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Articles by Maurer Faculty

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Full-Text Articles in Law

President Trump, Trade Policy, And American Grand Strategy: From Common Advantage To Collective Carnage, David P. Fidler Jan 2017

President Trump, Trade Policy, And American Grand Strategy: From Common Advantage To Collective Carnage, David P. Fidler

Articles by Maurer Faculty

As a candidate for president of the United States, Donald J. Trump promised to abandon longstanding U.S. approaches to trade and pursue strategies anchored in protectionism and nationalism. This article examines President Trump’s trade policy ideas and proposals and highlights the extent to which he intends to disrupt traditions of U.S. policymaking on trade. The article also analyzes whether domestic and international politics might shift the Trump administration away from a radical approach back towards trade policies that approximate how the United States has managed trade for decades. If such a shift does not occur, the Trump ...


Developments In The Law Affecting Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Stephen T. Middlebrook, Tom Kierner Jan 2017

Developments In The Law Affecting Electronic Payments And Financial Services, Sarah Jane Hughes, Stephen T. Middlebrook, Tom Kierner

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Polycentric Turn: A Case Study Of Kenya's Evolving Legal Regime For Irrigation Waters, Daniel H. Cole, Stefan Carpenter, Elizabeth Baldwin Jan 2017

The Polycentric Turn: A Case Study Of Kenya's Evolving Legal Regime For Irrigation Waters, Daniel H. Cole, Stefan Carpenter, Elizabeth Baldwin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Formal legal systems comprise a major part, but not the only part, of the “rules of the game” that structure social and social-ecological interactions. Throughout the twentieth century, centralization and consolidation of legal authority were dominant themes among many, if not all, legal systems. That process may have been successful in some cases, but in others the presumed economies of scale from consolidation and centralization either did not materialize or were offset by other social costs, including the failure to accommodate local knowledge, expertise, and preferences. In what could become a theme of the twenty-first century, many countries, including developing ...


Transforming Election Cybersecurity, David P. Fidler Jan 2017

Transforming Election Cybersecurity, David P. Fidler

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Human Side Of Public-Private Partnerships: From New Deal Regulation To Administrative Law Management, Alfred C. Aman, Joseph C. Dugan Jan 2017

The Human Side Of Public-Private Partnerships: From New Deal Regulation To Administrative Law Management, Alfred C. Aman, Joseph C. Dugan

Articles by Maurer Faculty

During the New Deal era, Congress created a then-unprecedented program of economic and regulatory reforms, establishing independent agencies, and empowering them to shape and enforce pragmatic industrial policies. Twenty-first century regulation looks strikingly different from the New Deal vision. While New Deal agencies continue to perform some regulatory functions, market approaches have replaced many traditional command-and-control formulations, with private entities stepping in to perform tasks historically reserved to government.

Though government-by-contract is becoming the new normal, neither the Administrative Procedure Act ("APA") nor many of its state equivalents provide adequate guidance to ensure that individual rights are protected and democratic ...


The Public Believes Predispute Binding Arbitration Clauses Are Unjust: Ethical Implications For Dispute-System Design In The Time Of Vanishing Trials, Victor D. Quintanilla, Alexander B. Avtgis Jan 2017

The Public Believes Predispute Binding Arbitration Clauses Are Unjust: Ethical Implications For Dispute-System Design In The Time Of Vanishing Trials, Victor D. Quintanilla, Alexander B. Avtgis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Article discusses a troubling cause of the decline in civil trials — the growing ubiquity of predispute binding arbitration clauses — and discusses tension between roles and responsibilities classically associated with zealous advocacy and the pressing need for new roles and responsibilities associated with ethical dispute system design.

Over the past decade, two interacting patterns have come to encourage transactional attorneys to engage in zealous advocacy when crafting predispute binding arbitration clauses in adhesion contracts. First, recent U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence broadly defers and delegates authority to those who create such clauses in adhesion contracts with little oversight. Second, members ...


Talent Systems For Law Firms, William D. Henderson Jan 2017

Talent Systems For Law Firms, William D. Henderson

Articles by Maurer Faculty

irtually every large US law firm owes its rise and success to a talent system it adopted several decades ago. These talent systems were effective because they created highly skilled business lawyers in a way that aligned the interests of partners, associates, and clients. The most prominent example is the Cravath System, though other business lawyers throughout the US were making similar discoveries at roughly the same time. The tremendous forward momentum of these first-generation talent systems has created the problem of ahistorical partners — owners who collect the late-stage benefits of a talent system approach without understanding its original logic ...


