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Full-Text Articles in Law

Are The Stock Markets "Rigged"? An Empirical Analysis Of Regulatory Change, Stephen Diamond Jun 2018

Are The Stock Markets "Rigged"? An Empirical Analysis Of Regulatory Change, Stephen Diamond

Faculty Publications

Are the stock markets "rigged"? An empirical analysis of regulatory change


Constitutional Law In An Age Of Alternative Facts, Allison Orr Larsen May 2018

Constitutional Law In An Age Of Alternative Facts, Allison Orr Larsen

Faculty Publications

Objective facts—while perhaps always elusive—are now an endangered species. A mix of digital speed, social media, fractured news, and party polarization has led to what some call a “post-truth” society: a culture where what is true matters less than what we want to be true. At the same moment in time when “alternative facts” reign supreme, we have also anchored our constitutional law in general observations about the way the world works. Do violent video games harm child brain development? Is voter fraud widespread? Is a “partial-birth abortion” ever medically necessary? Judicial pronouncements on questions like these are ...


Legislated Interpretation And Tax Avoidance In Canadian Income Tax Law, David G. Duff, Benjamin Alarie May 2018

Legislated Interpretation And Tax Avoidance In Canadian Income Tax Law, David G. Duff, Benjamin Alarie

Faculty Publications

Predictable statutory interpretation helps ensure the reliable operation of contemporary systems of taxation. Tax liabilities that are not clearly expressed and articulated by legislatures lead to over-reliance on litigation as a means to enforce and clarify legislative intent. For this reason, modern legislatures continually amend and draft new tax provisions, reformulating existing rules and introducing new ones to address ever-changing social and economic environments. Moreover, legislatures also respond with amendments directed at judicial decisions with which they disagree, as well as the transactions and arrangements at issue in these cases. As these amended and new rules are then subject to ...


The Right Tool For Trade Relations With China, Anna M. Han, Colleen Chien Apr 2018

The Right Tool For Trade Relations With China, Anna M. Han, Colleen Chien

Faculty Publications

In life, it’s important to have the right tool for the job, and trade is no different. The technology and intellectual property issues at the heart of the recent US-China trade dispute are complex and nuanced. Tariffs are a big stick good for shaking at partners but also, as the stock markets dramatic reaction shows us, capable of great collateral damage. And so, as an alternative to the blunt instrument of tariffs, we propose some surgical policy interventions, unilateral and bilateral, for moving forward.

The US Trade Representative’s premise for the sanctions is nothing new—that US companies ...


An Error Of Law And The Credibility Of The Civil Resolution Tribunal, Douglas C. Harris, Sophie Marshall Apr 2018

An Error Of Law And The Credibility Of The Civil Resolution Tribunal, Douglas C. Harris, Sophie Marshall

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Emojis And The Law, Eric Goldman Apr 2018

Emojis And The Law, Eric Goldman

Faculty Publications

Emojis are an increasingly important way we express ourselves. Though emojis may be cute and fun, their usage can lead to misunderstandings with significant legal stakes—such as whether someone should be obligated by contract, liable for sexual harassment, or sent to jail.

Our legal system has substantial experience interpreting new forms of content, so it should be equipped to handle emojis. Nevertheless, some special attributes of emojis create extra interpretative challenges. This Article identifies those attributes and proposes how courts should handle them.

One particularly troublesome interpretative challenge arises from the different ways platforms depict emojis that are nominally ...


The Natural Property Rights Straitjacket: The Takings Clause, Taxation, And Excessive Rigidity, Eric Kades Apr 2018

The Natural Property Rights Straitjacket: The Takings Clause, Taxation, And Excessive Rigidity, Eric Kades

Faculty Publications

Natural property rights theories have become the primary lens through which conservative jurists and scholars view the Constitution’s main property rights provision, the Takings Clause. One of their most striking arguments is that progressive income taxation — applying higher tax rates to higher incomes — is an unconstitutional taking of wealthy taxpayers’ property. This has become part and parcel of well-established battle lines between conservative property rights advocates and their liberal counterparts. What has gone unnoticed is that the very same argument deployed against progressive taxation also deems regressive taxation — applying lower tax rates to higher incomes — an unconstitutional taking of ...


The Surveillance Gap: The Harms Of Extreme Privacy And Data Marginalization, Michele Gilman, Rebecca Green Apr 2018

The Surveillance Gap: The Harms Of Extreme Privacy And Data Marginalization, Michele Gilman, Rebecca Green

Faculty Publications

We live in an age of unprecedented surveillance, enhanced by modern technology, prompting some to suggest that privacy is dead. Previous scholarship suggests that no subset of the population feels this phenomenon more than marginalized communities. Those who rely on public benefits, for example, must turn over personal information and submit to government surveillance far more routinely than wealthier citizens who enjoy greater opportunity to protect their privacy and the ready funds to secure it. This article illuminates the other end of the spectrum, arguing that many individuals who may value government and nonprofit services and legal protections fail to ...


