Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Law

An Unintended Casualty Of The War On Terror, Aya Gruber Jan 2011

An Unintended Casualty Of The War On Terror, Aya Gruber

Articles

As the dust of the Bush administration's war on terror settles, casualties are starting to appear on the legal battlefield. The United States' human rights reputation and the Supreme Court's international influence lay wounded in the wake of U.S. policies that flouted international law by advocating torture, suborning indefinite detention, and erecting irregular tribunals. Through declining citation, the courts of the world are telling the Supreme Court that if it does not respect international and foreign law, international and foreign courts will not respect it. Some might object that the Supreme Court should not be lumped with ...


Not Of Woman Born: A Scientific Fantasy, Jennifer S. Hendricks Jan 2011

Not Of Woman Born: A Scientific Fantasy, Jennifer S. Hendricks

Articles

This Article explores the legal implications of a scientific fantasy: building artificial wombs that could gestate a human child from conception to birth. Because claims about the technological possibility of artificial wombs in the foreseeable future are likely overstated, the focus of the Article is the effect that the fantasy of artificial gestation has on the legal discourse about pregnancy and reproduction today.

The Article first places the fantasy of artificial gestation in the context of theories about reproduction that western science has propounded. The history of scientific theorizing about reproduction is a history of scientists emphasizing the male contribution ...


Examining The International Judicial Function: International Courts As Dispute Resolvers, Anna Spain Jan 2011

Examining The International Judicial Function: International Courts As Dispute Resolvers, Anna Spain

Articles

This article examines the judicial function of international courts by considering both what it is and what it ought to be. The article identifies and describes two distinct functions - dispute settlement and peace promotion - and explores the tensions that exist in pursuing these two aims. It then introduces a third way of understanding the international judicial function that respects international courts’ traditional role as dispute settlers while allowing for their more engaged and proactive function as peacemakers. This third approach conceptualizes that the role of international courts is to resolve disputes. Doing so requires understanding courts as entities that exist ...


¡Silencio! Undocumented Immigrant Witnesses And The Right To Silence, Violeta R. Chapin Jan 2011

¡Silencio! Undocumented Immigrant Witnesses And The Right To Silence, Violeta R. Chapin

Articles

At a time referred to as "an unprecedented era of immigration enforcement," undocumented immigrants who have the misfortune to witness a crime in this country face a terrible decision. Calling the police to report that crime will likely lead to questions that reveal a witness's immigration status, resulting in detention and deportation for the undocumented immigrant witness. Programs like Secure Communities and 287(g) partnerships evidence an increase in local immigration enforcement, and this Article argues that undocumented witnesses' only logical response to these programs is silence. Silence, in the form of a complete refusal to call the police ...


Domestic Violence And State Intervention In The American West And Australia, 1860-1930, Carolyn B. Ramsey Jan 2011

Domestic Violence And State Intervention In The American West And Australia, 1860-1930, Carolyn B. Ramsey

Articles

This Article calls into question stereotypical assumptions about the presumed lack of state intervention in the family and the patriarchal violence of Anglo-American frontier societies in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By analyzing previously unexamined cases of domestic assault and homicide in the American West and Australia, Professor Ramsey reveals a sustained (but largely ineffectual) effort to civilize men by punishing violence against women. Husbands in both the American West and Australia were routinely arrested or summoned to court for beating their wives in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Judges, police officers, journalists, and others expressed dismay ...


The Curious Case Of Greening In Carbon Markets, William Boyd, James Salzman Jan 2011

The Curious Case Of Greening In Carbon Markets, William Boyd, James Salzman

Articles

Over the last several years, so-called carbon markets have emerged around the world to facilitate trading in greenhouse gas credits. This Article takes a close look at an unexpected and unprecedented development in some of these markets--premium "green" currencies have emerged and, in some cases, displaced standard compliance currencies. Past experiences with other environmental compliance markets, such as the sulfur dioxide and wetlands mitigation markets, suggest the exact opposite should be occurring. Indeed, buyers in such markets should only be interested in buying compliance, not in the underlying environmental integrity of the compliance unit. In some of the compliance carbon ...


Veil Piercing To Non-Owners: A Practical And Theoretical Inquiry, Mark J. Loewenstein Jan 2011

Veil Piercing To Non-Owners: A Practical And Theoretical Inquiry, Mark J. Loewenstein

Articles

In the typical veil piercing case, the plaintiff seeks to hold the owners of an entity liable for the entity’s obligations. Recently, however, plaintiffs have sought to hold managers of an entity liable for the entity’s obligations even if the manager is not an owner. This article considers this phenomenon in light of the underlying theory of veil piercing and in the context of both corporate law and the law of limited liability companies. In brief, the theory of veil piercing in its traditional application – to shareholders of a corporation – is weak, and it is weaker still when ...


