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BYU Law Review

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2037

Full-Text Articles in Law

2017-2018 Byu Law Review Masthead Aug 2018

2017-2018 Byu Law Review Masthead

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Byu Law School Faculty Listing Aug 2018

Byu Law School Faculty Listing

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Aug 2018

Table Of Contents

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Defending Place-Based Philanthropy By Defining The Community Foundation, Roger Colinvaux Aug 2018

Defending Place-Based Philanthropy By Defining The Community Foundation, Roger Colinvaux

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Working Without A Net: Supreme Court Decision-Making As Performance, Frederick Mark Gedicks Aug 2018

Working Without A Net: Supreme Court Decision-Making As Performance, Frederick Mark Gedicks

BYU Law Review

Though judges often portray themselves as helpless to alter case outcomes dictated by law, this is mostly false humility. Judges are illusionists, and their opinions sleights of hand which obscure that they participate in creating what they purport merely to apply. This is especially the case in the Supreme Court, from which there is no appeal. The Justices perform the law, and their opinions are the records of these performances.Performance theory supplies a better means of analyzing Supreme Court decisions than ubiquitous and wearisome attacks on judicial integrity. The Court has its precedents, but they have no connection to ...


Patent Nationalism And The Case For A New U.S. Patent Working Requirement, Timothy T. Lau Aug 2018

Patent Nationalism And The Case For A New U.S. Patent Working Requirement, Timothy T. Lau

BYU Law Review

A working requirement is a provision of intellectual property law that uses the threat of punishment to encourage holders to “work” their intellectual property. This Article examines the case for adding a working requirement to U.S. patent law. It explains that, given the current global trends in economic and technological development, a working requirement that increases the exposure of Americans to new technologies through the manufacture of inventions is necessary for the U.S. patent system to fulfill its constitutional purpose, specifically, “[t]o promote the Progress of Science and Useful Arts.” To that end, this Article analyzes elements ...


Per Se Economic Substance, Jesse P. Houchens Aug 2018

Per Se Economic Substance, Jesse P. Houchens

BYU Law Review

The economic substance doctrine is used by the IRS and courts to distinguish legal tax avoidance from tax evasion. More specifically, executive and judicial bodies use this doctrine to revoke statutorily compliant tax benefits that arise from transactions that lack, beyond such tax benefits, both a subjective business purpose and an objective economic effect. The most common tool for measuring the objective economic effect of a transaction is the pre-tax profit test. However, disagreement among courts and scholars applying this test has led to taxpayer uncertainty and accusations of reverse-engineered opinions. In this Comment, I reevaluate and propose an alternative ...


Leveraging Pharma To Lower Premiums: Medical Loss Ratio Regulation In The Pharmaceutical Industry, Cami R. Schiel Aug 2018

Leveraging Pharma To Lower Premiums: Medical Loss Ratio Regulation In The Pharmaceutical Industry, Cami R. Schiel

BYU Law Review

Many recognize escalating drug prices as a significant dilemma related to America’s rising healthcare costs. Yet few can agree on what to do about them. Unaffordable drug prices are a result of many complex forces. One theory to address this problem is to reduce all government intervention and let normal market forces act as they usually do to bring the goods’ prices down to consumer-friendly ranges. However, the prescription drug market is not, and perhaps never can be, a normal market. Reasons for this include (1) a lack of price transparency, (2) information and control asymmetries between patients and ...


Ordinary Meaning And Corpus Linguistics, Stefan Th. Gries, Brian G. Slocum Aug 2017

Ordinary Meaning And Corpus Linguistics, Stefan Th. Gries, Brian G. Slocum

BYU Law Review

This Article discusses how corpus analysis, and similar empirically based methods of language study, can help inform judicial assessments about language meaning. We first briefly outline our view of legal language and interpretation in order to underscore the importance of the ordinary meaning doctrine, and thus the relevance of tools such as corpus analysis, to legal interpretation. Despite the heterogeneity of the judicial interpretive process, and the importance of the specific context relevant to the statute at issue, conventions of meaning that cut across contexts are a necessary aspect of legal interpretation. Because ordinary meaning must in some sense be ...


The Dictionary As A Specialized Corpus, Jennifer L. Mascott Aug 2017

The Dictionary As A Specialized Corpus, Jennifer L. Mascott

BYU Law Review

Scholars consider reliance on dictionary definitions to be the antithesis of objective, big-data analysis of ordinary meaning. This Article contests that notion, arguing that when dictionaries are treated as a specialized database, or corpus, they provide invaluable textured understanding of a term. Words appear in dictionaries both as terms being defined and as terms defining other words. Examination of every reference to a contested term throughout a dictionary’s definitional entries of other words may substantially benefit statutory and constitutional interpretation. Because dictionaries catalog language, their use as a specialized corpus provides invaluable insight into the ways a particular word ...


