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Faculty Publications

Florida International University College of Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Universal, Not Nationwide, And Never Appropriate: On The Scope Of Injunctions In Constitutional Litigation, Howard Wasserman Jan 2018

Universal, Not Nationwide, And Never Appropriate: On The Scope Of Injunctions In Constitutional Litigation, Howard Wasserman

Faculty Publications

Federal district courts are routinely issuing broad injunctions prohibiting the federal government from enforcing constitutionally invalid laws, regulations, and policies on immigration and immigration-adjacent issues. Styled “nationwide injunctions,” they prohibit enforcement of the challenges laws not only against the named plaintiffs, but against all people and entities everywhere.

The first problem with these injunctions is one of nomenclature. “Nationwide” suggests something about the “where” of the injunction, the geographic scope in which it protects. The better term is “universal injunction,” which captures the real controversy over the “who” of the injunction, as courts purport to protect the universe of all ...


The History Of The Florida Supreme Court, M C. Mirow Jan 2017

The History Of The Florida Supreme Court, M C. Mirow

Faculty Publications

This article describes the challenges to writing the history of Florida's colonial courts in the Spanish and British periods from 1513 to 1821. These courts are an important yet understudied aspect of Florida legal history.


Patriarchy, Not Hierarchy: Rethinking The Effect Of Cultural Attitudes In Acquaintance Rape Cases, Eric R. Carpenter Jan 2017

Patriarchy, Not Hierarchy: Rethinking The Effect Of Cultural Attitudes In Acquaintance Rape Cases, Eric R. Carpenter

Faculty Publications

Do certain people view acquaintance rape cases in ways that favor the man? The answer to that question is important. If certain people do, and those people form a disproportionately large percentage of the people in the institutions that process these cases, then those institutions may process these cases in ways that favor the man. In 2010, Dan Kahan published Culture, Cognition, and Consent, a study on how people evaluate a dorm room rape scenario. He found that those who endorsed a stratified, hierarchical social order were more likely to find that the man should not be found guilty of ...


Police Misconduct, Video Recording, And Procedural Barriers To Rights Enforcement, Howard M. Wasserman Jan 2017

Police Misconduct, Video Recording, And Procedural Barriers To Rights Enforcement, Howard M. Wasserman

Faculty Publications

The story of police reform and of "policing the police" has become the story of video and video evidence, and "record everything to know the truth" has become the singular mantra. Video, both police-created and citizen-created, has become the singular tool for ensuring police accountability, reforming law enforcement, and enforcing the rights of victims of police misconduct. This Article explores procedural problems surrounding the use of video recording and video evidence to counter police misconduct, hold individual officers and governments accountable, and reform departmental policies, regulations, and practices. It considers four issues: 1) the mistaken belief that video can "speak ...


Water Governance In Haiti: An Assessment Of Laws And Institutional Capacities, Ryan Stoa Jan 2017

Water Governance In Haiti: An Assessment Of Laws And Institutional Capacities, Ryan Stoa

Faculty Publications

The Republic of Haiti struggles to sustainably manage its water resources. Public health is compromised by low levels of water supply, sanitation, and hygiene, and water resources are often contaminated and unsustainably allocated. While poor governance is often blamed for these shortcomings, the laws and institutions regulating water resources in Haiti are poorly understood, especially by the international community. This study brings together and analyzes Haitian water laws, assesses institutional capacities, and provides a case study of water management in northern Haiti in order to provide a more complete picture of the sector. Funded by the Inter-American Development Bank as ...


Evidence Of The Military's Sexual Assault Blind Spot, Eric R. Carpenter Jan 2016

Evidence Of The Military's Sexual Assault Blind Spot, Eric R. Carpenter

Faculty Publications

In response to the American military's perceived inability to handle sexual assault cases, many members of Congress have lost confidence in those who run the military justice system. Critics say that those who run the military justice system are sexist and perceive sexual assault cases differently than the public does. This article is the first to empirically test that assertion. Further, this is the first study to focus on the military population that matters – those who actually run the military justice system. This study finds that this narrow military population endorses two constructs that are associated with the acceptance ...


