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University of Missouri School of Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

A No-Contest Discharge For Uncollectible Student Loans, Brook E. Gotberg, Matthew Bruckner, Dalie Jimenez, Chrystin Ondersma Jan 2020

A No-Contest Discharge For Uncollectible Student Loans, Brook E. Gotberg, Matthew Bruckner, Dalie Jimenez, Chrystin Ondersma

Faculty Publications

Over forty-four million Americans owe more than $1.6 trillion in student loan debt. This debt is nearly impossible to discharge in bankruptcy. Attempting to do so may require costly and contentious litigation with the Department of Education. And because the Department typically fights every case, even initial success can be followed by years of appeals. As a result, few student loan borrowers attempt to discharge their student loan debt in bankruptcy.

In this Article, we call on the Department of Education to develop a set of ten easily ascertainable and verifiable circumstances in which it will not contest a ...


References To Movies In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy, Part 2, Douglas E. Abrams Nov 2019

References To Movies In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy, Part 2, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

In the Journal’s September- October issue, Part I of this article sampled recent federal and state judicial opinions that cite themes, scenes, or characters from movies listed on the American Film Institute (AFI) “100 Greatest American Films of All Time.” This Part II picks up where Part I left off. The discussion below samples recent judicial opinions that cite other well-known movies that have captivated American audiences without winning places on the “100 Greatest” list. Part II concludes by explaining why brief writers should feel comfortable following the judges’ lead by carefully using movie references to help make written ...


References To Movies In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy, Part 1, Douglas E. Abrams Sep 2019

References To Movies In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy, Part 1, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

In opinions in cases with no claims or defenses concerning movies or the movie industry, trial and appellate judges often help explain substantive or procedural points, or help embellish the discussion, with references to themes, scenes, or characters from well-known films that have held Americans’ attention. Sometimes the reference appears in an opinion of the court, and sometimes it appears in a concurring or dissenting opinion.


Vouchers And Affordable Housing: The Limits Of Choice In The Political Economy Of Place, Rigel C. Oliveri Jul 2019

Vouchers And Affordable Housing: The Limits Of Choice In The Political Economy Of Place, Rigel C. Oliveri

Faculty Publications

America's housing segregation problem, and the direct role of government and private actors in creating it, is well documented. What to do about it is less clear. And even when consensus develops about particular strategies, they can be difficult to implement because of significant headwinds that impede change. These headwinds-including market forces, government policies, and private prejudices-continue to stymie progress, and even well-intentioned reform efforts can fail at best and lead to negative consequences at worst. This piece seeks not to provide answers, but rather to describe one such set of reforms and headwinds and to propose some modest ...


Relational Preferences In Chapter 11 Proceedings, Brook E. Gotberg Jul 2019

Relational Preferences In Chapter 11 Proceedings, Brook E. Gotberg

Faculty Publications

It is no secret that creditors hate so-called "preference" actions, which permit a debtor to recover payments made to creditors on the eve of bankruptcy for the benefit of the estate. Nominally, preference actions are intended to equalize the extent to which each unsecured creditor must bear the loss of a bankruptcy discharge, or to discourage creditors from rushing to collect from the debtor in such a way that will push an insolvent debtor into bankruptcy. But empirical evidence strongly suggests that, at least in chapter 11 reorganization proceedings, preference actions do not fulfill either of these stated goals. Interviews ...


Moving Beyond Medical Debt, Brook E. Gotberg, Michael D. Sousa Jul 2019

Moving Beyond Medical Debt, Brook E. Gotberg, Michael D. Sousa

Faculty Publications

In recent years it has become clear that medical costs are imposing severe financial burdens on American families, sometimes to the point that bankruptcy becomes the only escape from crippling debt. When evaluating the well-established connection between outstanding medical debt and consumer bankruptcy, most existing empirical studies attempt to quantify the percentage of consumer bankruptcies that are "caused" by unmanageable medical indebtedness. This Article addresses what we believe to be a more significant line of empirical inquiry, namely, the connection between health insurance coverage and consumer bankruptcy as a more precise measurement of how national health insurance programs may or ...