The Power Of "So-Called Judges", Tara Leigh Grove Apr 2018

The Power Of "So-Called Judges", Tara Leigh Grove

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Reassessing Prosecutorial Power Through The Lens Of Mass Incarceration, Jeffrey Bellin Apr 2018

Reassessing Prosecutorial Power Through The Lens Of Mass Incarceration, Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Green Bag Cataloging Trivia, Aaron S. Kirschenfeld Apr 2018

Green Bag Cataloging Trivia, Aaron S. Kirschenfeld

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Fiction In The Code: Reading Legislation As Literature, Thomas J. Mcsweeney Apr 2018

Fiction In The Code: Reading Legislation As Literature, Thomas J. Mcsweeney

Faculty Publications

One of the major branches of the field of law and literature is often described as "law as literature." Scholars of law as literature examine the law using the tools of literary analysis. The scholarship in this subfield is dominated by the discussion of narrative texts: confessions, victim-impact statements, and, above all, the judicial opinion. This article will argue that we can use some of the same tools to help us understand non-narrative texts, such as law codes and statutes. Genres create expectations. We do not expect a law code to be literary. Indeed, we tend to dissociate the law ...


The Marital Wealth Gap, Erez Aloni Mar 2018

The Marital Wealth Gap, Erez Aloni

Faculty Publications

Married couples are wealthier than people in all other family structures. The top 10% of wealth holders are, in great proportion, married. Even among the wealthiest households, married couples hold significantly more wealth than others. The Article identifies this phenomenon as the “Marital Wealth Gap,” and critiques the role of diverse legal mechanisms in creating and maintaining it. Marriage also contributes to the concentration of wealth because marriage patterns are increasingly assortative: wealth marries wealth. The law entrenches or even exacerbates these class-based marriage patterns by erecting structural barriers that hinder people from meeting across economic strata.


How can the ...


The Origins (And Fragility) Of Judicial Independence, Tara Leigh Grove Mar 2018

The Origins (And Fragility) Of Judicial Independence, Tara Leigh Grove

Faculty Publications

The federal judiciary today takes certain things for granted. Political actors will not attempt to remove Article III judges outside the impeachment process; they will not obstruct federal court orders; and they will not tinker with the Supreme Court’s size in order to pack it with like-minded Justices. And yet a closer look reveals that these “self-evident truths” of judicial independence are neither self-evident nor necessary implications of our constitutional text, structure, and history. This Article demonstrates that many government officials once viewed these court-curbing measures as not only constitutionally permissible but also desirable (and politically viable) methods of ...


Determinants Of Patent Quality: Evidence From Inter Partes Review Proceedings, Brian Love, Shawn P. Miller, Shawn Ambwani Feb 2018

Determinants Of Patent Quality: Evidence From Inter Partes Review Proceedings, Brian Love, Shawn P. Miller, Shawn Ambwani

Faculty Publications

We study the determinants of patent “quality”—the likelihood that an issued patent can survive a post-grant validity challenge. We do so by taking advantage of two recent developments in the U.S. patent system. First, rather than relying on the relatively small and highly-selected set of patents scrutinized by courts, we study instead the larger and broader set of patents that have been subjected to inter partes review, a recently established administrative procedure for challenging the validity of issued patents. Second, in addition to characteristics observable on the face of challenged patents, we utilize datasets recently made available by ...


Brief Of Amici Curiae - Copyright And Intellectual Property Law Professors In Support Of Defendant-Petitioner Pandora Media, Inc., Tyler T. Ochoa, Joseph C. Gratz Jan 2018

Brief Of Amici Curiae - Copyright And Intellectual Property Law Professors In Support Of Defendant-Petitioner Pandora Media, Inc., Tyler T. Ochoa, Joseph C. Gratz

Faculty Publications

Brief submitted to the Supreme Court of the State of California.

Case No. S240649 FLO & EDDIE, INC., Plaintiff-Respondent, v. PANDORA MEDIA, INC., Defendant-Petitioner.

Plaintiff Flo & Eddie, Inc., contends that the phrase “exclusive ownership” in California Civil Code section 980 includes all possible uses to which a copyrightable work may be put, including an exclusive right of public performance. At the time California Civil Code section 980 was first enacted in 1872, however, the phrase “exclusive ownership” in relation to a copyrightable work meant something different and much narrower: namely, the right of first publication (reproduction and sale) only. Since the ...