An Evaluation Of U.S. National Wildlife Refuge Planning For Off-Road Vehicle Use, Robert L. Fischman, Vicky J. Meretsky, Katie Freeman, Alexi Lamm, Leah Missik, Scott Salmon Jan 2017

An Evaluation Of U.S. National Wildlife Refuge Planning For Off-Road Vehicle Use, Robert L. Fischman, Vicky J. Meretsky, Katie Freeman, Alexi Lamm, Leah Missik, Scott Salmon

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Off-road vehicles (hereafter, ORVs) rank high among public-land management challenges because they are popular, often impair environmental conditions, and may cause conflicts with other recreational users. Unit-level planning for federal lands increasingly translates broad, system-wide objectives, such as maintenance of ecological integrity, into place-based limitations on ORV use to minimize and mitigate adverse impacts on wildlife. We reviewed 176 planning documents covering 313 National Wildlife Refuges (hereafter, Refuges) to understand how planning supports or undermines ORV recreation management. These plans offer an important perspective on ORV management because the Refuges are a large, diverse system of conservation lands where recreation ...


Mr. Nicolson's Cane, Mark D. Janis Jan 2017

Mr. Nicolson's Cane, Mark D. Janis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

One of the most widely-recognized artifacts in American patent law iconography is also among its most peculiar: Samuel Nicolson’s cane. The cane played a leading role in the Court’s analysis in American Nicholson v. City of Elizabeth, a nineteenth-century decision that has become a fixture in the patent law canon. The case is the leading enunciation of the doctrine of experimental use, which spares inventors from forfeiting patent rights when they can show that otherwise disqualifying sales or uses were undertaken as experiments to perfect their inventions. This paper argues that the modern experimental use doctrine needs to ...


A State-Level Carbon Tax With Border Adjustments, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

A State-Level Carbon Tax With Border Adjustments, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This essay develops three new doctrinal arguments in support of the conclusion that a state-level carbon tax with border adjustments should be permissible under the dormant commerce clause. This essay builds on our prior work to argue against the view that a single state cannot (practically) impose a significant carbon tax due to the claim that border tax adjustments are Constitutionally impermissible. By demonstrating how a state government could implement a carbon tax with border tax adjustments in a Constitutionally permissible fashion, this essay shows that levying a carbon tax is a realistic and practical option for U.S. state ...


The Interaction Of The Pregnancy Discrimination Act And The Americans With Disabilities Act After Young V. Ups, Deborah A. Widiss Jan 2017

The Interaction Of The Pregnancy Discrimination Act And The Americans With Disabilities Act After Young V. Ups, Deborah A. Widiss

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Pregnant women sometimes ask employers for accommodations – such as being able to sit on a stool or avoid heavy lifting – to permit them to work safely and productively. In 2015, in Young v. United Parcel Service, the Supreme Court held that the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) requires courts to scrutinize carefully denial of such requests. The facts in Young arose prior to the effective date of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA); accordingly, the Court did not address how the ADAAA, which expanded the range of health conditions that qualify as disabilities, affects claims for accommodations under the PDA ...


After The Override: An Empirical Analysis Of Shadow Precedent, Deborah A. Widiss, Brian J. Broughman Jan 2017

After The Override: An Empirical Analysis Of Shadow Precedent, Deborah A. Widiss, Brian J. Broughman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Congressional overrides of prior judicial interpretations of statutory language are typically de­fined as equivalent to judicial overrulings, and they are presumed to play a central role in maintaining legislative supremacy. Our study is the first to empirically test these assumptions. Using a differences-in-differences research design, we find that citation levels decrease far less after legislative overrides than after judicial overrulings. This pattern holds true even when controlling for depth of the superseding event or considering only the specific proposition that was superseded. Moreover, contrary to what one might expect, citation levels decrease more quickly after restorative overrides—in which ...


Making It Up: Lessons For Equal Protection Doctrine From The Use And Abuse Of Hypothesized Purposes In The Marriage Equality Litigation, Steve Sanders Jan 2017

Making It Up: Lessons For Equal Protection Doctrine From The Use And Abuse Of Hypothesized Purposes In The Marriage Equality Litigation, Steve Sanders

Articles by Maurer Faculty

To survive rational basis scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause, a law must serve a governmental purpose which is at least legitimate. It is well established that legitimate purposes can sometimes be found through speculation and conjecture-that is, they may be hypothesized-in order to avoid the difficulties of identifying actual purpose or the specter of courts second-guessing legislative judgments. But hypothesized purposes can be abused, and such abuse was rampant in the states' defenses of their bans on same-sex marriage, bans which were ultimately invalidated in Obergefell v. Hodges.