Datamining The Meaning(S) Of Progress, Jake Linford Aug 2017

Datamining The Meaning(S) Of Progress, Jake Linford

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Corpus Linguistics As A Tool In Legal Interpretation, Lawrence M. Solan, Tammy Gales Aug 2017

Corpus Linguistics As A Tool In Legal Interpretation, Lawrence M. Solan, Tammy Gales

BYU Law Review

In this paper, we set out to explore conditions in which the use of large linguistic corpora can be optimally employed by judges and others tasked with construing authoritative legal documents. Linguistic corpora, sometimes containing billions of words, are a source of information about the distribution of language usage. Thus, corpora and the tools for using them are most likely to assist in addressing legal issues when the law considers the distribution of language usage to be legally relevant. As Thomas R. Lee and Stephen C. Mouritsen have so ably demonstrated in earlier work, corpus analysis is especially helpful when ...


Comments On James C. Phillips & Jesse Egbert, Advancing Law And Corpus Linguistics: Importing Principles And Practices From Survey And Content-Analysis Methodologies To Improve Corpus Design And Analysis, Edward Finegan Aug 2017

Comments On James C. Phillips & Jesse Egbert, Advancing Law And Corpus Linguistics: Importing Principles And Practices From Survey And Content-Analysis Methodologies To Improve Corpus Design And Analysis, Edward Finegan

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Lawyer’S Introduction To Meaning In The Framework Of Corpus Linguistics, Neal Goldfarb Aug 2017

A Lawyer’S Introduction To Meaning In The Framework Of Corpus Linguistics, Neal Goldfarb

BYU Law Review

Corpus linguistics is more than just a new tool for legal interpretation. Work in corpus linguistics has generated new ways of thinking about word meaning and about the interpretation of words in context. These insights challenge the assumptions that lawyers and judges generally make about words and their meaning. Although the words that make up a sentence are generally regarded as the basic units of meaning, corpus analysis has shown that in many cases, the meaning of a word as it is used in a given context is a function, not of the word by itself, but of the word ...


Advancing Law And Corpus Linguistics: Importing Principles And Practices From Survey And Content Analysis Methodologies To Improve Corpus Design And Analysis, James C. Phillips, Jesse Egbert Aug 2017

Advancing Law And Corpus Linguistics: Importing Principles And Practices From Survey And Content Analysis Methodologies To Improve Corpus Design And Analysis, James C. Phillips, Jesse Egbert

BYU Law Review

The nascent field of law and corpus linguistics has much to offer legal interpretation. But to do so, it must more fully incorporate principles from survey and content-analysis methodologies used in the social sciences. Importing such will provide greater rigor, transparency, reproducibility, and accuracy in the important quest to determine the meaning of the law. This Article highlights some of those principles to provide a best- practices guide to those seeking to perform law and corpus linguistic analysis.


The Original Meaning Of “Religion” In The First Amendment: A Test Case Of Originalism’S Utilization Of Corpus Linguistics, Lee J. Strang Aug 2017

The Original Meaning Of “Religion” In The First Amendment: A Test Case Of Originalism’S Utilization Of Corpus Linguistics, Lee J. Strang

BYU Law Review

Originalism is the theory of constitutional interpretation that identifies the constitutional text’s public meaning when it was ratified as its authoritative meaning. Corpus linguistics is the study of word-use regularities and patterns, primarily in written texts. In a prior article, I argued that originalists should utilize corpus linguistics to facilitate originalism’s capacity to accurately uncover this original meaning. However, my arguments there were theoretical; this Essay provides a “test case” of corpus linguistics’ capacity to increase originalism’s methodological accuracy. This Essay accomplishes three modest goals. First, it provides a practical example of the application of corpus linguistics ...


The Power Of Words: A Comment On Hamann And Vogel’S Evidence-Based Jurisprudence Meets Legal Linguistics—Unlikely Blends Made In Germany, Mark C. Suchman Aug 2017

The Power Of Words: A Comment On Hamann And Vogel’S Evidence-Based Jurisprudence Meets Legal Linguistics—Unlikely Blends Made In Germany, Mark C. Suchman

BYU Law Review

By offering an international and interdisciplinary point of comparison, Hamann and Vogel demonstrate that current American forays into corpus-based legal scholarship reflect only a small sliver of the full range of possibilities for such research. This Comment considers several key branching points that may lie ahead, as the nascent literature begins to mature. In particular, the Comment examines two vexing ambiguities in the corpus-linguistic agenda: the first centers on the ambiguous meaning of legal “empiricism”; the second, on the ambiguous relationship between words and actions. To achieve its full potential, legal corpus linguistics will need to move beyond mere description ...