Separating Amicus Wheat From Chaff, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl, Adam Feldman Jan 2018

Separating Amicus Wheat From Chaff, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl, Adam Feldman

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Contumacious Responses To Firearms Legislation Balancing Federalism Concerns, Royce De R. Barondes Jan 2018

Contumacious Responses To Firearms Legislation Balancing Federalism Concerns, Royce De R. Barondes

Faculty Publications

The Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act (“LEOSA”) is one of the handful of federal statutes that preempt state firearms regulation. It allows covered individuals (certain current and retired qualified law enforcement personnel) to possess firearms notwithstanding assorted state restrictions — to protect themselves and to supplement local law enforcement efforts.

The act reflects a careful legislative balancing of federalism concerns. Although it relies on states and localities to issue the authorizing credentials, it does not mandate states create a licensing regime out of whole cloth. The act ultimately presents issues requiring a nuanced assessment of the doctrine proscribing federal commandeering of ...


When Deciding Whether To Allow A Taking Of Property We Need To Ask What We Want Property Rights To Do, Douglas C. Harris Jan 2018

When Deciding Whether To Allow A Taking Of Property We Need To Ask What We Want Property Rights To Do, Douglas C. Harris

Faculty Publications

In recognition of the dangers inherent to a regime that enables a majority of owners to terminate the individual property interests of a dissenting minority, the Strata Property Act requires that strata corporations secure court confirmation of dissolution votes. Not surprisingly, the shift to a lower dissolution threshold, the rapidly rising land values in British Columbia’s urban centres, and the increased costs of maintaining aging buildings, have precipitated a growing number of dissolution votes and a steady flow of applications to the British Columbia Supreme Court (BCSC) to confirm the votes.


A Bridge Over Troubled Waters - Resolving Bank Financial Distress In Canada, Janis P. Sarra Jan 2018

A Bridge Over Troubled Waters - Resolving Bank Financial Distress In Canada, Janis P. Sarra

Faculty Publications

Effective June 2017, Canada formalized its new resolution regime for “domestic systemically important banks”. This article examines the new resolution regime in the context of the early intervention program by the financial services regulator. The system offers a complex but integrated set of mechanisms to monitor the financial health of financial institutions, to intervene at an early stage of financial distress, and to resolve the financially distressed bank in a timely manner. Resolution is the restructuring of a financially distressed or insolvent bank by a designated authority. To “resolve” a bank is to use a series of tools under banking ...


Human Rights Protection: The Role Of Institutional Capacity And Selective Adaptation, Pitman B. Potter Jan 2018

Human Rights Protection: The Role Of Institutional Capacity And Selective Adaptation, Pitman B. Potter

Faculty Publications

This paper will examine the potential application of selective adaptation and institutional capacity to the understanding of international human rights norms and practices. Enforcement of international human rights norms depends on the capacity of intermediary institutions; that is, their ability to perform their assigned tasks. Institutional performance is in turn contingent on domestic political and socio-economic conditions, and as such, local conditions of rapid socio-economic and political transformation pose particular challenges. The other key concept in this paper, selective adaptation, describes a process by which practices and norms are exchanged across cultural boundaries. The dynamic of selective adaptation can operate ...


Of Course The First Amendment Protects Google And Facebook (And It’S Not A Close Question), Eric Goldman Jan 2018

Of Course The First Amendment Protects Google And Facebook (And It’S Not A Close Question), Eric Goldman

Faculty Publications

It has become trendy in some circles to strategize how to negate Constitutional protection for Internet giants like Google and Facebook so that they can be more heavily regulated. As part of the Knight First Amendment Institute’s Emerging Threats series, Heather Whitney published a paper in this genre, Search Engines, Social Media, and the Editorial Analogy, questioning whether Google and Facebook were properly analogized to newspapers for First Amendment purposes.

This short essay responds to Ms. Whitney's paper with two main points. First, the newspaper analogy isn't necessary to determine that Google and Facebook engage in speech ...


Precedent And Disagreement, Glen Staszewski Jan 2018

Precedent And Disagreement, Glen Staszewski

Faculty Publications

This essay reviews Randy Kozel’s new book, Settled Versus Right: A Theory of Precedent. It contends that far from presenting a fundamentally neutral approach that should reasonably be acceptable to everyone, Kozel’s second-best theory of precedent is deeply normative and inherently controversial, and most Justices would have compelling grounds for rejecting his proposed doctrinal reforms. The review proceeds to set forth the outlines of an alternative conception of precedent that is grounded in deliberative democratic theory. This theory accepts interpretive pluralism as a desirable feature of the American constitutional order. It also recognizes that the fundamental purposes of ...