Efficient Uncertainty In Patent Interpretation, Harry Surden Jan 2011

Efficient Uncertainty In Patent Interpretation, Harry Surden

Articles

Research suggests that widespread uncertainty over the scopes of issued patents creates significant costs for third-party firms and may decrease innovation. This Article addresses the scope uncertainty issue from a theoretical perspective by creating a model of patent claim scope uncertainty.

It is often difficult for third parties to determine the legal coverage of issued patents. Scope underdetermination exists when the words of a patent claim are capable of a broad range of plausible scopes ex ante in light of the procedures for interpreting patents. Underdetermination creates uncertainty about claim coverage because a lay interpreter cannot know which interpretation will ...


Disappearing Government Information And The Internet's Public Domain, Susan Nevelow Mart Jan 2011

Disappearing Government Information And The Internet's Public Domain, Susan Nevelow Mart

Articles

This article surveys the types and amounts of information that have been removed from the Internet since September 11th. Information has been removed in the name of national security as well as for reasons of seeming political expediency. After discussing the bases of some of the rationales for removing the information, and the legal underpinnings of continued access, the article suggests several forms of advocacy that could be used to return the information to the public's domain.


From Wards Cove To Ricci: Struggling Against The Built-In Headwinds Of A Skeptical Court, Melissa Hart Jan 2011

From Wards Cove To Ricci: Struggling Against The Built-In Headwinds Of A Skeptical Court, Melissa Hart

Articles

When the Supreme Court in 1971 first recognized disparate impact as a legal theory under Title VII, the Court explained that the "absence of discriminatory intent does not redeem employment procedures or testing mechanisms that operate as ‘built-in headwinds’ for minority groups and are unrelated to measuring job capability." Forty years later, it is the built-in headwinds of a Supreme Court skeptical of - perhaps even hostile to - the goals of disparate impact theory that pose the greatest challenge to continued movement toward workplace equality. The essay examines the troubled trajectory that disparate impact law has taken in the Court's ...


David H. Getches: 1942-2011, James N. Corbridge, Jr. Jan 2011

David H. Getches: 1942-2011, James N. Corbridge, Jr.

Articles

No abstract provided.


Happiness In Business Or Law, Peter H. Huang Jan 2011

Happiness In Business Or Law, Peter H. Huang

Articles

This article provides a short introduction to recent happiness research and its applications to business or law that is organized as follows. Section I briefly considers: (1) troubling and not so troubling reservations about happiness research, and (2) how money and happiness are related. Section II concisely surveys two sets of applications of happiness research to business, namely: (1) workplace well-being and meaning, and (2) marketing. Section III succinctly reviews two categories of happiness research implications for law: (1) business regulation, and (2) law student and lawyer happiness.


Credit Derivatives, Leverage, And Financial Regulation's Missing Macroeconomic Dimension, Erik F. Gerding Jan 2011

Credit Derivatives, Leverage, And Financial Regulation's Missing Macroeconomic Dimension, Erik F. Gerding

Articles

Of all OTC derivatives, credit derivatives pose particular concerns because of their ability to generate leverage that can increase liquidity - or the effective money supply - throughout the financial system. Credit derivatives and the leverage they create thus do much more than increase the fragility of financial institutions and increase counterparty risk. By increasing leverage and liquidity, credit derivatives can fuel rises in asset prices and even asset price bubbles. Rising asset prices can then mask mistakes in the pricing of credit derivatives and in assessments of overall leverage in the financial system. Furthermore, the use of credit derivatives by financial ...


Wilkes V. Springside Nursing Home, Inc.: A Historical Perspective, Mark J. Loewenstein Jan 2011

Wilkes V. Springside Nursing Home, Inc.: A Historical Perspective, Mark J. Loewenstein

Articles

No abstract provided.


Intermediaries And Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship For Our Information Age, Danielle Keats Citron, Helen Norton Jan 2011

Intermediaries And Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship For Our Information Age, Danielle Keats Citron, Helen Norton

Articles

No longer confined to isolated corners of the web, cyber hate now enjoys a major presence on popular social media sites. The Facebook group Kill a Jew Day, for instance, acquired thousands of friends within days of its formation, while YouTube has hosted videos with names like How to Kill a Beaner, Execute the Gays, and Murder Muslim Scum. The mainstreaming of cyber hate has the troubling potential to shape public expectations of online discourse.

Internet intermediaries have the freedom and influence to seize this defining moment in cyber hate's history. We believe that a thoughtful and nuanced intermediary-based ...


Towards An International Dialogue On The Institutional Side Of Antitrust, Philip J. Weiser Jan 2011

Towards An International Dialogue On The Institutional Side Of Antitrust, Philip J. Weiser

Articles

The antitrust world is now globalized and interconnected, requiring ever-increasing awareness as to how different agencies operate. The need to promote convergence on substantive doctrines has received, and will continue to receive, considerable attention. What is less appreciated is the need to focus on institutional design and practice, particularly as to the promotion of transparency and procedural fairness in the conduct of antitrust investigations. This Essay makes the case for such a focus, explaining how one of the healthy aspects of a multijurisdictional world is that sister agencies can challenge one another and model means of improving our institutional practices ...


