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Full-Text Articles in Law

Defining Religion Down: Hasanna-Tabor, Martinez, And The U.S. Supreme Court, Carl H. Esbeck Oct 2012

Defining Religion Down: Hasanna-Tabor, Martinez, And The U.S. Supreme Court, Carl H. Esbeck

Faculty Publications

While two recent Supreme Court cases on religious freedom appear sharply at odds, in one material respect they harmonize around an understanding that religion is fully protected only when exercised in private. CLS v. Martinez involved Hastings College of Law. Hastings' regulation of extracurricular organizations was unusual in requiring that any student can join an organization. This all-comers rule had a discriminatory impact on organizations with exclusionary memberships, such as the Christian Legal Society (CLS) which required subscribing to a statement of faith and conduct. The Court acknowledged the discriminatory effect, but said that the Free Speech Clause protects speech ...


The Supremacy Clause As Structural Safeguard Of Federalism: State Judges And International Law In The Post-Erie Era, Sam F. Halabi Oct 2012

The Supremacy Clause As Structural Safeguard Of Federalism: State Judges And International Law In The Post-Erie Era, Sam F. Halabi

Faculty Publications

Against a backdrop of state constitutional and legislative initiatives aimed at limiting judicial use of international law, this Article argues that state judges have, by and large, interpreted treaties and customary international law so as to narrow their effect on state law-making prerogatives. Where state judges have used international law more liberally, they have done so to give effect to state executive and legislative objectives. Not only does this thesis suggest that the trend among state legislatures to limit state judges' use of international law is self-defeating, it also gives substance to a relatively unexplored structural safeguard of federalism: state ...


Empowering Settlors: How Proper Language Can Increase The Enforceability Of A Mandatory Arbitration Provision In A Trust, S. I. Strong Oct 2012

Empowering Settlors: How Proper Language Can Increase The Enforceability Of A Mandatory Arbitration Provision In A Trust, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

With hostile trust litigation reaching epidemic proportions, many people within the trust industry are interested in identifying new and less expensive ways to resolve trust-related disputes. Arbitration is often proposed as a possible alternative, although questions exist about whether and to what extent a mandatory arbitration provision found in a trust will be considered enforceable by a court. Up until now, most commentary in this area of law has focused on purely jurisprudential issues, with little attention being paid to the practical efforts that settlors can make to increase the enforceability of arbitration provisions found in trusts. This Article takes ...


Reducing The Discount Rate, Ben L. Trachtenberg Oct 2012

Reducing The Discount Rate, Ben L. Trachtenberg

Faculty Publications

This article presents two arguments against the “discounting” of future human lives as part of cost benefit analysis, or CBA. Our first argument is that because CBA has thus far ignored evidence of rising health care expenditures, it underestimates the “willingness to pay” for health and safety that future citizens will likely exhibit, thereby undervaluing their lives. Our second argument is that until recently CBA has ignored the trend of improved material conditions in developed countries, and most agencies continue to ignore it entirely. As time advances, residents of rich countries tend to live better and spend more, meaning that ...


Public Forum 2.1: Public Higher Education Institutions And Social Media, Robert H. Jerry Ii, Lyrissa Lidsky Oct 2012

Public Forum 2.1: Public Higher Education Institutions And Social Media, Robert H. Jerry Ii, Lyrissa Lidsky

Faculty Publications

Public colleges and universities increasingly are using Facebook, Second Life, YouTube, Twitter, and other social media communications tools. Yet public colleges and universities are government actors, and their creation and maintenance of social media sites or forums create difficult constitutional and administrative challenges. Our separate experiences, both theoretical and practical, have convinced us of the value of providing guidance for public higher education institutions wishing to engage with their constituents-including prospective, current, and former students and many others-through social media.

Together, we seek to guide public university officials through the complex body of law governing their social media use and ...


Side Letters, Incorporation By Reference And Construction Of Contractual Relationships Memorialized In Multiple Writings, Royce De R. Barondes Oct 2012

Side Letters, Incorporation By Reference And Construction Of Contractual Relationships Memorialized In Multiple Writings, Royce De R. Barondes

Faculty Publications

This article will examine the legal principles applicable to contractual relationships memorialized in multiple writings.


