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Pregnancy And The First Amendment, Helen Norton Jan 2019

Pregnancy And The First Amendment, Helen Norton

Articles

Suppose that you are pregnant and seated in the waiting room of a Planned Parenthood clinic, or maybe in a facility that advertises “Pregnant? We Can Help You.” This Essay discusses the First Amendment rules that apply to the government’s control of what you are about to hear.

If the government funds your clinic’s program, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that it does not violate the First Amendment’s Free Speech Clause when it forbids your health-care provider from offering you information about available abortion services. Nor does the government violate the Free Speech Clause, the ...


Recording As Heckling, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2019

Recording As Heckling, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

A growing body of authority recognizes that citizen recording of police officers and public space is protected by the First Amendment. But the judicial and scholarly momentum behind the emerging “right to record” fails to fully incorporate recording’s cost to another important right that also furthers First Amendment principles: the right to privacy.

This Article helps fill that gap by comprehensively analyzing the First Amendment interests of both the right to record and the right to privacy in public while highlighting the role of technology in altering the First Amendment landscape. Recording information can be critical to future speech ...


Powerful Speakers And Their Listeners, Helen Norton Jan 2019

Powerful Speakers And Their Listeners, Helen Norton

Articles

In certain settings, law sometimes puts listeners first when their First Amendment interests collide with speakers’. And collide they often do. Sometimes speakers prefer to tell lies when their listeners thirst for the truth. Sometimes listeners hope that speakers will reveal their secrets, while those speakers resist disclosure. And at still other times, speakers seek to address certain listeners when those listeners long to be left alone. When speakers’ and listeners’ First Amendment interests collide, whose interests should prevail? Law sometimes – but not always – puts listeners’ interests first in settings outside of public discourse where those listeners have less information ...


Christian Legislative Prayers And Christian Nationalism, Caroline Mala Corbin Jan 2019

Christian Legislative Prayers And Christian Nationalism, Caroline Mala Corbin

Articles

No abstract provided.


Privacy's Double Standards, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2018

Privacy's Double Standards, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

Where the right to privacy exists, it should be available to all people. If not universally available, then privacy rights should be particularly accessible to marginalized individuals who are subject to greater surveillance and are less able to absorb the social costs of privacy violations. But in practice, there is evidence that people of privilege tend to fare better when they bring privacy tort claims than do non-privileged individuals. This disparity occurs despite doctrine suggesting that those who occupy prominent and public social positions are entitled to diminished privacy tort protections.

This Article unearths disparate outcomes in public disclosure tort ...


The First Queer Right, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2018

The First Queer Right, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

Current legal disputes may lead one to believe that the greatest threat to LGBTQ rights is the First Amendment’s protections for speech, association, and religion, which are currently being mustered to challenge LGBTQ anti-discrimination protections. But underappreciated today is the role of free speech and free association in advancing the well-being of LGBTQ individuals, as explained in Professor Carlos Ball’s important new book, The First Amendment and LGBT Equality: A Contentious History. In many ways the First Amendment’s protections for free expression and association operated as what I label “the first queer right.”

Decades before the Supreme ...


Robotic Speakers And Human Listeners, Helen Norton Jan 2018

Robotic Speakers And Human Listeners, Helen Norton

Articles

In their new book, Robotica, Ron Collins and David Skover assert that we protect speech not so much because of its value to speakers but instead because of its affirmative value to listeners. If we assume that the First Amendment is largely, if not entirely, about serving listeners’ interests—in other words, that it’s listeners all the way down—what would a listener-centered approach to robotic speech require? This short symposium essay briefly discusses the complicated and sometimes even dark side of robotic speech from a listener-centered perspective.


Remediating Social Media: A Layer-Conscious Approach, Annemarie Bridy Jan 2018

Remediating Social Media: A Layer-Conscious Approach, Annemarie Bridy

Articles

No abstract provided.


Religious Healing Exemptions And The Jurisprudential Gap Between Substantive Due Process And Free Exercise Rights, Shaakirrah R. Sanders Jan 2018

Religious Healing Exemptions And The Jurisprudential Gap Between Substantive Due Process And Free Exercise Rights, Shaakirrah R. Sanders

Articles

Religious healing parents have vexed state courts for almost a century. Religious healing is the belief that "prayer" or "spiritual means," rather than modern medicine, can cure individuals. Adults and emancipated minors have the right to refuse medical treatment. Some states go further and grant religious healing parents a statutory exemption against criminal and civil actions for child endangerment, neglect, negligence, manslaughter, and even homicide. This Article identifies these types of exemptions as an issue of religious childrearing.

Religious healing exemptions demonstrate the difficulty delineating the line between childrearing rights of parents and the state's duty to protect children ...


Government Lies And The Press Clause, Helen Norton Jan 2018

Government Lies And The Press Clause, Helen Norton

Articles

This essay considers a particular universe of potentially dangerous governmental falsehoods: the government's lies and misrepresentations about and to the press.

Government's efforts to regulate private speakers' lies clearly implicate the First Amendment, as many (but not all) of our own lies are protected by the Free Speech Clause. But because the government does not have First Amendment rights of its own when it speaks, the constitutional limits, if any, on the government's own lies are considerably less clear.