British Impeachments (1376-1787) And The Preservation Of The American Constitutional Order, Frank O. Bowman Iii Jul 2019

British Impeachments (1376-1787) And The Preservation Of The American Constitutional Order, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

Impeachment is a British invention, employed by Parliament beginning in 1376 to resist the general tendency of the monarchy to absolutism and to counter particularly obnoxious royal policies by removing the ministers who implemented them. The invention crossed the Atlantic with the British colonists who would one day rebel against their mother country and create an independent United States of America. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the delegates decided that presidents and other federal officers could be impeached, but they recoiled from the severe and occasionally fatal punishments imposed by Parliament, and they wrestled over what conduct should be ...


Access Before Evidence And The Price Of The Fda's New Drug Authorities, Erika Lietzan May 2019

Access Before Evidence And The Price Of The Fda's New Drug Authorities, Erika Lietzan

Faculty Publications

Sometimes drug innovation seems to happen in reverse. Patients enjoy a treatment for years even though the treatment has not been approved by the FDA or proven safe and effective to the FDA's standards. (Sometimes this happens because the FDA has declined to take enforcement action.) The agency encourages companies to perform the work necessary to satisfy the United States "gold standard" for new drug approval, however, by promising exclusivity in the marketplace. When a company does this work, at considerable expense, the results are predictable. The new drug is expensive, and patients and payers (and sometimes policymakers) are ...


America's Founding Editors: Writing The Declaration Of Independence, Douglas E. Abrams May 2019

America's Founding Editors: Writing The Declaration Of Independence, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

On Congress’ behalf, one of its members, 33-year-old Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson, drafted the Declaration of Independence. For the next half century, Jefferson’s fierce pride of authorship, unrestrained by humility, kept him from crediting Congress for skilled editing that helped make him a national icon by sharpening his powerful, but less than polished, draft. The irony of lawyer Jefferson’s enduring bitterness and ingratitude can stimulate today’s lawyers to sharpen their own drafts by respecting cooperative editors as valuable allies, not as troublesome adversaries.


Frozen Pre-Embryo Practice In Missouri, Mary M. Beck, L. "Joanna" Beck Wilkinson May 2019

Frozen Pre-Embryo Practice In Missouri, Mary M. Beck, L. "Joanna" Beck Wilkinson

Faculty Publications

McQueen v. Gadberry was an Eastern District dissolution dispute over frozen pre-implantation embryos formed from McQueen’s eggs and Gadberry’s sperm. The St. Louis County trial court found the pre-embryos to be marital property of a special character and awarded them jointly to each of the former spouses. The appellate court affirmed. McQueen is an important decision because the finding that embryos are marital property was an issue of first impression that affects many Missouri families. Infertility is a common problem, couples frequently utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to form families, and the extra frozen pre-implantation embryos (hereinafter pre-embryos ...


Residential Mortgage Default And The Constraints Of Junior Liens, R. Wilson Freyermuth, Dale A. Whitman Apr 2019

Residential Mortgage Default And The Constraints Of Junior Liens, R. Wilson Freyermuth, Dale A. Whitman

Faculty Publications

Our purpose in this Article is to show how and why junior liens impose these constraints on the process of resolving residential mortgage loan defaults, and to suggest some changes in the law that can restore a measure of desirable flexibility for borrowers and servicers in negotiating default resolutions. At the same time, these suggestions take into account, as they must, the need for fairness in respecting the legitimate rights of junior lienholders.


References To Television Shows In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy (Part Ii), Douglas E. Abrams Mar 2019

References To Television Shows In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy (Part Ii), Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

In the Journal’s January-February issue, Part I of this article began by surveying television’s profound influence on American culture since the early 1950s, a sturdy foundation for federal and state judges who cite or discuss well known television shows in their opinions. Part I presented television drama shows.

This Part II picks up where Part I left of. The discussion below presents television situation comedies (“sitcoms”) and reality TV shows that appear in judicial opinions. The discussion concludes by explaining why advocates should feel comfortable following the judges’ lead by carefully using television references to help make written ...