Bullying Victimization As A Disability In Public Elementary And Secondary Education, Douglas E. Abrams Jul 2012

Bullying Victimization As A Disability In Public Elementary And Secondary Education, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

This article discusses two reasons why likening bullying victimization to an educational disability makes sense. First, face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying impose on student victims the sort of educational deprivation that the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) addresses in the disabilities arena. Second, today’s belated public sensitivity to school bullying victims resembles the belated public sensitivity to students with disabilities that led to passage of the IDEA in 1975.


Resolving Mass Legal Disputes Through Class Arbitration: The United States And Canada Compared, S. I. Strong Jul 2012

Resolving Mass Legal Disputes Through Class Arbitration: The United States And Canada Compared, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

This article compares three issues that have arisen as a result of recent Supreme Court decisions in both countries: the circumstances in which class arbitration is available; the procedures that must or may be used; and the nature of the right to proceed as a class. In so doing, the article not only offers valuable lessons to parties in the U.S. and Canada, but also provides observers from other countries with a useful framework for considering issues relating to the intersection between collective relief and arbitration.


Financial Decision-Making For Adults Lacking The Capacity To Make Their Own Decisions, David M. English Jul 2012

Financial Decision-Making For Adults Lacking The Capacity To Make Their Own Decisions, David M. English

Faculty Publications

A significant percentage of individuals lack sufficient mental capacity to make financial, health, and personal-care decisions for at least some period during their lifetimes. For those who die suddenly, that period may be brief. For those with Alzheimer’s Disease or other forms of dementia, the period of incapacity may last many years.


Editor's Observations: It's Alive! The Federal Booker-Fix Debate Sirs, Frank O. Bowman Iii Jun 2012

Editor's Observations: It's Alive! The Federal Booker-Fix Debate Sirs, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

Seven years have passed since Justice Ginsburg do-si-doed from the merits majority to the remedial majority in Booker and transformed the Federal Sentencing Guidelines into an advisory system.' And despite the logical absurdity of the Scalian Sixth Amendment doctrine that produced this outcome,' and despite the expectation of folks like me that this marriage of fish and fowl could not long survive, it survives. What is more, a great many people whose opinion matters now claim to love it-or at least to like it well enough to want to keep it for the foreseeable future. Thus, the outburst of legislative ...


Getting Away With Murder (Most Of The Time): Civil War Era Homicide Cases In Boone County, Missouri, Frank O. Bowman Iii Apr 2012

Getting Away With Murder (Most Of The Time): Civil War Era Homicide Cases In Boone County, Missouri, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

Much of the modem American legal process is dependent, not on particular substantive or procedural rules, but on legal and societal infrastructure that we tend to take for granted. To give the simplest example, appellate practice in Missouri (and elsewhere) was stunted until the late 1880s by the absence of court reporters who could create the verbatim trial records upon which a detailed review for error depends. The study of actual cases decided by juries and judges - law in action, rather than law in theory - owes its fascination to the insights it gives into what people really believe about the ...


International Trademark Protection And Global Public Health: A Just-Compensation Regime For Expropriations And Regulatory Takings, Sam F. Halabi Apr 2012

International Trademark Protection And Global Public Health: A Just-Compensation Regime For Expropriations And Regulatory Takings, Sam F. Halabi

Faculty Publications

Lawmakers in developed and developing countries are expanding legal protections for trademarks – words, combinations of colors, signs, letters, numerals, figurative elements and designs meant to convey the origin and quality of firms’ goods or services. The purported rationales underlying trademark protection are promotion of competition and reduction of consumers’ information costs. Trademark law promotes competition by giving trademark holders an incentive to invest in the quality of goods or services and then associate that quality with a relatively easy-to-identify brand, mark or logo. The law punishes private actors who attempt to free-ride on the goodwill built by the trademark holder ...


Principles For Designing Negotiation Instruction, John M. Lande, Ximena Bustamante, Jay Folberg, Joel Lee Apr 2012

Principles For Designing Negotiation Instruction, John M. Lande, Ximena Bustamante, Jay Folberg, Joel Lee

Faculty Publications

This article analyzes recommendations in the Rethinking Negotiation Teaching (RNT) series. Instructors teaching negotiation and other dispute resolution subjects have long had a hard time trying to cover everything they would like in their courses. The RNT project has documented (and, to some extent, stimulated) a growing profusion of ideas and techniques for teaching negotiation, which has multiplied instructors’ dilemmas in designing their courses. Since instructors cannot teach everything they would like, this article suggests some general principles for making decisions about what to include and how to conduct these courses. Clearly, there is no single right or best way ...