Tears In Heaven: Religiously And Culturally Sensitive Laws For Preventing The Next Pandemic, Eloisa Rodriguez-Dod, Aileen M. Marty, Elena Marty-Nelson Jan 2016

Tears In Heaven: Religiously And Culturally Sensitive Laws For Preventing The Next Pandemic, Eloisa Rodriguez-Dod, Aileen M. Marty, Elena Marty-Nelson

Faculty Publications

In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a “public health emergency of international concern” due to the increased clusters of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and other neurological disorders in areas affected by the Zika virus. That declaration came in the wake of the West Africa Ebola crisis. Back to back declarations by WHO of the highest threat level for an international public health emergency underscores how quickly pathogens can now spread and cause devastation across borders. It also highlights the need to implement lessons learned from each pandemic crisis without delay. These crises demonstrate that laws to curtail the ...


The Hidden Costs Of Strategic Communications For The International Criminal Court, Megan A. Fairlie Jan 2016

The Hidden Costs Of Strategic Communications For The International Criminal Court, Megan A. Fairlie

Faculty Publications

In little more than a decade, the International Criminal Court (ICC) has received nearly 11,000 requests for its Prosecutor to conduct atrocity investigations around the globe. To date, no such communication has resulted in an official investigation. Nevertheless, the act of publicizing these investigation requests has proven to be an effective, attention-getting tool that can achieve valuable, alternative goals. This fact explains the increasing popularity of “strategic communications” — highly publicized investigation requests aimed not at securing any ICC-related activity, but at obtaining some non-Court related advantage. This Article, which is the first to identify this trend, explains why the ...


Just A Bit Aside, Howard Wasserman Jan 2016

Just A Bit Aside, Howard Wasserman

Faculty Publications

In "Time to Drop the Infield Fly Rule and End a Common Law Anomaly," Judge Andrew Guilford and Joel Mallord offer the first cohesive scholarly critique of baseball's venerated and venerable Infield Fly Rule. They argue that the rule is grounded in outdated notions of sportsmanship and opposition to deception and that the game would be more exciting if players could be left to their own strategic and skillful devices on infield fly balls. This Response Essay builds on my previous work to argue that, properly understood, the Infield Fly Rule is justified, necessary, and appropriate in order to ...


The Biodiversity Paradigm Shift: Adapting The Endangered Species Act To Climate Change, Kalyani Robbins Jan 2016

The Biodiversity Paradigm Shift: Adapting The Endangered Species Act To Climate Change, Kalyani Robbins

Faculty Publications

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was designed to protect species that had been rendered more vulnerable to extinction as a result of human activity. As such, its implementation has traditionally focused on keeping human beings away from such species and giving the species (and their ecosystems) space to heal on their own. Climate change is altering the landscape everywhere on the globe, rendering the hands-off approach no longer sufficient. Active interventions will become more necessary as we get further into the changing climate. Taking decisive action in response to climate change will also require a fundamental shift in our approach ...


Rerum Novarum: New Things And Recent Paradigms Of Property Law, M C. Mirow Jan 2016

Rerum Novarum: New Things And Recent Paradigms Of Property Law, M C. Mirow

Faculty Publications

The two most recent paradigmatic moments in the development of property law were the construction of "social property" about a hundred years ago and of "international property" quite recently. This study analyses two important texts as illustrations of these changes: Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum (1891) and John Sprankling's book The International Law of Property (2014). Each text signals a paradigm shift in our understanding of property.