Evidence-Based Jurisprudence Meets Legal Linguistics—Unlikely Blends Made In Germany, Hanjo Hamann, Friedemann Vogel Aug 2017

Evidence-Based Jurisprudence Meets Legal Linguistics—Unlikely Blends Made In Germany, Hanjo Hamann, Friedemann Vogel

BYU Law Review

German legal thinking is renowned for its hair-splittingly sophisticated dogmatism. Yet, some of its other contributions to research are frequently overlooked, both at home and abroad. Two such secondary streams recently coalesced into a new corpus-based research approach to legal practice: Empirical legal research (which had already developed in Germany by 1913) and research on language and law (following German pragmatist philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein’s work of 1953). This Article introduces both research traditions in their current German incarnations (Evidence-Based Jurisprudence and Legal Linguistics) and shows how three common features—their pragmatist observation of social practices, their interest in dissecting ...


Corpus Linguistics And The Criminal Law, Carissa Byrne Hessick Aug 2017

Corpus Linguistics And The Criminal Law, Carissa Byrne Hessick

BYU Law Review

This brief response to Ordinary Meaning and Corpus Linguistics, an article by Stefan Gries and Brian Slocum, explains why corpus linguistics represents a radical break from current statutory interpretation practice, and it argues that corpus linguistics ought not be adopted as an interpretive theory for criminal laws. Corpus linguistics has superficial appeal because it promises to increase predictability and to decrease the role of judges’ personal preferences in statutory interpretation. But there are reasons to doubt that corpus linguistics can achieve these goals. More importantly, corpus linguistics sacrifices other, more important values, including notice and accountability.


Triangulating Public Meaning: Corpus Linguistics, Immersion, And The Constitutional Record, Lawrence B. Solum Aug 2017

Triangulating Public Meaning: Corpus Linguistics, Immersion, And The Constitutional Record, Lawrence B. Solum

BYU Law Review

This Article contributes to the development of an originalist methodology by making the case for an approach that employs three distinct methods, each of which serves as a basis for confirming or questioning the results reached by the other two. This approach will be called the Method of Triangulation. The three component techniques are as follows: 1. The Method of Corpus Linguistics: The method of corpus linguistics employs large-scale data sets (corpora) that provide evidence of linguistic practice. 2. The Originalist Method of Immersion: The method of immersion requires researchers to immerse themselves in the linguistic and conceptual world of ...


A Solution To Utah’S Non-Compete Dilemma: Soliciting The Use Of Non-Solicitation Agreements, Jerrick Robbins Jul 2017

A Solution To Utah’S Non-Compete Dilemma: Soliciting The Use Of Non-Solicitation Agreements, Jerrick Robbins

BYU Law Review

Utah has become a hub for company growth and innovation, especially in an area known as the “Silicon Slopes.” Well-known companies, like Qualtrics, Adobe, and eBay, have offices along the Wasatch Front. With such newfound relevance in the business community, it may seem odd that Utah’s legislature recently passed the Post-Employment Restrictions Act, which some say threatens Utah’s position as a state where businesses thrive. The Act restricts non-compete agreements to periods not greater than one year and automatically penalizes, through attorney’s fees and costs, any employer who tries to enforce a non-compete agreement that a court ...


Tribal Sovereignty And Tobacco Control In State-Tribe Cigarette Compacts, Arielle Sloan Jul 2017

Tribal Sovereignty And Tobacco Control In State-Tribe Cigarette Compacts, Arielle Sloan

BYU Law Review

Compacts are powerful legal tools that states and tribes can use to negotiate agreements. One of the most interesting examples of state-tribe compacts is the cigarette compact, which is useful in combating the illicit cigarette trade. This Note argues that tribal leaders and states can more effectively reach this goal by (1) recognizing tribal sovereignty in and (2) keeping tobacco control at the heart of compact discussions.