Deconstructing The Epistemic Challenges To Mass Atrocity Prosecutions, Nancy Amoury Combs Jan 2018

Deconstructing The Epistemic Challenges To Mass Atrocity Prosecutions, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

Mass atrocity prosecutions are credited with advancing a host of praiseworthy objectives. They are believed to impose much-needed retribution, deter future atrocities, and affirm the rule of law in previously lawless societies. However, mass atrocity prosecutions will accomplish none of these laudable ends unless they are able to find accurate facts. Convicting the appropriate individuals of the appropriate crimes is a necessary and foundational condition for the success of mass atrocity prosecutions. But it is a condition that is frequently difficult to meet, as mass atrocity prosecutions are often bedeviled by pervasive and invidious obstacles to accurate fact-finding. This Article ...


The Silence Penalty, Jeffrey Bellin Jan 2018

The Silence Penalty, Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

In every criminal trial, the defendant possesses the right to testify. Deciding whether to exercise that right, however, is rarely easy. Declining to testify shields defendants from questioning by the prosecutor and normally precludes the introduction of a defendant’s prior crimes. But silence comes at a price. Jurors penalize defendants who fail to testify by inferring guilt from silence.

This Article explores this complex dynamic, focusing on empirical evidence from mock juror experiments—including the results of a new 400-person mock juror simulation conducted for this Article—and data from real trials. It concludes that the penalty defendants suffer ...


Personal Health Records As A Tool For Transparency In Health Care (Draft), Sharona Hoffman Jan 2018

Personal Health Records As A Tool For Transparency In Health Care (Draft), Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This chapter explores the benefits and limitations of personal health records (PHRs) as a tool to promote transparency in health care. A PHR can be defined as “an electronic application through which individuals can access, manage and share their health information . . . in a private, secure, and confidential environment.” PHRs can enhance efficiency, communication, data accuracy, and health outcomes. At the same time, they can disrupt the physician-patient relationship and raise liability concerns. For example, PHRs may induce patients and physicians to rely on electronic communication when office visits would be far more appropriate. The chapter analyzes the impact of PHRs ...


The "Publicization" Of Private Space, Sarah B. Schindler Jan 2018

The "Publicization" Of Private Space, Sarah B. Schindler

Faculty Publications

Recently, many urban areas have moved away from the creation of publicly owned open spaces and toward privately owned public open spaces, or POPOS. These POPOS take many forms: concrete plazas that separate a building from the sidewalk; glass-windowed atriums in downtown office buildings; rooftop terraces and gardens; and grass-covered spaces that appear to be traditional parks. This Article considers the nature of POPOS and examines whether they live up to expectations about the role that public space should play and the value it should provide to communities. This is especially important because in embracing POPOS, cities have made a ...


Universal, Not Nationwide, And Never Appropriate: On The Scope Of Injunctions In Constitutional Litigation, Howard Wasserman Jan 2018

Universal, Not Nationwide, And Never Appropriate: On The Scope Of Injunctions In Constitutional Litigation, Howard Wasserman

Faculty Publications

Federal district courts are routinely issuing broad injunctions prohibiting the federal government from enforcing constitutionally invalid laws, regulations, and policies on immigration and immigration-adjacent issues. Styled “nationwide injunctions,” they prohibit enforcement of the challenges laws not only against the named plaintiffs, but against all people and entities everywhere.

The first problem with these injunctions is one of nomenclature. “Nationwide” suggests something about the “where” of the injunction, the geographic scope in which it protects. The better term is “universal injunction,” which captures the real controversy over the “who” of the injunction, as courts purport to protect the universe of all ...


“Undemocratic” Trusts And The Numerus Clausus Principle, E. Gary Spitko Jan 2018

“Undemocratic” Trusts And The Numerus Clausus Principle, E. Gary Spitko

Faculty Publications

In Democracy and Trusts, Professor Carla Spivack argues that, pursuant to the numerus clausus principle, a court is empowered to impair legislation authorizing a certain trust form where the legislation was not the product of “democratic decision-making.” This imaginative claim is predicated upon two antecedent claims. First, Professor Spivack argues that the numerus clausus principle should apply to equitable interests. Second, she argues that the numerus clausus principle does not invest legislatures with the sole authority to determine allowable property forms; rather, courts also have an important role to play in composing the list of property forms. This review essay ...


Local Tax Incentives And Behavior Of Foreign Enterprises: Evidence From A Large Developing Country, Jing Xing, Wei Cui, Xi Qu Jan 2018

Local Tax Incentives And Behavior Of Foreign Enterprises: Evidence From A Large Developing Country, Jing Xing, Wei Cui, Xi Qu

Faculty Publications

We analyze how profit reporting and investment behavior of foreign enterprises respond to local tax incentives in China, a large developing country. Using firm-level data between 2000 and 2013 from China’s industrial enterprise survey, we first provide strong evidence for tax competition among Chinese cities (especially cities within the same province) over the average effective income tax rate. We then find that, despite stringent capital controls, both reported pre-tax profits and investment of foreign firms respond strongly to local tax incentives, suggesting that subnational tax competition in China is oriented towards both mobile profits and real resources.