Online Dispute Resolution For Smart Contracts, Amy J. Schmitz, Colin Rule Jan 2019

Online Dispute Resolution For Smart Contracts, Amy J. Schmitz, Colin Rule

Faculty Publications

Smart contracts built in the blockchain are quietly revolutionizing traditional transactions despite their questionable status under current law. At the same time, disputes regarding smart contracts are inevitable, and par-ties will need means for dealing with smart contract issues. This Article tackles this challenge, and proposes that parties turn to online dispute resolution (“ODR”) to efficiently and fairly resolve smart contract disputes. Furthermore, the Article acknowledges the benefits and challenges of current blockchain ODR start-ups, and proposes specific ideas for how designers could address those challenges and incorporate ODR to provide just resolutions that will not stymie efficiencies of smart ...


Does Trips Stop International Ip Free-Riders, Sam F. Halabi Jan 2019

Does Trips Stop International Ip Free-Riders, Sam F. Halabi

Faculty Publications

Innovation policy-a relatively new phrase for an old set of top-down competitiveness approaches (e.g. "industrial policy," "science policy," "research policy," and "technology policy")-is necessarily a combination of centralized investment, structure of private-sector incentives, and public policy priorities.This combination has always been unwieldy, multivariate, and politically charged. As a result, constituencies favoring one or other approaches (e.g. longer patent protection, more funding of public universities and research infrastructure, tariff or non-tariff import measures) have lacked a unifying framework through which to analyze shared problems. In Innovation Policy Pluralism, Daniel J. Hemel and Lisa Larrimore Ouellette provide that ...


Viral Sovereignty, Intellectual Property, And The Changing Global System For Sharing Pathogens For Infectious Disease Research, Sam F. Halabi Jan 2019

Viral Sovereignty, Intellectual Property, And The Changing Global System For Sharing Pathogens For Infectious Disease Research, Sam F. Halabi

Faculty Publications

This article analyzes the substantial changes under way in the global system for infectious disease research demonstrated by the changing practices in negotiating MTAs. Instead of the open system of sharing bacterial and viral human pathogens that characterized the research system for much of the 20th Century, notions of "viral sovereignty," access contingent upon provisions like sharing research benefits, and acrimonious negotiations, are far more common. The increasing barriers to the flow of research material and related data like genetic sequencing information are posing threats to public health responses and the potential use of such resources in diagnostic, therapeutic, and ...


Expanding Access To Remedies Through E-Court Initiatives, Amy J. Schmitz Jan 2019

Expanding Access To Remedies Through E-Court Initiatives, Amy J. Schmitz

Faculty Publications

Virtual courthouses, artificial intelligence (AI) for determining cases, and algorithmic analysis for all types of legal issues have captured the interest of judges, lawyers, educators, commentators, business leaders, and policymakers. Technology has become the “fourth party” in dispute resolution through the growing field of online dispute resolution (ODR), which includes the use of a broad spectrum of technologies in negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and other dispute resolution processes. Indeed, ODR shows great promise for expanding access to remedies, or justice. In the United States and abroad, however, ODR has mainly thrived within e-commerce companies like eBay and Alibaba, while most public ...


The Purposes Of Title Vii, Chuck Henson Jan 2019

The Purposes Of Title Vii, Chuck Henson

Faculty Publications

Some things have an obvious and enduring purpose. The purpose of a hammer is to drive nails. The purpose of a saw is to cut wood. The purpose of nails is to fasten, for example, the freshly cut wood by being driven by a hammer. For other things, like Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Act" or "1964 Act"), purpose seems mutable or hidden. For example, finishing the sentence today: "The purpose of Title VII is . . ." presents a problem. It has presented the same problem since 1964. What Title VII does is not obvious gauged against the ...