Holmes And Brennan, Howard Wasserman Jan 2016

Holmes And Brennan, Howard Wasserman

Faculty Publications

This article jointly examines two legal biographies of two landmark First Amendment decisions and the justices who produced them. In The Great Dissent (Henry Holt and Co. 2013), Thomas Healy explores Oliver Wendell Holmes’s dissent in Abrams v. United States (1919), which arguably laid the cornerstone for modern American free speech jurisprudence. In The Progeny (ABA 2014), Stephen Wermiel and Lee Levine explore William J. Brennan’s majority opinion in New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) and the development and evolution of its progeny over Brennan’s remaining twenty-five years on the Court. The article then explores three ideas ...


For Shame: When High-Profile Shaming Is The Only Way To Get Things Discussed And Done, Kerri Lynn Stone Jan 2016

For Shame: When High-Profile Shaming Is The Only Way To Get Things Discussed And Done, Kerri Lynn Stone

Faculty Publications

In recent years, the sports world has experienced a complex relationship with sex discrimination and bullying. On one hand, well-publicized incidents of bullying, domestic violence, discrimination, and abuse have operated to alienate players, teams, and leagues from many of their fans. In some cases, these incidents have even led to rehabilitative public relations campaigns to combat the damage done to their public image. On the other hand, the fact that so many high profile incidents have occurred in such a public, much-talked-about sphere has actually served to aerate and vet issues in the court of popular opinion that would otherwise ...


Prioritising Human Development In African Intellectual Property Law, J. Janewa Oseitutu Jan 2016

Prioritising Human Development In African Intellectual Property Law, J. Janewa Oseitutu

Faculty Publications

The global intellectual property structure has been criticised for requiring developing nations to adopt intellectual property standards that are appropriate for industrialised countries. Some commentators have observed that industrialised nations, such as the United States, developed their economies by borrowing from others, but that through the use of globalised intellectual property standards, they have effectively limited other nations from doing the same. This article does not aim to revisit the question of the suitability of the existing intellectual property standards for developing countries. Nor does it seek to analyse whether, as a general proposition, intellectual property rights should be expanded ...


Human Development As A Core Objective Of Global Intellectual Property, J. Janewa Oseitutu Jan 2016

Human Development As A Core Objective Of Global Intellectual Property, J. Janewa Oseitutu

Faculty Publications

Global intellectual property obligations shape domestic laws and policies. More than twenty years since the first multilateral trade-based intellectual property agreement, critics contend that global intellectual property law prioritizes intellectual property rights over other interests, and profits over people. Faced with international intellectual-property obligations, nations have been forced to justify laws and policies designed to promote human development in areas such as health and education as exceptions to intellectual property protection. This is the result of legal interpretations that treat the objectives of intellectual property protection and human development as inconsistent with one another. Drawing on the objectives of trade ...


The Military's Sexual Assault Blind Spot, Eric R. Carpenter Mar 2015

The Military's Sexual Assault Blind Spot, Eric R. Carpenter

Faculty Publications

The American military is in a well-publicized struggle to address its sexual assault problem. Critics say that those in the military who run the military justice system have a bias against the victims in these cases, where that bias is likely related to some form of sexism.

This article explores that problem and offers a social psychology explanation that supports the critics' position. This article explains the cognitive process that people use to solve these legal problems and then highlights a serious flaw in that process – the use of inaccurate rape schemas. This article focuses on two potential groups that ...


Agricultural Biotechnology: Drawing On International Law To Promote Progress, J. Janewa Oseitutu Jan 2015

Agricultural Biotechnology: Drawing On International Law To Promote Progress, J. Janewa Oseitutu

Faculty Publications

In Bowman v. Monsanto, the Supreme Court declined to apply the principle of exhaustion to limit the patentee’s ability to control the reproduction of self-replicating inventions. This decision was justified from a patent law perspective on the basis that patent holder has a right to prevent others from making the invention. But what happens when we take other perspectives into account? For instance, a farmer might have human rights or other rights that may need to be balanced against the patentee’s right. Since globalized intellectual property standards were established through international agreements and much of the resistance to ...


