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Boston College Law Review

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Understanding "Sanctuary Cities", Christopher N. Lasch, R. Linus Chan, Ingrid V. Eagly, Dina Francesca Haynes, Annie Lai, Elizabeth M. Mccormick, Juliet P. Stumpf May 2018

Understanding "Sanctuary Cities", Christopher N. Lasch, R. Linus Chan, Ingrid V. Eagly, Dina Francesca Haynes, Annie Lai, Elizabeth M. Mccormick, Juliet P. Stumpf

Boston College Law Review

In the wake of President Trump’s election, a growing number of local jurisdictions around the country have sought to disentangle their criminal justice apparatus from federal immigration enforcement efforts. These localities have embraced a series of reforms that attempt to ensure immigrants are not deported when they come into contact with the criminal justice system. The Trump administration has labeled these jurisdictions “sanctuary cities” and vowed to “end” them by, among other things, attempting to cut off their federal funding.

This Article is a collaborative project authored by law professors specializing in the intersection between immigration and criminal law ...


The Burgeoning “Biorights Movement”: Its Legal Basis, What’S At Stake, And How To Respond, Mark A. Hayden May 2018

The Burgeoning “Biorights Movement”: Its Legal Basis, What’S At Stake, And How To Respond, Mark A. Hayden

Boston College Law Review

The advent of genetic and genomic technologies has the power to transform the understanding, prevention, and treatment of disease on a scale unprecedented in modern medicine. The promise of the era of precision medicine risks being tempered by the emergence of what is increasingly being referred to as the “biorights movement.” Of particular concern is the growing trend of individuals refusing to contribute their biological material to research studies absent some form of monetary compensation. Recently announced, but yet to be implemented, regulations seek to mitigate some of the potentially harmful and progress-impeding positions advanced by the biorights movement. The ...


Doping Appeals At The Court Of Arbitration For Sport: Lessons From Essendon, David Mahoney May 2018

Doping Appeals At The Court Of Arbitration For Sport: Lessons From Essendon, David Mahoney

Boston College Law Review

In recent years, there has been an increase in the growth of the sports industry globally. With it has come the growth of global sports arbitration. The Court of Arbitration for Sport (“CAS”), created in part because of the increase in sport-related arbitration, is designed to promote efficiency and uniformity in the resolution of disputes. Despite the noteworthy objectives of the CAS, recent developments, such as the supplement scandal surrounding the Essendon Football Club of the Australian Football League, highlight the pressure that endures between individual athletes and sport governing bodies. This pressure is especially clear in instances where athletes ...


The Naked Truth: Insufficient Coverage For Revenge Porn Victims At State Law And The Proposed Federal Legislation To Adequately Redress Them, Meghan Fay May 2018

The Naked Truth: Insufficient Coverage For Revenge Porn Victims At State Law And The Proposed Federal Legislation To Adequately Redress Them, Meghan Fay

Boston College Law Review

The distribution of revenge porn is a cyber-bullying phenomenon that has proliferated on the Internet. The nonconsensual sharing of sexually explicit photographs and videos causes irreparable harm to revenge porn victims. The current state of the law, however, does little to redress the damage. Tort claims are often unsuccessful because many victims do not have the resources necessary to initiate a lawsuit. Furthermore, federal law grants operators of revenge porn websites immunity from state tort claims. In an effort to fill this gap in the law, many states have made changes or additions to their criminal statutes. To date, thirty-eight ...


Court Capture, J. Jonas Anderson May 2018

Court Capture, J. Jonas Anderson

Boston College Law Review

Capture—the notion that a federal agency can become controlled by the industry the agency is supposed to be regulating—is a fundamental concern for administrative law scholars. Surprisingly, however, no thorough treatment of how capture theory applies to the federal judiciary has been done. The few scholars who have attempted to apply the insights of capture theory to federal courts have generally concluded that the federal courts are insulated from capture concerns.

This Article challenges the notion that the federal courts cannot be captured. It makes two primary arguments. As an initial matter, this Article makes the theoretical case ...