Can Mindfulness Help Law Students With Stress, Focus, And Well-Being: An Empirical Study Of 1ls At A Midwestern Law School, Richard C. Reuben, Kennon M. Sheldon Jan 2019

Can Mindfulness Help Law Students With Stress, Focus, And Well-Being: An Empirical Study Of 1ls At A Midwestern Law School, Richard C. Reuben, Kennon M. Sheldon

Faculty Publications

Recent calls for law students, lawyers, judges, and others in the legal profession to try mindfulness training to reduce stress and enhance wellbeing beg the question of whether mindfulness will "work" for those in the uniquely rigorous environment of law. There is no empirical research on mindfulness effects for lawyers - unlike the medical field, where research has found beneficial effects of mindfulness training for doctors, nurses, and other health care providers. To fill this gap in the literature, we conducted an empirical study of forty-seven first year, first semester law students at the University of Missouri School of Law during ...


References To Television Shows In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy (Part I), Douglas E. Abrams Jan 2019

References To Television Shows In Judicial Opinions And Written Advocacy (Part I), Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


#I U: Considering The Context Of Online Threats, Lyrissa Lydsky Dec 2018

#I U: Considering The Context Of Online Threats, Lyrissa Lydsky

Faculty Publications

The United States Supreme Court has failed to grapple with the unique interpretive difficulties presented by social media threats cases. Social media make hateful and threatening speech more common but also magnify the potential for a speaker's innocent words to be misunderstood People speak differently on different social media platforms, and architecturalf eatures ofplatforms, such as character limits, affect the meaning of speech. The same is true of other contextual clues unique to social media, such as gifs, hashtags, and emojis. Only by understanding social media contexts can legal decision-makers avoid overcriminalization of speech protected by the First Amendment ...


One Judge's "Ten Tips For Effective Brief Writing" (Part Ii), Douglas E. Abrams Nov 2018

One Judge's "Ten Tips For Effective Brief Writing" (Part Ii), Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

Chief United States Bankruptcy Judge Terrence L. Michael (N.D.OKLA.) has written "Ten Tips for Effective Brief Writing" and posted them on the court's website. In the Journal's September-October issue, part 1 of this article began by discussing Tip #9 ("leave the venom at home"). That part proceeded to discuss Tips 1-4.

This final part discusses the remaining Tips. All 10 thoughtful Tips warrant careful consideration from advocates who prepare submissions for trial courts or appellate courts.


Calm Down About Common Ownership, Thom Lambert, Michael E. Sykuta Oct 2018

Calm Down About Common Ownership, Thom Lambert, Michael E. Sykuta

Faculty Publications

Proponents of additional antitrust intervention to police common ownership simply have not made their case. Their theory as to why current levels of intra-industry diversification would cause consumer harm is implausible and the empirical evidence they say demonstrates such harm is both scant and methodologically suspect. The policy solutions they have proposed for dealing with the purported problem would radically rework an industry that has provided substantial benefits to investors, raising the costs of portfolio diversification and enhancing agency costs at public companies. Courts and antitrust enforcers should reject their calls for additional antitrust intervention to police common ownership.


Contumacious Responses To Firearms Legislation (Leosa) Balancing Federalism Concerns, Royce De R. Barondes Oct 2018

Contumacious Responses To Firearms Legislation (Leosa) Balancing Federalism Concerns, Royce De R. Barondes

Faculty Publications

The Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act (LEOSA) is one of the handful of federal statutes that preempt state firearms regulation. It allows covered individuals (certain current and retired qualified law enforcement personnel) to possess firearms notwithstanding assorted state restrictions-to protect themselves and to supplement local law enforcement efforts.

The act reflects a careful legislative balancing of federalism concerns. Although it relies on states and localities to issue the authorizing credentials, it does not mandate states create a licensing regime out of whole cloth. The act ultimately presents issues requiring a nuanced assessment of the doctrine proscribing federal commandeering of the ...