A Sour Battle In Lago Agrio And Beyond: The Metamorphosis Of Transnational Litigation And The Protection Of Collective Rights In Ecuador, Manuel A. Gomez Jan 2015

A Sour Battle In Lago Agrio And Beyond: The Metamorphosis Of Transnational Litigation And The Protection Of Collective Rights In Ecuador, Manuel A. Gomez

Faculty Publications

This article intends to explore the interplay between different dispute processing mechanisms and fora in the realm of transnational litigation, through the lens of the Chevron-Ecuador legal saga. My goal is to discuss the transformation of a transnational complex case and the challenges faced by the parties, their procedural strategies, and the perceived advantages of the different mechanisms. In this regard, I will also address the development of mechanisms for the protection of diffuse rights involving the environment; the role of the courts in supervising compliance with judicial remedies, their engagement in activities that go beyond their traditional role as ...


The Process Of Marriage Equality, Josh Blackman, Howard M. Wasserman Jan 2015

The Process Of Marriage Equality, Josh Blackman, Howard M. Wasserman

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Political Economy And Legal Regulation Of Transnational Commercial Surrogate, Cyra Akila Choudhury Jan 2015

The Political Economy And Legal Regulation Of Transnational Commercial Surrogate, Cyra Akila Choudhury

Faculty Publications

This Article breaks new ground by closely reading the emerging ethnographic accounts of surrogacy to establish that current feminist frames are incomplete. It incorporates the political economy of surrogacy, the economic relationship of surrogacy to the Indian state, and the political economy of surrogates’ families, which have all been missing from the current dialogue. The Article concludes that the benefits of surrogate labor outweigh its disadvantages and develops a new framework — of surrogacy as labor — that will, for the first time, protect the surrogate as worker.Surrogacy, as a fairly open regulatory field, provides feminists with a unique opportunity to ...


Alternate Judges As Sine Qua Nons For International Criminal Trials, Megan A. Fairlie Jan 2015

Alternate Judges As Sine Qua Nons For International Criminal Trials, Megan A. Fairlie

Faculty Publications

When one of the three judges hearing the case against Vojislav Šešelj at the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was disqualified during the deliberations phase of the prosecution, many observers assumed that the multi-year trial would have to be re-heard. Instead, the ICTY opted to begin deliberations anew once a judge — who has not spent a single day participating in the proceedings — has familiarized himself with the trial record. This article demonstrates why the plan to proceed with a new judge is both procedurally illegitimate and markedly at odds with the ICTY’s statutory guarantee of a fair ...


Reality’S Bite, Kerri Lynn Stone Jan 2015

Reality’S Bite, Kerri Lynn Stone

Faculty Publications

The realities of the workplace have been captured by years of socio-scientific, industrial organizational, and other psychological research. Human behavior and thought, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational behavior, with all of their nuances and fine points, are now better understood than they have ever been before, but unless they are used to inform and buttress the rules of law and interpretations promulgated by courts, Title VII’s ability to successfully regulate the workplace to rid it of discrimination will be threatened. This article expands upon that premise, lamenting judges, and specifically justices having eschewed available research and other insights into workplace ...


Bankruptcy And Higher Education Institutions, St. John’S University School Of Law Symposium, Scott F. Norberg Jan 2015

Bankruptcy And Higher Education Institutions, St. John’S University School Of Law Symposium, Scott F. Norberg

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Extralegal Supreme Court Policy Making, Joelle A. Moreno Jan 2015

Extralegal Supreme Court Policy Making, Joelle A. Moreno

Faculty Publications

The Colbert Report aired its final episode on December 18, 2014. Nine years earlier, on the first episode, Stephen Colbert coined the word “truthiness.” Truthiness satirized contemporary disinterest in empirical information in a country increasingly "divided between those who think with their head and those who know with their heart.” Truthiness was not just the Merriam-Webster word of the year. Over the past decade, it has been the unspoken mantra of reporters who give equal time to climate science denialists, faith healers, and vaccine refusers. When Justices of the Supreme Court decide questions of scientific or empirical fact — such as ...