Does Class Arbitration "Change The Nature" Of Arbitration? Stolt-Nielsen, At&T And A Return To First Principles, S. I. Strong Apr 2012

Does Class Arbitration "Change The Nature" Of Arbitration? Stolt-Nielsen, At&T And A Return To First Principles, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

In Stolt-Nielsen S.A. v. AnimalFeeds International Corp., the United States Supreme Court stated that class arbitration “changes the nature of arbitration,” an idea that was also reflected in the Supreme Court’s subsequent decision in AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion. Certainly class proceedings do not resemble the traditional view of arbitration as a swift, simple and pragmatic bilateral procedure with few witnesses, documents or formalities, but do these types of large-scale disputes violate the fundamental nature of the arbitral procedure? This article answers that question by considering the jurisprudential nature of arbitration and determining whether and to what ...


A Religious Organization’S Autonomy In Matters Of Self-Governance: Hosanna-Tabor And The First Amendment, Carl H. Esbeck Mar 2012

A Religious Organization’S Autonomy In Matters Of Self-Governance: Hosanna-Tabor And The First Amendment, Carl H. Esbeck

Faculty Publications

In Hosanna-Tabor, a teacher suing her employer, a church-based school, alleged retaliation for having asserted rights under a discrimination statute. The School raised the “ministerial exception,” which prohibits ministers from suing their religious employer. The Court held the exception was constitutionally required. Before giving the facts that convinced it that this teacher was a “minister,” the Court had to distinguish the leading case of Employ. Div. v. Smith. Plaintiffs in Smith held jobs as counselors at a drug rehabilitation center. They were fired for illegal drug use (peyote), and later denied unemployment compensation. The Native American Church ingests peyote during ...


Player Safety In Youth Sports: Sportsmanship And Respect As An Injury Prevention Strategy, Douglas E. Abrams Jan 2012

Player Safety In Youth Sports: Sportsmanship And Respect As An Injury Prevention Strategy, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

Preventing avoidable injury is the first obligation of adults who conduct and supervise youth sports events. The law plays only a limited role because lawsuits occur only after the injury. As the behavior of many parents and coaches has deteriorated, national youth sports governing bodies have produced materials that cast adults as role models and urge them to teach and practice sportsmanship and respect. These bodies should now recast these useful citizenship-based adult-education materials to stress also that adherence to sportsmanship and respect helps prevent injuries that can occur when adults acting irresponsibly neutralize national safety standards. Protective equipment is ...


Forward: Jim Devine's "Show Me Spirit", R. Lawrence Dessem Jan 2012

Forward: Jim Devine's "Show Me Spirit", R. Lawrence Dessem

Faculty Publications

I am pleased to have been asked by the editors of the Missouri Law Review to write this short introduction to Associate Dean Jim Devine's final Article: "Curt Flood and a Triumph of the Show Me Spirit."' It provides a wonderful window on some of the things that mattered most to Jim: law, history, sports, and personal character and integrity.


Traditions And Belligerent Recognition: The Libyan Intervention In Historical And Theoretical Context, Sam F. Halabi Jan 2012

Traditions And Belligerent Recognition: The Libyan Intervention In Historical And Theoretical Context, Sam F. Halabi

Faculty Publications

On February 26 and March 17, 2011, the U.N. Security Council adopted two resolutions authorizing sanctions, referral to the International Criminal Court and military intervention to protect civilians during the Libyan Civil War. Despite these rapid and well-supported interventions, France decided, on March 10, 2011, to recognize the largely anonymous and poorly understood National Transitional Council based in the eastern city of Benghazi as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people. The move both confused its allies and raised a number of legal problems for France, Libya and participants in the multilateral intervention. Nevertheless, Italy, Qatar, the United States ...


