for the Guantanamo detainees has been shaped by the US courts and by Congress. The article begins by observing the guidelines issued by the Supreme Court for compliance with the constitutional and humanitarian ...


Proportionality In Counterinsurgency: A Relational Theory, Evan J. Criddle Feb 2012

Proportionality In Counterinsurgency: A Relational Theory, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

At a time when the United States has undertaken high-stakes counterinsurgency campaigns in at least three countries (Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan) while offering support to insurgents in a fourth (Libya), it is striking that the international legal standards governing the use of force in counterinsurgency remain unsettled and deeply controversial. Some authorities have endorsed norms from international humanitarian law as lex specialis, while others have emphasized international human rights as minimum standards of care for counterinsurgency operations. This Article addresses the growing friction between international human rights and humanitarian law in counterinsurgency by developing a relational theory of the use ...


Insular Minorities: International Law’S Challenge To Japan’S Ethnic Homogeneity, Timothy Webster Jan 2011

Insular Minorities: International Law’S Challenge To Japan’S Ethnic Homogeneity, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

The Japanese state has long promoted a view of itself, and the country, as ethnically homogeneous. Borrowing on critical race theory as developed in the United States, this paper first traces the numerous laws and policies that Japan has implemented to privilege ethnically Japanese people, and prejudice ethnic others. Next, the paper examines the role of international human rights law in challenging various edifices of the ethno-state, including amendments to legislation, and individual lawsuits. I conclude that international law has played a meaningful role in diversifying the protective ambit of Japanese law, but cannot provide all of the solutions that ...


The Reason Behind The Rules: From Description To Normativity In International Criminal Procedure, Noah Weisbord Jan 2011

The Reason Behind The Rules: From Description To Normativity In International Criminal Procedure, Noah Weisbord

Faculty Publications

As the International Criminal Court (ICC) continues to mature in its practices, it provokes discussion on whether the comfortable framework of adversarial and inquisitorial systems should be used to evaluate an institution that exists in a fundamentally different context from that of national criminal justice systems. In order to avoid entangling the ICC in rules that are not tailored to fit its specific goals and institutional context, the normative purposes underlying procedural rules derived from domestic institutions should be reexamined.

This article draws out basic principles that may be of use in reexamining the reasoning behind the rules of procedure ...


"Fact-Finding Without Facts": A Conversation With Nancy Combs, Nancy Amoury Combs Jan 2011

"Fact-Finding Without Facts": A Conversation With Nancy Combs, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Head-Of-State And Foreign Official Immunity In The United States After Samantar: A Suggested Approach, Christopher Totten Jan 2011

Head-Of-State And Foreign Official Immunity In The United States After Samantar: A Suggested Approach, Christopher Totten

Faculty Publications

This Article consists of four parts. Part I addresses the US approach to immunity for current and former foreign heads of state as well as the related issue of foreign official immunity. Part I includes a discussion of the 2010 US Supreme Court case of Samantar, which addresses foreign official immunity. Part II explores head-of-state and official immunity under international law, including a discussion of Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium decided by the International Court of Justice ("ICJ"), the Charles Taylor immunity decision of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the ongoing case by the ICC against Sudanese ...


Talk Loudly And Carry A Small Stick: The Supreme Court And Enemy Combatants, Neal Devins Jan 2010

Talk Loudly And Carry A Small Stick: The Supreme Court And Enemy Combatants, Neal Devins

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


On The Use And Abuse Of Standards For Law: Global Governance And Offshore Financial Centers, Richard K. Gordon Jan 2010

On The Use And Abuse Of Standards For Law: Global Governance And Offshore Financial Centers, Richard K. Gordon

Faculty Publications

Current trends in international legal scholarship have shifted from a paradigm of state actors working within recognized sources of international law to one that includes networks of domestic regulators that develop and implement best practices or standards on a global basis. The new paradigm can be seen in operation in the efforts by onshore jurisdictions (most of which are financial centers themselves) to restrict the activities of offshore financial centers. Onshore jurisdictions enlisted these regulatory networks, as well as key international organizations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Monetary Fund, to advance new standards ...


Keynote Address: The T-Team, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2010

Keynote Address: The T-Team, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Torture Lawyers, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2010

The Torture Lawyers, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

This article recounts the story about how these four individuals intentionally cut off the government's primary experts on the Geneva Conventions, the Torture Convention, and customary international law from the decision making process. In doing so, they presented a one-sided and distorted view of U.S. obligations under international law that led to a widespread government policy and practice of torture. It also reveals how a trio of important Supreme Court precedents disrupted these plans, and ultimately swung the balance back in favor of compliance with international law.


The Precedent Of Pretrial Release At The Icty: A Road Better Left Less Traveled, Megan A. Fairlie Jan 2010

The Precedent Of Pretrial Release At The Icty: A Road Better Left Less Traveled, Megan A. Fairlie

Faculty Publications

In August 2009 the International Criminal Court (ICC) granted the interim release of the Congolese alleged warlord, Jean-Pierre Bemba, who has been accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Central African Republic. This decision left Bemba poised to become the first ICC accused ever to enjoy pre-trial release. Of comparable significance, because the decision draws upon relevant jurisprudence from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), it highlights the potentially powerful influence of ICTY precedent upon a growing field of international and internationalized criminal justice institutions. The new Bemba release decision is just one in ...


The Fiduciary Constitution Of Human Rights, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle Dec 2009

The Fiduciary Constitution Of Human Rights, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

We argue that human rights are best conceived as norms arising from a fiduciary relationship that exists between states (or statelike actors) and the citizens and noncitizens subject to their power. These norms draw on a Kantian conception of moral personhood, protecting agents from instrumentalization and domination. They do not, however, exist in the abstract as timeless natural rights. Instead, they are correlates of the state’s fiduciary duty to provide equal security under the rule of law, a duty that flows from the state’s institutional assumption of irresistible sovereign powers.


A Fiduciary Theory Of Jus Cogens, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent Jul 2009

A Fiduciary Theory Of Jus Cogens, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.