The Law And Politics Of The Charles Taylor Case, Charles Chernor Jalloh Jan 2015

The Law And Politics Of The Charles Taylor Case, Charles Chernor Jalloh

Faculty Publications

This article discusses a rare successful prosecution of a head of state by a modern international criminal court. The case involved former Liberian president Charles Taylor. Taylor, who was charged and tried by the United Nations-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone (“SCSL”), was convicted in April 2013 for planning and aiding and abetting war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other serious international humanitarian law violations. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. The SCSL Appeals Chamber upheld the historic conviction and sentence in September 2013. Taylor is currently serving his sentence in Great Britain. This article, from an insider who ...


A View From The Sky: A General Overview About Civil Litigation In The United States With Reference To The Relief In Small And Simple Matters, Manuel A. Gómez, Juan Carlos Gómez Jan 2015

A View From The Sky: A General Overview About Civil Litigation In The United States With Reference To The Relief In Small And Simple Matters, Manuel A. Gómez, Juan Carlos Gómez

Faculty Publications

This article, which is based on the research conducted for the General Report ‘Relief in Small and Simple Matters in an Age of Austerity’ presented at the XV World Congress of Procedural Law, provides a contextualised and broad overview of these phenomena in the United States. After describing the general features of the federal and state judiciaries, including its adversarial model of judging, and the importance of the jury system, the article turns its attention to discuss the factors that affect the cost of litigation in the United States, the different models of litigation funding, the available legal aid mechanisms ...


Law In East Florida 1783-1821, M C. Mirow Jan 2015

Law In East Florida 1783-1821, M C. Mirow

Faculty Publications

Using primary sources from the East Florida Papers, this article explores colonial legality in St. Augustine and the Province of East Florida during the second Spanish period from 1783 to 1821. In addition to discussing the promulgation of the Constitution of Cádiz and its effects, the article reaches into legal records dealing with civil and testamentary cases to explore and to describe aspects of private law in this North American Spanish colony. Economic and social relations are revealed in the sources that are rich in legal information concerning slavery, family, religion, trade, and landholding. The article concludes that the sources ...


Corporate "Human Rights" To Intellectual Property Protection?, J. Janewa Oseitutu Jan 2015

Corporate "Human Rights" To Intellectual Property Protection?, J. Janewa Oseitutu

Faculty Publications

The global intellectual property system protects the interests of intellectual property owners, sometimes to the detriment of competing interests like public health or access to knowledge. Some scholars have proposed a human rights framework for intellectual property as a way to inject balance into the current system. However, the assertion that human rights will bring balance is often coupled with the assumption that corporations are, by definition, excluded from human rights-based intellectual property claims. Yet, corporations have used, and are likely to continue to use, human rights law to ground their intellectual property claims. Since multinational corporations were a major ...


Beyond Culture: Human Rights Universalisms Versus Religious And Cultural Relativism In The Activism For Gender Justice, Cyra Akila Choudhury Jan 2015

Beyond Culture: Human Rights Universalisms Versus Religious And Cultural Relativism In The Activism For Gender Justice, Cyra Akila Choudhury

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Droughts, Floods, And Wildfires: Paleo Perspectives On Disaster Law In The Anthropocene, Ryan Stoa Jan 2015

Droughts, Floods, And Wildfires: Paleo Perspectives On Disaster Law In The Anthropocene, Ryan Stoa

Faculty Publications

Humanity’s impact on the earth has become so pronounced that momentum is building toward adopting a new term for the modern geological age — the “Anthropocene.” The term signifies that human activity has reached a scale that it is now a planetary force capable of shaping ecosystems and natural processes. And yet, anthropocentric natural resources management and environmental lawmaking in the United States reveals a lack of control in managing natural systems and fostering resilience to extreme events. These systems do not easily conform to the whims of reactionary environmental policies. Droughts, floods, and wildfires, in particular, are often conceptualized ...