Plagiarism In Lawyers' Advocacy: Imposing Discipline For Conduct Prejudicial To The Administration Of Justice, Douglas E. Abrams Jan 2012

Plagiarism In Lawyers' Advocacy: Imposing Discipline For Conduct Prejudicial To The Administration Of Justice, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

In a recent high-profile prosecution, the federal district court criticized defense counsel for filing a post-trial brief that copied passages from previously published material without attribution. The court followed other recent decisions that, since about 2000, have chastised lawyers for briefs marked by plagiarism. Some lawyers had copied passages from earlier judicial opinions that rest in the public domain, and some lawyers (as in the recent prosecution) had copied passages from private sources that are subject to the copyright laws. In either event, courts have labeled lawyers’ plagiarism “reprehensible,” “intolerable,” “completely unacceptable,” and “unprofessional.”


Nothing Is Not Enough: Fix The Absurd Post-Booker Federal Sentencing System, Frank O. Bowman Iii Jan 2012

Nothing Is Not Enough: Fix The Absurd Post-Booker Federal Sentencing System, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

This article is an elaboration of testimony I gave in February 2012 at a U.S. Sentencing Commission hearing considering whether the advisory guidelines system created by the Supreme Court’s 2005 decision in United States v. Booker should be modified or replaced. I argue that it should.


Bringing Mindfulness Into The Law School Classroom: A Personal Journey, Richard C. Reuben Jan 2012

Bringing Mindfulness Into The Law School Classroom: A Personal Journey, Richard C. Reuben

Faculty Publications

This autobiographical essay discusses how the author used the techniques and benefits associated with mindfulness to improve his law school classroom teaching. Mindfulness is a state of non-judgmental present moment awareness that is often cultivated through meditation practice but also carried forward into everyday life. The essay discusses how this stance of mindfulness helped the author achieve a greater connection with his students in a variety of both doctrinal and non-traditional classes by fostering more openness, receptivity, and responsiveness to where students are at in the classroom moment, as well as the greater clarity, courage, and compassion that can be ...


Airspace And The Takings Clause, Troy A. Rule Jan 2012

Airspace And The Takings Clause, Troy A. Rule

Faculty Publications

This Article argues that the U.S. Supreme Court’s takings jurisprudence fails to account for instances when public entities restrict private airspace solely to keep it open for their own use. Many landowners rely on open space above adjacent land to preserve scenic views for their properties, to provide sunlight access for their rooftop solar panels, or to serve other uses that require no physical invasion of the neighboring space. Private citizens typically must purchase easements or covenants to prevent their neighbors from erecting trees or buildings that would interfere with these non-physical airspace uses. In contrast, public entities ...


The Twelve-Year-Old Girl's Lawsuit That Changed America: The Continuing Impact Of Now V. Little League Baseball, Inc. At 40, Douglas E. Abrams Jan 2012

The Twelve-Year-Old Girl's Lawsuit That Changed America: The Continuing Impact Of Now V. Little League Baseball, Inc. At 40, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

In 1972, Little League's national office forced 12-year-old Maria Pepe off her Hoboken (N.J.) team because "[g]irls are not eligible." The New Jersey Division on Civil Rights sustained her gender discrimination claim in 1973, and the courts upheld the administrative decision a year later.

National reaction to Maria Pepe's courageous insistence on gender equity helped sustain the evolution in gender roles that had accelerated since the Women's Movement of the 1960s. Her landmark legal action also likely influenced the Supreme Court's gradual movement toward intermediate scrutiny of gender discrimination claims; the 1975 federal regulations ...


Title Vii Works - That's Why We Don't Like It, Chuck Henson Jan 2012

Title Vii Works - That's Why We Don't Like It, Chuck Henson

Faculty Publications

In response to the universal belief that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is not fulfilling its purpose, this Article presents a different perspective on the reality of this federal employment discrimination law. Title VII is fulfilling the purpose of the Congress that created it. The purpose was not the eradication of all discrimination in employment. The purpose was to balance the prohibition of the most obvious forms of discrimination with the preservation of as much employer decision-making latitude as possible. Moreover, the seminal Supreme Court decision, McDonnell Douglas v. Green, accurately implemented this balance. This Article ...