A Diva Defends Herself: Gender And Domestic Violence In An Early Twentieth-Century Headline Trial, Carolyn B. Ramsey Jan 2011

A Diva Defends Herself: Gender And Domestic Violence In An Early Twentieth-Century Headline Trial, Carolyn B. Ramsey

Articles

This short article was presented as part of a symposium on headline criminal trials, organized by St. Louis University School of Law in honor of Lawrence Friedman. It describes and analyzes the self-defense acquittal of opera singer Mae Talbot in Nevada in 1910 on charges of murdering her abusive husband. Based on extensive research into archival trial records and newspaper reports, the article discusses how the press, the court, and trial lawyers on both sides depicted the killing and Mae’s possible defenses. Without discounting the sensationalism and entertainment value, to a scandal-hungry public, of stories about violent marriages, I ...


How Can The Rural Energy Poor Obtain Appropriate Sustainable Energy Technologies?, Michael Waggoner Jan 2011

How Can The Rural Energy Poor Obtain Appropriate Sustainable Energy Technologies?, Michael Waggoner

Articles

Solutions to a current serious problem for the rural energy poor might best be found at least in part in older practices.

The problem comes from cooking over open fires, impairing the health of the cook and of others in her family, using fuel so inefficiently as to threaten forests, and releasing soot that contributes to global warming. Small, cheap, reliable cooking stoves could address these issues, improving health by reducing smoke and exhausting it through a chimney and thus away from the cook, using fuel more efficiently so that less needs to be gathered, and more completely burning the ...


Campaign Speech Law With A Twist: When The Government Is The Speaker, Not The Regulator, Helen Norton Jan 2011

Campaign Speech Law With A Twist: When The Government Is The Speaker, Not The Regulator, Helen Norton

Articles

Although government entities frequently engage in issue-related campaign speech on a variety of contested ballot and legislative measures, this fact has been entirely overlooked in contemporary First Amendment debates over campaign speech law specifically and government speech more generally. The Supreme Court's "campaign speech" and "government speech" dockets have focused to date on claims by private parties that the government has restricted or silenced their speech in violation of the First Amendment. In contrast, disputes over what this Article calls "governmental campaign speech" involve Free Speech Clause and other challenges by private parties who seek instead to silence the ...


Innovation, Entrepreneurship, And The Information Age, Philip J. Weiser Jan 2011

Innovation, Entrepreneurship, And The Information Age, Philip J. Weiser

Articles

This Essay makes the case for antitrust enforcement as a critical part of innovation policy and catalyzing entrepreneurship. It begins by explaining how innovation and entrepreneurship are drivers of economic growth and pillars of any effective economic strategy. With respect to antitrust enforcement and competition policy, it highlights the role that antitrust can play in opening up markets and addressing bottleneck monopolies, such as those at issue in the Microsoft and AT&T cases. It also explains that the most nettlesome challenge of such enforcement is devising appropriate and effective remedies, suggesting a few strategies to address that challenge.


Beyond Adjudication: Resolving International Resource Disputes In An Era Of Climate Change, Anna Spain Jan 2011

Beyond Adjudication: Resolving International Resource Disputes In An Era Of Climate Change, Anna Spain

Articles

This Article examines the role of international adjudication as a mechanism for resolving international disputes and promoting global peace and security in an era of climate change. The central claim is that adjudication has limitations that make it ineffective as a tool for resolving international resource disputes. The Article argues that adjudication is limited due to source and process challenges and it illustrates this claim by reviewing cases adjudicated by the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration and other international courts and tribunals. Four categories of adjudication limitation emerge: a) cases where the parties refused to submit ...


The Variable Determinacy Thesis, Harry Surden Jan 2011

The Variable Determinacy Thesis, Harry Surden

Articles

This Article proposes a novel technique for characterizing the relative determinacy of legal decision-making. I begin with the observation that the determinacy of legal outcomes varies from context to context within the law. To augment this intuition, I develop a theoretical model of determinate legal decision-making. This model aims to capture the essential features that are typically associated with the concept of legal determinacy. I then argue that we can use such an idealized model as a standard for expressing the relative determinacy or indeterminacy of decision-making in actual, observed legal contexts. From a legal theory standpoint, this approach - separating ...


Excluding Unemployed Workers From Job Opportunities: Why Disparate Impact Protections Still Matter, Helen Norton Jan 2011

Excluding Unemployed Workers From Job Opportunities: Why Disparate Impact Protections Still Matter, Helen Norton

Articles

No abstract provided.