Automatic Authorization Of Frisks In Terry Stops For Suspicion Of Firearms Possession, Royce De R. Barondes Oct 2018

Automatic Authorization Of Frisks In Terry Stops For Suspicion Of Firearms Possession, Royce De R. Barondes

Faculty Publications

This Article examines the related issue of whether a Terry stop initiated for reasonable suspicion that a person is armed inherently authorizes treatment of the detainee as armed and dangerous (and thus authorizes a frisk). As shown in Part III, the U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence is equivocal on the point. Part IV illustrates the conflicting approaches taken by contemporary lower courts. This Article concludes a frisk is not inherently authorized in such a stop, for two separate reasons.


Paper Promises For Drug Innovation, Erika Lietzan Oct 2018

Paper Promises For Drug Innovation, Erika Lietzan

Faculty Publications

Innovation does not stop when new medicines are launched. Companies with approved drugs and biologics continue to study their products for years after the initial approval-for instance, exploring new ways to formulate their drugs or modifying the active ingredients to introduce versions with different, and sometimes better, safety and effectiveness profiles. They also routinely study their products for usefulness in treating new conditions. This continued research requires time and money, and companies will not invest that time and money without adequate reason to do so. This Article examines the incentives federal law provides for new-use research, concluding that current incentives ...


Let's Teach Our Students Legal Technology... But What Should We Include?, Randy J. Diamond, Darin Fox, Kenneth J. Hirsh, Heidi Frostestad Kuehl, Michael Robak Sep 2018

Let's Teach Our Students Legal Technology... But What Should We Include?, Randy J. Diamond, Darin Fox, Kenneth J. Hirsh, Heidi Frostestad Kuehl, Michael Robak

Faculty Publications

A "renaissance” is often described as a cultural rebirth, a movement ushering in a modern age and leaving behind the old ways of doing things. There is every indication that we are entering a technology-driven renaissance in the legal profession. Artificial intelligence (AI), “big data,” document automation, e-discovery tools, cloud-based case management systems, and communication and collaboration tools are just a few of the ways that technology is transforming the practice of law in the twenty-first century.


One Judge's Ten Tips For Effective Brief Writing (Part I), Douglas E. Abrams Sep 2018

One Judge's Ten Tips For Effective Brief Writing (Part I), Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

In his years on the federal bankruptcy court bench, Judge Michael had read his share of briefs and other filings. Experience led him to write "Ten Tips for Effective Brief Writing," and to share them on the Court's website to guide counsel who appear before him. He directed the Gordon parties to Tip# 9, "Leave the Venom at Home." "Whether you like (or get along well with) your opposition," the Tip advises, "has little to do with the merits of a particular case. The most effective attack you can make is to persuade ... me that the other side is ...


Sexual Harassment Of Low-Income Women In Housing: Pilot Study Results, Rigel C. Oliveri Jul 2018

Sexual Harassment Of Low-Income Women In Housing: Pilot Study Results, Rigel C. Oliveri

Faculty Publications

In recent months, high-profile and influential figures in media, government, and entertainment have been brought down by credible allegations that they have engaged in sexual misconduct. These revelations have sparked an important national discussion about the prevalence of sexual harassment in American society and the ways in which powerful people can use their positions both to exploit their vulnerable targets and to escape the consequences of their actions.

The conversation is a necessary starting point, but the focus on high-status workplaces overlooks other contexts in which sexual harassment occurs. This Article focuses on one overlooked, significant national problem: the sexual ...


The European Succession Regulation And The Arbitration Of Trust Disputes, S. I. Strong Jul 2018

The European Succession Regulation And The Arbitration Of Trust Disputes, S. I. Strong

Faculty Publications

Over the last few decades, U.S. citizens have become increasingly mobile, with significant numbers of individuals living, working, and investing abroad. Estate planning has become equally international, generating ever-larger numbers of cross-border succession cases. While these sorts of developments are welcome, they require lawyers to appreciate and anticipate the various ways that the laws of different jurisdictions can interact. One of the most important recent developments in international succession law comes out of the European Union. While the European Succession Regulation may initially appear applicable only to nationals of E. U. Member States, U.S. citizens can also be ...


Judges And Their Editors, Douglas E. Abrams Jul 2018

Judges And Their Editors, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.