Constitutional Anomalies Or As-Applied Challenges? A Defense Of Religious Exemptions, Stephanie H. Barclay, Mark L. Rienzi May 2018

Constitutional Anomalies Or As-Applied Challenges? A Defense Of Religious Exemptions, Stephanie H. Barclay, Mark L. Rienzi

Boston College Law Review

In the wake of Burwell v. Hobby Lobby and now in anticipation of Craig v. Masterpiece Cakeshop, Inc., the notion that religious exemptions are dangerously out of step with norms of Constitutional jurisprudence has taken on a renewed popularity. Critics increasingly claim that religious exemptions, such as those available prior to Employment Division v. Smith and now available under the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), are a threat to basic fairness, equality, and the rule of law. Under this view, exemptions create an anomalous private right to ignore laws that everyone else must obey, and such a scheme will ...


Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Environmental Law In The World's Polar Regions, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert V. Percival May 2018

Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Environmental Law In The World's Polar Regions, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert V. Percival

Boston College Law Review

Climate change is fundamentally transforming both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. Yet these regions differ dramatically in their governing legal regimes. For the past sixty years the Antarctic Treaty System, a traditional “hard law” international law treaty system, effectively de-militarized the Antarctic region and halted competing sovereignty claims. In contrast, the Arctic region lacks a unifying Arctic treaty and is governed by the newer “soft law” global environmental law model embodied in the Arctic Council’s collaborative work. Now climate change is challenging this model. It is transforming the geography of both polar regions, breaking away massive ice sheets ...


When The Defendant Doesn't Testify: The Eighth Circuit Considers A Reasonable Broken Promise In Bahtuoh V. Smith, Alexandre Bou-Rhodes May 2018

When The Defendant Doesn't Testify: The Eighth Circuit Considers A Reasonable Broken Promise In Bahtuoh V. Smith, Alexandre Bou-Rhodes

Boston College Law Review

In 2017, in Bahtuoh v. Smith, the Eighth Circuit held that a criminal defendant’s counsel was not ineffective for promising the jury that the defendant would testify, but failing to deliver on that promise. This Comment argues that the Eighth Circuit’s decision is in line with the decisions of other circuits in ineffective assistance of counsel cases where counsel promised the defendant’s testimony but later reneged on that promise. Courts should consider in their analysis, however, the impact such a decision may have on the jury, and that a stricter standard for evaluating counsel’s trial performance ...


A Pro Debtor And Majority Approach To The "Automatic Stay" Provision Of The Bankruptcy Code—In Re Cowen Incorrectly Decided, Claudia A. Restrepo May 2018

A Pro Debtor And Majority Approach To The "Automatic Stay" Provision Of The Bankruptcy Code—In Re Cowen Incorrectly Decided, Claudia A. Restrepo

Boston College Law Review

On February 27, 2017, in In re Cowen, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit held that only affirmative actions to either obtain possession or exercise control over property of the bankruptcy estate constitute violations of the automatic stay provision. In doing so, the court concluded that the passive retention of an asset that was acquired pre-petition was not a violation of the automatic stay, and that the creditor had no obligation to relinquish the asset to the bankruptcy estate. This Comment argues that the Tenth Circuit misinterpreted the automatic stay provision of the Bankruptcy Code, disregarding ...


Eleventh Circuit Prematurely Applied The Rule Of Lenity In United States V. Izurieta, C. Alex Dilley May 2018

Eleventh Circuit Prematurely Applied The Rule Of Lenity In United States V. Izurieta, C. Alex Dilley

Boston College Law Review

The statute that prohibits smuggling goods into the United States, 18 U.S.C. § 545, requires proof that a defendant knowingly or fraudulently imported merchandise or facilitated the transport of such merchandise “contrary to law.” In 2013, in United States v. Izurieta, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that a regulatory violation carrying only civil implications could not serve as the underlying offense for the smuggling statute’s contrary to law provision given the felony criminal penalties associated with a violation of the statute. The Eleventh Circuit’s decision diverged from the 1994 and 2008 ...