In earlier work I have explored in some detail the Free Speech and Due Process Clauses as possible ...


(At Least) Thirteen Ways Of Looking At Election Lies, Helen Norton Jan 2018

(At Least) Thirteen Ways Of Looking At Election Lies, Helen Norton

Articles

Lies take many forms. Because lies vary so greatly in their motivations and consequences (among many other qualities), philosophers have long sought to catalog them to help make sense of their diversity and complexity. Legal scholars too have classified lies in various ways to explain why we punish some and protect others. This symposium essay offers yet another taxonomy of lies, focusing specifically on election lies — that is, lies told during or about elections. We can divide and describe election lies in a wide variety of ways: by speaker, by motive, by subject matter, by audience, by means of delivery ...


The Government's Manufacture Of Doubt, Helen Norton Jan 2018

The Government's Manufacture Of Doubt, Helen Norton

Articles

“The manufacture of doubt” refers to a speaker’s strategic efforts to undermine factual assertions that threaten its self-interest. This strategy was perhaps most famously employed by the tobacco industry in its longstanding campaign to contest mounting medical evidence linking cigarettes to a wide range of health risks. At its best, the government’s speech can counter such efforts and protect the public interest, as exemplified by the Surgeon General’s groundbreaking 1964 report on the dangers of tobacco, a report that challenged the industry’s preferred narrative. But the government’s speech is not always so heroic, and governments ...


Remedies And The Government's Constitutionally Harmful Speech, Helen Norton Jan 2018

Remedies And The Government's Constitutionally Harmful Speech, Helen Norton

Articles

Although governments have engaged in expression from their inception, only recently have we begun to consider the ways in which the government’s speech sometimes threatens our constitutional rights. In my contribution to this symposium, I seek to show that although the search for constitutional remedies for the government’s harmful expression is challenging, it is far from futile. This search is also increasingly important at a time when the government’s expressive powers continue to grow—along with its willingness to use these powers for disturbing purposes and with troubling consequences.

More specifically, in certain circumstances, injunctive relief, declaratory ...


“And Yet It Moves”—The First Amendment And Certainty, Ronald K.L. Collins Jan 2018

“And Yet It Moves”—The First Amendment And Certainty, Ronald K.L. Collins

Articles

Surprisingly few, if any, works on the First Amendment have explored the relation between free speech and certainty. The same holds true for decisional law. While this relationship is inherent in much free speech theory and doctrine, its treatment has nonetheless been rather opaque. In what follows, the author teases out— philosophically, textually, and operationally—the significance of that relationship and what it means for our First Amendment jurisprudence. In the process, he examines how the First Amendment operates to counter claims of certainty and likewise how it is employed to demand a degree of certainty from those who wish ...


Is There Any Silver Lining To Trinity Lutheran Church, Inc. V. Comer?, Caroline Mala Corbin Jan 2018

Is There Any Silver Lining To Trinity Lutheran Church, Inc. V. Comer?, Caroline Mala Corbin

Articles

No abstract provided.


Real "Fake News" And Fake "Fake News", Lili Levi Jan 2018

Real "Fake News" And Fake "Fake News", Lili Levi

Articles

No abstract provided.


Public Employee Speech: Answering The Unanswered And Related Questions In Lanke V. Franks, John E. Rumel Apr 2017

Public Employee Speech: Answering The Unanswered And Related Questions In Lanke V. Franks, John E. Rumel

Articles

No abstract provided.


Government Speech And The War On Terror, Helen Norton Jan 2017

Government Speech And The War On Terror, Helen Norton

Articles

The government is unique among speakers because of its coercive power, its substantial resources, its privileged access to national security and intelligence information, and its wide variety of expressive roles as commander-in-chief, policymaker, educator, employer, property owner, and more. Precisely because of this power, variety, and ubiquity, the government's speech can both provide great value and inflict great harm to the public. In wartime, more specifically, the government can affirmatively choose to use its voice to inform, inspire, heal, and unite -- or instead to deceive, divide, bully, and silence.

In this essay, I examine the U.S. government's ...


Checking The Government’S Deception Through Public Employee Speech, Helen Norton Jan 2017

Checking The Government’S Deception Through Public Employee Speech, Helen Norton

Articles

No abstract provided.


First Amendment Right To A Remedy, Benjamin Plener Cover Jan 2017

First Amendment Right To A Remedy, Benjamin Plener Cover

Articles

Scholars and jurists agree that the First Amendment right “to petition the Government for a redress of grievances” includes a right of court access, but narrowly define this right as the right to file a lawsuit. This dominant view fails to meaningfully differentiate between the right to petition, the freedom of speech, and due process, missing the distinct significance of the Petition Clause when individuals petition courts. The most significant threats to court access today occur after the filing stage, when courts deny or limit remedies to legally injured persons — by enforcing a mandatory arbitration provision or an exhaustion requirement ...