Class Actions At The Crossroads: An Answer To Wal-Mart V. Dukes, Suzette M. Malveaux Jan 2011

Class Actions At The Crossroads: An Answer To Wal-Mart V. Dukes, Suzette M. Malveaux

Articles

The Supreme Court has recently decided to hear argument in the largest private-employer civil rights case in American history, Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. This historic case involves up to 1.5 million women suing Wal-Mart, one of the largest companies in the world, for alleged gender discrimination in pay and promotions, in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Like many employees who challenge companywide employment discrimination, the plaintiffs in Dukes brought their case as a class action pursuant to Rule 23(b)(2) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and sought injunctive and ...


In Defense Of The Substance-Procedure Dichotomy, Jennifer S. Hendricks Jan 2011

In Defense Of The Substance-Procedure Dichotomy, Jennifer S. Hendricks

Articles

John Hart Ely famously observed, "We were all brought up on sophisticated talk about the fluidity of the line between substance and procedure," but for most of Erie's history, the Supreme Court has answered the question "Does this state law govern in federal court? " with a "yes" or a "no." Beginning, however, with Gasperini v. Center for Humanities, and continuing with Semtek v. Lockheed Martin and the dissenting opinion in Shady Grove v. Allstate, a shifting coalition of justices has pursued a third path. Instead of declaring state law applicable or inapplicable, they have claimed for themselves the prerogative ...


Old Enough To Fight, Old Enough To Swipe: A Critique Of The Infancy Rule In The Federal Credit Card Act, Andrew A. Schwartz Jan 2011

Old Enough To Fight, Old Enough To Swipe: A Critique Of The Infancy Rule In The Federal Credit Card Act, Andrew A. Schwartz

Articles

In the 1960s and 1970s, American society came to the considered conclusion that if eighteen-year-olds can be drafted to fight and possibly die for their country, they should be treated as adults under the law. Thus, in 1971, the Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which lowered the voting age to eighteen from twenty one, was proposed and ratified in just three months, making it the fastest amendment in American history. The minimum age for federal and state jury service was also lowered to eighteen from twenty one. And, with regard to contract law, every state passed legislation reducing ...


Clearing Civil Procedure Hurdles In The Quest For Justice, Suzette M. Malveaux Jan 2011

Clearing Civil Procedure Hurdles In The Quest For Justice, Suzette M. Malveaux

Articles

No abstract provided.


How Goliath Won: The Future Implications Of Dukes V. Wal-Mart, Suzette M. Malveaux Jan 2011

How Goliath Won: The Future Implications Of Dukes V. Wal-Mart, Suzette M. Malveaux

Articles

No abstract provided.


Comment, Section 5 Constraints On Congress Through The Lens Of Article Iii And The Constitutionality Of The Employment Non-Discrimination Act, Craig Konnoth Jan 2011

Comment, Section 5 Constraints On Congress Through The Lens Of Article Iii And The Constitutionality Of The Employment Non-Discrimination Act, Craig Konnoth

Articles

The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) that will (hopefully) soon prohibit discrimination against LGB, and ideally, T, individuals, allows state employees to sue states for this discrimination. Scholars and activists fear that these provisions will be struck down as violative of state sovereign immunity, using the Court's recent jurisprudence on Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. This jurisprudence requires Congress to put forth evidence of past state violations of a defined constitutional right before it can subject states to suit. This Congress has done.

However, this Comment suggests that a new requirement of Section 5 legislation is in the works ...


Teaching Values, Teaching Stereotypes: Sex Education And Indoctrination In Public Schools, Jennifer S. Hendricks, Dawn Marie Howerton Jan 2011

Teaching Values, Teaching Stereotypes: Sex Education And Indoctrination In Public Schools, Jennifer S. Hendricks, Dawn Marie Howerton

Articles

Many sex education curricula currently used in public schools indoctrinate students in gender stereotypes. As expressed in the title of one article: "If You Don't Aim to Please, Don't Dress to Tease," and Other Public School Sex Education Lessons Subsidized by You, the Federal Taxpayer, Jennifer L. Greenblatt, 14 Tex.J. on CL. & CR. 1 (2008). Other lessons pertain not only to responsibility for sexual activity but to lifelong approaches to family life and individual achievement. One lesson, for example, instructs students that, in marriage, men need sex from their wives and women need financial support from their husbands.

This Article first describes the ways in which teaching sex stereotypes may affect children, highlighting the need for further empirical research in this area. Second, it critiques the extant feminist legal response to gender-biased sex education curricula, particularly the use of precedent dealing with governmental perpetuation of stereotypes; those precedents cannot be incorporated wholesale into this context. Finally, to correct this analytical gap, this Article connects the sex education issue to the existing scholarly literature on indoctrination of schoolchildren, a literature that has hooks in both equal protection and the First Amendment. The ...