Striving For Consistency: The Battle Of Jurisdiction In Enforcing Arbitration Awards, Leah Hengemuhle May 2018

Striving For Consistency: The Battle Of Jurisdiction In Enforcing Arbitration Awards, Leah Hengemuhle

Boston College Law Review

On January 20, 2017, in Ortiz-Espinosa v. BBVA Securities of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit expanded the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Vaden v. Discovery Bank and held that the “look through” approach to determine federal jurisdiction applied to petitions to enforce, modify, and vacate arbitration awards under the Federal Arbitration Act. The First Circuit relied heavily on the Supreme Court’s reasoning in Vaden to support its conclusion that applying the “look through” test created a single and consistent jurisdictional approach. This Comment argues that the First Circuit was correct ...


No Harm, No Foul: The Fourth Circuit Struggles With The "Injury-In-Fact" Requirement To Article Iii Standing In Data Breach Class Actions, Brandon Ferrick May 2018

No Harm, No Foul: The Fourth Circuit Struggles With The "Injury-In-Fact" Requirement To Article Iii Standing In Data Breach Class Actions, Brandon Ferrick

Boston College Law Review

On February 6, 2017, in Beck v. McDonald, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit held that the increased risk of future identity theft created by two data breaches was too speculative to constitute an injury-in-fact for the purposes of Article III standing. The court surveyed the split between its sister circuits and determined that, without allegations that a thief deliberately targeted information, misused, or attempted to misuse that personal information, the risk of identity theft was not sufficiently high so as to meet the injury-in-fact requirement of Article III standing. This Comment examines the Fourth Circuit ...


The Exigencies Of Drunk Driving: Cripps V. State And The Issues With Taking Drivers' Blood Without A Warrant, Timothy Andrea May 2018

The Exigencies Of Drunk Driving: Cripps V. State And The Issues With Taking Drivers' Blood Without A Warrant, Timothy Andrea

Boston College Law Review

Few of the government’s investigatory techniques implicate individual privacy concerns more than the taking and testing of a suspect’s blood. These blood draws are a common tool used to fight drunk driving. In 2013, in Missouri v. McNeely, the U.S. Supreme Court reiterated the need for case-by-case review when considering whether exigent circumstances justify warrantless blood testing of drunk driving suspects. An Oklahoma statute takes a different approach by categorically abdicating the warrant requirement and authorizing law enforcement to draw blood from any driver involved in an accident that results in serious bodily injury. In 2016, in ...


Incapacitating Dangerous Repeat Offenders (Or Not): Evidentiary Restrictions On Armed Career Criminal Act Sentencing In United States V. King, Kayleigh E. Mcglynn Apr 2018

Incapacitating Dangerous Repeat Offenders (Or Not): Evidentiary Restrictions On Armed Career Criminal Act Sentencing In United States V. King, Kayleigh E. Mcglynn

Boston College Law Review

On March 30, 2017, in United States v. King, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that a sentencing court may not rely on information in bills of particulars for the Armed Career Criminal Act’s different-occasions inquiry. In so doing, the Sixth Circuit joined the Second, Fourth, Fifth, Seventh, Tenth, Eleventh, and D.C. Circuits in holding that sentencing courts deciding the different-occasions question may rely only on the evidentiary sources that the United States Supreme Court approved in Taylor v. United States in 1990 and Shepard v. United States in 2005. In contrast, on ...


A Case For Revisiting The Child Welfare Act, Hannah Dudley Apr 2018

A Case For Revisiting The Child Welfare Act, Hannah Dudley

Boston College Law Review

In 2017, in D.O. v. Glisson, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that the Child Welfare Act of 1980 (the “Act”) creates a privately enforceable right to foster care maintenance payments and that this right could be enforced by an individual through the use of § 1983. In a similar case, Midwest Foster Care and Adoption Ass’n v. Kincade, the Eighth Circuit held that the Act does not create a privately enforceable right and thus, could not be enforced through the use of 42 U.S.C. § 1983. This Comment argues that the ...