Before Wisconsin And Ohio: The Quiet Success Of Card-Check Organizing In The Public Sector, Rafael Gely, Timothy D. Chandler Jan 2012

Before Wisconsin And Ohio: The Quiet Success Of Card-Check Organizing In The Public Sector, Rafael Gely, Timothy D. Chandler

Faculty Publications

Card-check laws, which have been unsuccessfully pursued by private-sector unions, mandate that employers recognize the union as the representative of employees on the basis of signed authorization cards without reliance on a representation election. Card check authorization benefits unions because it short circuits the usual organizing process by eliminating the union's need to further prove majority support in a secret ballot election.' But by doing so, it imposes costs on employers by restricting their efforts to erode union support through aggressive campaign tactics. Our paper seeks to better understand the development of these laws and their effects, and in ...


Building Bridges To Consumer Remedies In International Econflicts, Amy J. Schmitz Jan 2012

Building Bridges To Consumer Remedies In International Econflicts, Amy J. Schmitz

Faculty Publications

Consumer purchases over the Internet (“ePurchases”) are on the rise, thereby causing an increase in conflicts regarding these purchases (“eConflicts”). Furthermore, these conflicts are increasingly international as consumers purchase goods over the Internet not knowing or caring where the seller is physically located. The problem is that if the purchase goes awry, consumers are often left without recourse due to the futility of pursing international litigation and the textured law and policy regarding enforcement of private dispute resolution procedures, namely arbitration. The United States strictly enforces arbitration contracts in business-to-consumer (“B2C”) relationships, while other countries have refused or limited enforcement ...


Access To Consumer Remedies In The Squeaky Wheel System, Amy J. Schmitz Jan 2012

Access To Consumer Remedies In The Squeaky Wheel System, Amy J. Schmitz

Faculty Publications

This article explores the “Squeaky Wheel System” (“SWS”) in business-to-consumer (“B2C”) contexts, referring to merchants’ reservation of purchase remedies and other contract benefits for only the relatively few “squeaky wheel” consumers who have the requisite information and resources to persistently seek assistance. The article uncovers how this system fosters contractual discrimination and hinders consumers’ awareness and access with respect to contract remedies. It also adds empirical insights from my recent e-survey, and offers suggestions for using the internet to empower consumers of all economic and status levels with efficient and accessible means for learning about their purchase rights and asserting ...


Faa Law, Without The Activism: What If The Bellwether Cases Were Decided By A Truly Conservative Court, Richard C. Reuben Jan 2012

Faa Law, Without The Activism: What If The Bellwether Cases Were Decided By A Truly Conservative Court, Richard C. Reuben

Faculty Publications

The U.S. Supreme Court has decided an extraordinary number of cases under the Federal Arbitration Act in the last half century, a pattern that continues today at the pace of a case or two a year. During this time, Republican presidential candidates have made much political hay out of the Supreme Court, running against the Warren Court’s “liberal activism” by promising to appoint judges who would decide cases more conservatively. In this article, I analyze whether this promise has been fulfilled in the context of the Supreme Court’s FAA jurisprudence by identifying the core principles of judicial ...


Border Skirmishes: The Intersection Between Litigation And International Commercial Arbitration, S. I. Strong Jan 2012

Border Skirmishes: The Intersection Between Litigation And International Commercial Arbitration, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

This essay considers the tension between the autonomous theory of international commercial arbitration and the more interactive theory advanced by Gary Born during his keynote address at the recent “Border Skirmishes” symposium at the University of Missouri School of Law. In his presentation, Born considered the relationship between litigation and international commercial arbitration and distinguished between permissible “border crossings” and impermissible “border incursions.” This essay considers how these concepts play out both in routine interactions between courts and tribunals and more in difficult scenarios, such as those involving anti-suit injunctions. The discussion also presents statistics concerning the amount of ancillary ...


Airspace And The Takings Clause, Troy A. Rule Jan 2012

Airspace And The Takings Clause, Troy A. Rule

Faculty Publications

This Article highlights several situations in which governments can impose height restrictions or other regulations as a way to effectively take negative airspace easements for their own benefit. The Article describes why current regulatory takings rules fail to adequately protect citizens against these situations and advocates a new rule capable of filling this gap in takings law. The new rule would clarify the Supreme Court’s takings jurisprudence as it relates to airspace and would promote more fair and efficient allocations of airspace rights between governments and private citizens.