This Article draws on the federal marriage litigation as a lens ...


Determining The Territorial Scope Of State Law In Interstate And International Conflicts: Comments On The Draft Restatement (Third) And On The Role Of Party Autonomy, Hannah L. Buxbaum Jan 2017

Determining The Territorial Scope Of State Law In Interstate And International Conflicts: Comments On The Draft Restatement (Third) And On The Role Of Party Autonomy, Hannah L. Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Analyzing a conflict of laws requires thinking both about the scope of potentially applicable law and about priority, or choice, among potentially applicable laws. The Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws, published in 1971, contains little guidance on how, or in what order, courts are to address these two inquiries. The draft Restatement (Third), in contrast, differentiates clearly the respective roles of the two analytical elements. It characterizes the resolution of a choice-of-law question as a two-step process. First, the scope of the relevant states’ internal laws must be determined, in order to ascertain which states’ laws might be used ...


Why A State-Level Carbon Tax Can Include Border Adjustments, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

Why A State-Level Carbon Tax Can Include Border Adjustments, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This is our third in a series of articles considering taxation and greenhouse gas mitigation. To date, all state-level attempts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by placing a price on carbon have involved cap-and-trade regimes. In our previous two articles, we considered how importing tax features into a cap and- trade regime could ease distributive concerns and also make cap-and-trade regimes more efficient.


Tax Cannibalization And Fiscal Federalism In The United States, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

Tax Cannibalization And Fiscal Federalism In The United States, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

We began this project pondering a riddle. Most state governments have adopted what we-and many others-view as clearly suboptimal tax policies, especially in regard to the taxation of corporate income and capital gains. Yet, with the notable exception of those who oppose progressivity and the taxation of capital, state-level tax policymakers have had remarkably little appetite for reform.

This Article provides one major explanation for this riddle by identifying and demonstrating a phenomenon that we label as "tax cannibalization." We argue that flawed state-level tax policies derive in part from perverse incentives inadvertently created by the federal government.


Lender Discrimination, Black Churches And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey Jan 2017

Lender Discrimination, Black Churches And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Based on my original empirical research, in this Article, I expose a disparity between the demographics of the roughly 650 religious congregations that have filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy during part of the last decade and congregations nationwide. Churches with predominately black membership — Black Churches — appeared in chapter 11 more than three times as often as they appear among churches across the country. A conservative estimate of the percentage of Black Churches among religious congregation chapter 11 debtors is 60%. The likely percentage is upward of 75%. Black Churches account for 21% of congregations nationwide.

Why are Black Churches filing ...


Maurer School Of Law Marks 175 Years Of History, Austen L. Parrish Jan 2017

Maurer School Of Law Marks 175 Years Of History, Austen L. Parrish

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Transnational Legal Ordering And Regulatory Conflict: Lessons From The Regulation Of Cross-Border Derivatives, Hannah L. Buxbaum Jan 2017

Transnational Legal Ordering And Regulatory Conflict: Lessons From The Regulation Of Cross-Border Derivatives, Hannah L. Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This paper is about the theory and practice of transnational legal ordering. It seeks to gain insight into how transnational legal orders advance by examining one particular problem: the regulation of over-the-counter derivatives. It focuses on events following the global financial crisis, which exposed the deficiencies of the existing regulatory order in identifying and containing the risks created by trading in those securities. In the aftermath of the crisis, the cross-border systemic risk created by OTC derivatives trading was characterized as a problem of global dimension that necessitated a global response. A wide array of actors and institutions, both domestic ...


Attorneys' Fees And Chapter Choice: Exploring "No Money Down" Chapter 13 Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Robert M. Lawless, Katherine Porter Jan 2017

Attorneys' Fees And Chapter Choice: Exploring "No Money Down" Chapter 13 Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Robert M. Lawless, Katherine Porter

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In a forthcoming article in the Southern California Law Review, the authors use new data from the ongoing Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP) to explore the "no money down" bankruptcy. This article summarizes that article and discusses the law that influenced the creation of "no money down" chapter 13s, which households are more likely to file with "no money down," and why this type of chapter 13 case might be less than optimal for the consumer bankruptcy system. Both studies draw data from a debtor's bankruptcy court records and written questionnaires mailed to the debtors to collect demographic information and ...