The Road Beyond Kiobel: The Fifth Circuit's Decision In Adhikari V. Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. And Its Implications For The Alien Tort Statute, Vasundhara Prasad Apr 2018

The Road Beyond Kiobel: The Fifth Circuit's Decision In Adhikari V. Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. And Its Implications For The Alien Tort Statute, Vasundhara Prasad

Boston College Law Review

On January 3, 2017, in Adhikari v. Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held that the Alien Tort Statute (“ATS”) did not provide jurisdiction for claims brought against a U.S. military contractor for torts committed in Iraq. In foreclosing plaintiffs’ claims, the Fifth Circuit held that the presumption against the ATS’s extraterritorial application barred claims for injuries occurring outside the United States’ territory. In so ruling, the court created a circuit split with the Fourth Circuit, which in Al Shimari v. CACI Premier Technology, Inc. held that the ATS provided ...


Unfaithful But Not Without Privacy Protections: The Seventh Circuit Addresses When Courts Should Consider An E-Mail Interception Unlawful In Epstein V. Epstein, Joseph Noreña Apr 2018

Unfaithful But Not Without Privacy Protections: The Seventh Circuit Addresses When Courts Should Consider An E-Mail Interception Unlawful In Epstein V. Epstein, Joseph Noreña

Boston College Law Review

On December 14, 2016, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, in Epstein v. Epstein, held that contemporaneousness is not a determinative factor at the pleadings stage of a claim for the unlawful interception of electronic communications under the Federal Wiretap Act (“FWA”). In so doing, the Seventh Circuit partly departed from the way in which other Federal Circuit Courts had previously considered the statutory language of the FWA, specifically the definitions of “electronic communication” and “intercept” under 18 U.S.C. § 2510(4), (12). This Comment argues that the Seventh Circuit’s holding that contemporaneousness is ...


Adding To The List: The Latest Development In The Anomalous Seventh Circuit Substantial Compliance Approach, Julian Viksman Apr 2018

Adding To The List: The Latest Development In The Anomalous Seventh Circuit Substantial Compliance Approach, Julian Viksman

Boston College Law Review

In March 2017, in Northern Illinois Telecom, Inc. v. PNC Bank, N.A., the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit reaffirmed its position to allow substantial compliance with Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (“Rule 11”). In so doing, the Seventh Circuit remains the only circuit to allow for substantial compliance with Rule 11, rather than require a strict adherence approach. The Seventh Circuit’s approach, however, runs counter to Rule 11’s plain language and undermines the policy goals of the rule. This Comment argues that the Seventh Circuit should require parties to ...


Home Sweet Home? Determining Habitual Residence Within The Meaning Of The Hague Convention, Morgan Mcdonald Apr 2018

Home Sweet Home? Determining Habitual Residence Within The Meaning Of The Hague Convention, Morgan Mcdonald

Boston College Law Review

In becoming a signatory to The Hague Convention on International Child Abduction, the United States agreed to expeditiously return all internationally abducted children to the country of their habitual residence, such that that nation may determine the merits of any underlying custody disputes. The Convention failed, however, to instruct American courts as to how to determine a child’s habitual residence. This has resulted in a split among circuits as to whether habitual residence should be determined using objective evidence of the child’s perspective, subjective evidence of parental intent, or some combination. In 2017, the Eighth Circuit held in ...


Wouldn’T It Be Nice: Searching For Clarity In Intermittent Strike Adjudication, Thomas B. Fiascone Apr 2018

Wouldn’T It Be Nice: Searching For Clarity In Intermittent Strike Adjudication, Thomas B. Fiascone

Boston College Law Review

An employee’s right to strike has been a fundamental piece of American labor law policy since its codification in the 1935 National Labor Relations Act. Recently, however, strike activity has undergone a dramatic transformation in response to rapidly declining rates of unionization. Instead of numerous union members striking for weeks on end, small numbers of employees have engaged in surprise one-day strikes in an attempt to maximize the potential effect on employers despite the strike’s brief nature. Such strikes, often referred to as “intermittent strikes,” fall into an area of legal ambiguity due to prior inconsistent adjudication. As ...