Privacy And The Right To Record, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2017

Privacy And The Right To Record, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Many U.S. laws protect privacy by governing recording. Recently, however, courts have recognized a First Amendment “right to record.” This Article addresses how courts should handle privacy laws in light of the developing First Amendment right to record.

The privacy harms addressed by recording laws are situated harms. Recording changes the way people behave in physical spaces by altering the nature of those spaces. Thus, recording laws can be placed within a long line of First Amendment case law that recognizes a valid government interest in managing the qualities of rivalrous physical space, so as not to allow one ...


Performative Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2017

Performative Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Articles

Broadly speaking, privacy doctrine suggests that the right to privacy is non-existent once one enters the public realm. Although some scholars contend that privacy ought to exist in public, “public privacy” has been defended largely with reference to other, ancillary values privacy may serve. For instance, public privacy may be necessary to make the freedom of association meaningful in practice.

This Article identifies a new dimension of public privacy, supplementing extant justifications for the right, by arguing that many efforts to maintain privacy while in “public” are properly conceptualized as forms of performative, expressive resistance against an ever-pervasive surveillance society ...


Siri-Ously 2.0: What Artificial Intelligence Reveals About The First Amendment, Toni M. Massaro, Helen Norton, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2017

Siri-Ously 2.0: What Artificial Intelligence Reveals About The First Amendment, Toni M. Massaro, Helen Norton, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

The First Amendment may protect speech by strong Artificial Intelligence (AI). In this Article, we support this provocative claim by expanding on earlier work, addressing significant concerns and challenges, and suggesting potential paths forward.

This is not a claim about the state of technology. Whether strong AI — as-yet-hypothetical machines that can actually think — will ever come to exist remains far from clear. It is instead a claim that discussing AI speech sheds light on key features of prevailing First Amendment doctrine and theory, including the surprising lack of humanness at its core.

Courts and commentators wrestling with free speech problems ...


Authorship, Disrupted: Ai Authors In Copyright And First Amendment Law, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2017

Authorship, Disrupted: Ai Authors In Copyright And First Amendment Law, Margot E. Kaminski

Articles

Technology is often characterized as an outside force, with essential qualities, acting on the law. But the law, through both doctrine and theory, constructs the meaning of the technology it encounters. A particular feature of a particular technology disrupts the law only because the law has been structured in a way that makes that feature relevant. The law, in other words, plays a significant role in shaping its own disruption. This Essay is a study of how a particular technology, artificial intelligence, is framed by both copyright law and the First Amendment. How the algorithmic author is framed by these ...


The Weaponized Lawsuit Against The Media: Litigation Funding As A New Threat To Journalism, Lili Levi Jan 2017

The Weaponized Lawsuit Against The Media: Litigation Funding As A New Threat To Journalism, Lili Levi

Articles

This Article identifies a new front in the current war against the media one in which billionaire private actors clandestinely fund other people's lawsuits in an attempt to censor press entities. The use of strategic litigation to shutter media outlets constitutes a major threat to the expressive order. And the current climate of press failures, institutional disaggregation, decreasing accountability journalism, and declining public trust-the very vulnerability of the press today-significantly amplifies the chilling impact of strategic third party funding. It does so whether the strategy is death-by-a-thousand litigations or titanic, bankruptcy-inducing damage verdicts.

Still, contrary to the assertions of ...


Government Employee Religion, Caroline Mala Corbin Jan 2017

Government Employee Religion, Caroline Mala Corbin

Articles

Picture a county clerk who refuses to issue a marriage license to an LGBT couple or a city bus driver who insists on wearing a hijab. The clerk is fired for failing to fulfill job responsibilities and the bus driver for violating official dress codes. Both claim that their termination violates the First Amendment speech and religion clauses.

There is a well-developed First Amendment government employee speech jurisprudence. Less developed is the doctrine and literature for First Amendment government employee religion. The existing Free Exercise Clause jurisprudence usually does not specifically account for the government employee context. This Article attempts ...


A Free Speech Tale Of Two County Clerk Refusals, Caroline Mala Corbin Jan 2017

A Free Speech Tale Of Two County Clerk Refusals, Caroline Mala Corbin

Articles

The ever-expanding Free Speech Clause has made possible claims that would have been unthinkable until recently. This symposium Essay examines the compelled speech claims of two hypothetical county clerks who believe that marriage should be limited to unions between one man and one woman, and who argue that forcing them to issue marriage licenses to gay and lesbian couples compels them to speak in favor of same-sex marriage in violation of the Free Speech Clause.

When a government employee such as a county clerk speaks, she may not be speaking as just a private individual. She may also be speaking ...


Justice Scalia, The Establishment Clause, And Christian Privilege, Caroline Mala Corbin Dec 2016

Justice Scalia, The Establishment Clause, And Christian Privilege, Caroline Mala Corbin

Articles

No abstract provided.


Ag-Gag Free Detroit, Shaakirrah R. Sanders Oct 2016

Ag-Gag Free Detroit, Shaakirrah R. Sanders

Articles

No abstract provided.


Re-Ordering The First Amendment, Melissa Hart Jan 2016

Re-Ordering The First Amendment, Melissa Hart

Articles

No abstract provided.