Ceo Side Payments In Mergers And Acquisitions, Brian J. Broughman Jan 2017

Ceo Side Payments In Mergers And Acquisitions, Brian J. Broughman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In addition to golden parachutes, CEOs often negotiate for personal side-payments in connection with the sale of their firm. Side-payments differ from golden parachutes in that they are negotiated ex post in connection with a specific acquisition proposal, whereas golden parachutes are part of the executive’s employment agreement negotiated when she is hired. While side-payments may benefit shareholders by countering managerial resistance to an efficient sale, they can also be used to redistribute merger proceeds to management. The current article highlights an overlooked distinction between pre-merger golden parachutes and merger side-payments. Similar to a legislative rider attached to a ...


Consumer Credit In America: Past, Present, And Future, Pamela Foohey, Jim Hawkins, Creola Johnson, Nathalie Martin Jan 2017

Consumer Credit In America: Past, Present, And Future, Pamela Foohey, Jim Hawkins, Creola Johnson, Nathalie Martin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In September 2016, in conjunction with Law & Contemporary Problems at Duke University School of Law, we organized a symposium on Consumer Credit in America. We sought to assess the state of consumer credit in America — to review and examine its recent history, to consider arguments for and against regulation, and to discuss the potential for future innovation. This is the introduction to the volume of articles coming out of that symposium.


Calling On The Cfpb For Help: Telling Stories And Consumer Protection, Pamela Foohey Jan 2017

Calling On The Cfpb For Help: Telling Stories And Consumer Protection, Pamela Foohey

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Since it began operating in 2011, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has handled more than a million complaints regarding consumer financial product and services. Beginning in June 2015, the CFPB began publishing consumers’ narratives submitted with their complaints. This Article analyses a random sample of 5,000 of these narratives to assess how people engage with the complaint mechanism in light of the CFPB’s role in processing complaints. I find that people predominately use the complaint function for two distinct purposes: to express their anger and frustration about companies’ practices, or to express sadness and fear about how ...


Benefiting From Breaking The Color Barrier: Tribute To Professor Richardson For Being The Pioneer At Indiana University Maurer School Of Law, Kevin D. Brown Jan 2017

Benefiting From Breaking The Color Barrier: Tribute To Professor Richardson For Being The Pioneer At Indiana University Maurer School Of Law, Kevin D. Brown

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The American Health Care Act Would Toss The States A Hot Potato, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

The American Health Care Act Would Toss The States A Hot Potato, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This essay explains how the American Health Care Act (AHCA) – the House Republicans’ proposed replacement for Obamacare – would toss a hot potato to state governments. Were the AHCA to be enacted into law, state governments would need to act promptly if they are to save individual insurance markets within their states. This essay explains measures that state governments might take to respond to this threat.


A New Theory Of Equitable Apportionment, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

A New Theory Of Equitable Apportionment, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This essay analyzes the purpose of the equitable apportionment doctrine in state and local tax jurisprudence, arguing that the doctrine remains coherent in the context of single-sales-factor apportionment regimes.


The U.S. Election Hacks, Cybersecurity, And International Law, David P. Fidler Jan 2017

The U.S. Election Hacks, Cybersecurity, And International Law, David P. Fidler

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Machine Learning With Personal Data: Is Data Protection Law Smart Enough To Meet The Challenge?, Fred H. Cate, Christopher Kuner, Dan Jerker B. Svantesson, Orla Lynskey, Christopher Millard Jan 2017

Machine Learning With Personal Data: Is Data Protection Law Smart Enough To Meet The Challenge?, Fred H. Cate, Christopher Kuner, Dan Jerker B. Svantesson, Orla Lynskey, Christopher Millard

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


How States Can Respond To The Ahca: Using The Mccarran-Ferguson Act, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

How States Can Respond To The Ahca: Using The Mccarran-Ferguson Act, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Using Taxes To Support Multiple Health Insurance Risk Pools, David Gamage, Darien Shanske Jan 2017

Using Taxes To Support Multiple Health Insurance Risk Pools, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In most markets, it is considered desirable for consumers to have more choices. But health insurance regulation is different. When it comes to health insurance, giving consumers more choices can result in the market collapsing — leaving the sickest and most needy consumers without any good choices at all. To mitigate this problem, the Affordable Care Act’s Exchanges were designed around maintaining a single exchange-based risk pool. However, one problem with this approach taken by the Affordable Care Act is that the regulations designed to maintain the single exchange-based risk pool have the side effect of limiting some potentially positive ...