Perfect Hedge: Adding Precision To The Proposed Sec Rule On Investment Company Use Of Derivatives With A Hedging Exception, David Miller Apr 2018

Perfect Hedge: Adding Precision To The Proposed Sec Rule On Investment Company Use Of Derivatives With A Hedging Exception, David Miller

Boston College Law Review

Derivatives are complex financial instruments that derive their value from an underlying asset. Used and valued by commercial and financial institutions, derivatives are booming. Indeed, the growing $600 trillion derivative market dwarfs the $67 trillion stock market. Yet, the magnification effect of derivative leverage on losses has well-documented ties to the 2008 Financial Crisis when AIG, Lehman Brothers, and other financial institutions found themselves indebted on hundreds of billions of dollars in derivative transactions. Since the crisis, investment companies and funds constrained by the Investment Company Act to protect unsophisticated and vulnerable investors have increased their use of derivatives. In ...


The Face-Off Between Data Privacy And Discovery: Why U.S. Courts Should Respect Eu Data Privacy Law When Considering The Production Of Protected Information, Samantha Cutler Apr 2018

The Face-Off Between Data Privacy And Discovery: Why U.S. Courts Should Respect Eu Data Privacy Law When Considering The Production Of Protected Information, Samantha Cutler

Boston College Law Review

When foreign parties involved in U.S. litigation are ordered to produce information that is protected by EU data privacy law, they are caught in an unfortunate “Catch-22.” Historically, U.S. courts have pointed to the unlikelihood of sanctions for data privacy law violations to justify these orders. EU data privacy law, however, has recently undergone several shifts in favor of tougher rules and significantly increased sanctions. Additionally, EU regulators are now more vigilant and active in enforcing these laws. These developments, combined with the benefits of international judicial respect and the intrinsic value of privacy, mean that U.S ...


Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities In Plea-Bargaining, Carlos Berdejó Apr 2018

Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities In Plea-Bargaining, Carlos Berdejó

Boston College Law Review

Most of the empirical research examining racial disparities in the criminal justice process has focused on its two endpoints—the arrest and initial charging of defendants and judges’ sentencing decisions. Few studies have assessed disparities in the steps leading up to a defendant’s conviction, where various actors make choices that often constrain judges’ ultimate sentencing discretion. This Article addresses this gap by examining racial disparities in the plea-bargaining process, focusing on the period between the initial filing of charges and the defendant’s conviction. The results presented in this Article reveal significant racial disparities in this stage of the ...


Aggregation On Defendants' Terms: Bristol-Myers Squibb And The Federalization Of Mass-Tort Litigation, Andrew D. Bradt, D. Theodore Rave Apr 2018

Aggregation On Defendants' Terms: Bristol-Myers Squibb And The Federalization Of Mass-Tort Litigation, Andrew D. Bradt, D. Theodore Rave

Boston College Law Review

Although it is destined for the personal jurisdiction canon, the Supreme Court’s eight-to-one decision in Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. v. Superior Court does little to clarify that notoriously hazy doctrine. It does, however, significantly alter the balance of power in complex litigation. Bristol-Myers is a landmark case because it makes both mass-tort class actions and mass joinders impracticable in almost any state court outside of the defendant’s home states. With federal courts already hostile to class actions, plaintiffs who want to aggregate their claims will have to do so on the defendant’s terms: either on the defendant’s ...


Lost Profits In A Multicomponent World, Bernard Chao Apr 2018

Lost Profits In A Multicomponent World, Bernard Chao

Boston College Law Review

Given our adversarial system, it is not surprising that plaintiffs advance creative damages theories that would help them maximize their recoveries. In patent law, one recurring tactic for patentees is to seek remedies based on the entire infringing product instead of the specific feature covered by the patent. This distinction can significantly inflate remedies because modern multicomponent products contain thousands, sometimes hundreds of thousands, of different features. Thus, entire products are orders of magnitude larger, more complex, and more valuable than individual features.

In recent years, the Supreme Court has sensibly rejected attempts to base patent remedies on entire products ...