Who Decides? The Title Ix Religious Exemption And Administrative Authority, Elise S. Faust Jul 2017

Who Decides? The Title Ix Religious Exemption And Administrative Authority, Elise S. Faust

BYU Law Review

The Title IX religious exemption demonstrates how statutory religious exemptions can help further social change by neutralizing potential conflict with religious dissenters. Part of the reason for its success is that it is narrowly constructed and automatically applies to qualifying institutions. However, the regulations contradict the statutory text by potentially giving the Department of Education discretion to grant or deny exemptions. Were the Department to fully exercise this power, its actions would conflict with both the language of the statute and the Constitution. The Department of Education’s recent scrutiny of the “controlled by” language of the exemption provides an ...


Cyber!, Andrea M. Matwyshyn Jul 2017

Cyber!, Andrea M. Matwyshyn

BYU Law Review

This Article challenges the basic assumptions of the emerging legal area of “cyber” or “cybersecurity.” It argues that the two dominant “cybersecurity” paradigms—information sharing and deterrence—fail to recognize that corporate information security and national “cybersecurity” concerns are inextricable. This problem of “reciprocal security vulnerability” means that in practice our current legal paradigms channel us in suboptimal directions. Drawing insights from the work of philosopher of science Michael Polanyi, this Article identifies three flaws that pervade the academic and policy analysis of security, exacerbating the problem of reciprocal security vulnerability—privacy conflation, incommensurability, and internet exceptionalism. It then offers ...


Trading Safety For Innovation And Access: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Fda’S Premarket Approval Process, George Horvath Jul 2017

Trading Safety For Innovation And Access: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Fda’S Premarket Approval Process, George Horvath

BYU Law Review

Congress created the premarket approval process (PMA) to provide a rigorous safety evaluation of high-risk medical devices before they may be sold on the U.S. market. Evaluating a PMA application requires the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a lengthy, complex, and costly assessment of the extensive data a manufacturer must submit. But other policy concerns, notably a fear of hampering innovation and a desire to assure timely access to new technologies, have led Congress to relax some of the rigorous data requirements the PMA process imposes on manufacturers. Congress mandates that the FDA employ the “least burdensome ...


Copyright Infringement’S Blurred Lines: Allocating Overhead In The Disgorgement Of Profits, Layne S. Keele Jul 2017

Copyright Infringement’S Blurred Lines: Allocating Overhead In The Disgorgement Of Profits, Layne S. Keele

BYU Law Review

In Williams v. Bridgeport Music, Marvin Gaye’s estate alleged that the popular song “Blurred Lines” infringed Gaye’s 1977 song “Got to Give It Up.” As part of the remedy for the infringement, the Gaye estate sought to disgorge the profits derived from defendants’ infringement, but the parties disagreed about how to calculate those profits. Specifically, they disagreed about whether the infringing song’s revenues should be offset by the infringers’ $7 million in overhead costs allocable to the song. The district court determined that the infringers’ ability to offset overhead costs would depend on whether their infringement was ...


Why Religious Freedom? Why The Religiously Committed, The Religiously Indifferent, And Those Hostile To Religion Should Care, Brett G. Scharffs Jun 2017

Why Religious Freedom? Why The Religiously Committed, The Religiously Indifferent, And Those Hostile To Religion Should Care, Brett G. Scharffs

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Law And Religion In Bangladesh, Jahid Hossain Bhuiyan Dr. Md. Jun 2017

Law And Religion In Bangladesh, Jahid Hossain Bhuiyan Dr. Md.

BYU Law Review

The Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) has been a center for a variety of religious traditions. Its multicultural and multireligious character makes it a crucible for religious tolerance. The resurgence of local cultural and religious consciousness under the influence of modernity and globalization has resulted in increasing complications in relation to the interaction between religious traditions. Religious tolerance in independent Bangladesh also has always been a fundamental value. It has been cherished by the followers of all religions. The object of this article is to trace the history of religious freedom of religious minorities in Bangladesh. It also examines ...


The European Union And Freedom Of Religion Or Belief: A New Momentum, Ján Figel’ Jun 2017

The European Union And Freedom Of Religion Or Belief: A New Momentum, Ján Figel’

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Agreements Between Church And State: The Italian Perspective, Elena Ervas Jun 2017

The Agreements Between Church And State: The Italian Perspective, Elena Ervas

BYU Law Review

This Article explores the recent approach of the Italian Constitutional Court regarding agreements between the Italian State and religious denomination, which regulate matters of common interest. The Italian approach is compared to the contemporary approach of the Spanish legal system. The Italian approach grants strong discretion in favor of the Government in this context, but by doing so, it risks inadequately protecting the religious freedom of religious denominations in light of current jurisprudence. Moreover, the broad discretion given to the Italian government seems not to be in line with the current jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in ...