Crowdfunding Civil Justice, Ronen Perry Apr 2018

Crowdfunding Civil Justice, Ronen Perry

Boston College Law Review

The Article provides a systematic law and economics analysis of civil litigation crowdfunding. It first distinguishes between investment-based and non-investment-based crowdfunding models. Investment-based litigation crowdfunding is generally a welcome phenomenon, because it enables parties to pursue meritorious claims and defenses without generating a significant risk of frivolous litigation. Thus, it should be minimally regulated by securing disclosure of relevant information to potential investors. Non-investment-based crowdfunding of process costs should be subject to professional vetting, which will inhibit frivolous claims and defenses that waste scarce administrative resources and do not further the underlying goals of civil law. Non-investment-based crowdfunding of outcome ...


Correcting Correctional Suicide: Qualified Immunity And The Hurdles To Comprehensive Inmate Suicide Prevention, Venus Chui Apr 2018

Correcting Correctional Suicide: Qualified Immunity And The Hurdles To Comprehensive Inmate Suicide Prevention, Venus Chui

Boston College Law Review

Suicide is the leading cause of death in U.S. jails, and the second leading cause of death in U.S. prisons. Suicidal behavior among inmates largely stems from the custodial environment and inmates’ difficulties coping with incarceration. Unfortunately, many correctional facilities lack the comprehensive suicide prevention policies necessary to reduce inmate suicides. Under the qualified immunity doctrine, current law also shields correctional authorities from liability for failure to implement adequate suicide prevention programs in their facilities. As a result, corrections officials lack incentive to enhance their efforts toward reducing inmate suicides, and families of inmate suicide victims have limited ...


"Bears Need Room To Roam": The Ninth Circuit's Questionable Interpretation Of Critical Habitat Designation, Katherine Lee Apr 2018

"Bears Need Room To Roam": The Ninth Circuit's Questionable Interpretation Of Critical Habitat Designation, Katherine Lee

Boston College Law Review

In February 2016, in Alaska Oil & Gas Ass’n v. Jewell, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld a decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to designate 187,000 square miles in northern Alaska as critical polar bear habitat. The Ninth Circuit rejected the reasoning of the District Court for the District of Alaska which found that the FWS failed to meet the “standard of specificity” required by the Endangered Species Act in determining what geographical areas constituted critical habitat. Rather, the Ninth Circuit focused on the ESA’s broad statutory purposes of ...


Privacy, Screened Out: Analyzing The Threat To Individual Privacy Rights And Fifth Amendment Protections In State V. Stahl, Jesse Coulon Apr 2018

Privacy, Screened Out: Analyzing The Threat To Individual Privacy Rights And Fifth Amendment Protections In State V. Stahl, Jesse Coulon

Boston College Law Review

Courts across the United States have applied Fifth Amendment protections to passcodes, as long as those passcodes are not a foregone conclusion. In order for a court to determine that a passcode is a forgone conclusion, and thus not testimonial in nature, the prosecution must show that they knew the existence, possession, and authenticity of the evidence that would be discovered by the compelled passcode, before the passcode is compelled. The foregone conclusion doctrine was established, and had been used, to balance the need of law enforcement to gather incriminating evidence while still protecting defendants’ Fifth Amendment rights. In 2016 ...


Legal Limbo: The Fifth Circuit's Decision In Turner V. Driver Fails To Clarify The Contours Of The Public's First Amendment Right To Record The Police, Stephanie Johnson Apr 2018

Legal Limbo: The Fifth Circuit's Decision In Turner V. Driver Fails To Clarify The Contours Of The Public's First Amendment Right To Record The Police, Stephanie Johnson

Boston College Law Review

On February 16, 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, in Turner v. Driver, held that the public has a First Amendment right to record the police that is subject only to reasonable time, place, and manner restrictions. Although Turner established that the public has a First Amendment right to film the police, the decision skirted the question of whether the particular conduct in Turner—video recording police activity and/or video recording the police station—was an activity protected by the First Amendment. This Comment argues that the Fifth Circuit erred in not clarifying the ...