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University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

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Articles 1 - 30 of 14404

Full-Text Articles in Law

Algorithmic Grey Holes, Alicia G. Solow-Niederman Jan 2023

Algorithmic Grey Holes, Alicia G. Solow-Niederman

Journal of Law & Innovation

No abstract provided.


The Dangers Of Automated Gunshot Detection, Maneka Sinha Jan 2023

The Dangers Of Automated Gunshot Detection, Maneka Sinha

Journal of Law & Innovation

No abstract provided.


Understanding Criminal Justice Innovations, Meghan J. Ryan Jan 2023

Understanding Criminal Justice Innovations, Meghan J. Ryan

Journal of Law & Innovation

No abstract provided.


Emerging Technology’S Language Wars: Ai And Criminal Justice, Carla L. Reyes Jan 2023

Emerging Technology’S Language Wars: Ai And Criminal Justice, Carla L. Reyes

Journal of Law & Innovation

No abstract provided.


Masthead Jan 2023

Masthead

Journal of Law & Innovation

No abstract provided.


Antitrust Interoperability Remedies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2023

Antitrust Interoperability Remedies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Compelled interoperability can be a useful remedy for dominant firms, including large digital platforms, who violate the antitrust laws. They can address competition concerns without interfering unnecessarily with the structures that make digital platforms attractive and that have contributed so much to economic growth.

Given the wide variety of structures and business models for big tech, “interoperability” must be defined broadly. It can realistically include everything from “dynamic” interoperability that requires real time sharing of data and operations, to “static” interoperability which requires portability but not necessarily real time interactions. Also included are the compelled sharing of intellectual property or …


Insurance And Enterprise: Cyber Insurance For Ransomware, Tom Baker, Anja Shortland Dec 2022

Insurance And Enterprise: Cyber Insurance For Ransomware, Tom Baker, Anja Shortland

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Selling insurance gives insurers an incentive to manage insured risks. The “insurance as governance” literature demonstrates that insurers often make insurance conditional on ex ante risk reduction or mitigation. But insurance governs in support of enterprise, not security for its own sake. Tight underwriting inhibits enterprise – not only for insured businesses but also the business of insurance. This paper highlights ex post loss reduction as a form of insurance-based governance. Drawing on interviews with industry insiders, we explore how insurers addressed the evolving problems of moral hazard, uncertainty, and correlated losses since the 1990s. We find that cyber insurance …


The Government Behind Insurance Governance: Lessons For Ransomware, Tom Baker, Anja Shortland Nov 2022

The Government Behind Insurance Governance: Lessons For Ransomware, Tom Baker, Anja Shortland

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The insurance as governance literature focuses on the ability of private enterprises to collectively regulate, pool, and distribute risks. This paper analyzes how governments support insurance markets to maintain insurability and limit risks to society. We propose a new conceptual framework grouping government interventions into three dimensions: regulation of risky activity, public investment in risk reduction, and co-insurance. We apply this framework to six case studies, describing insurance markets’ reliance on public support in more analytically precise terms. We analyze how mature insurance markets overcame insurability challenges akin to those currently presented by extortive cybercrime. Private governance struggled when markets …


The Disability Frame, Karen Tani, Jasmine E. Harris Nov 2022

The Disability Frame, Karen Tani, Jasmine E. Harris

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

This essay is the Foreword to the 2022 University of Pennsylvania Law Review symposium on “The Disability Frame.” “The disability frame” refers to the characterization of a particular controversy or problem as being “about” disability, which in turn can imply that disability-focused laws ought to resolve or adjudicate the issue. We see this frame function in at least four ways. First, the disability frame is sometimes invoked as a shield, with the hope that it will insulate someone from the reach of the state or exempt a person from an unwelcome or onerous responsibility (e.g., jury service, vaccination, a criminal …


Border Orientation In A Globalizing World, Beth A. Simmons, Michael R. Kenwick Oct 2022

Border Orientation In A Globalizing World, Beth A. Simmons, Michael R. Kenwick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Border politics are a salient component of high international politics. States are increasingly building infrastructure to ‘secure’ their borders. We introduce the concept of border orientation to describe the extent to which the State is committed to the spatial display of capacities to control the terms of penetration of its national borders. Border orientation provides a lens through which to analyze resistance to globalization, growing populism, and the consequences of intensified border politics. We measure border orientation using novel, geo-spatial data on the built environment along the world’s borders and theorize that real and perceived pressures of globalization have resulted …


Gamestop And The Reemergence Of The Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch Oct 2022

Gamestop And The Reemergence Of The Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The GameStop trading frenzy in January 2021 was perhaps the highest profile example of the reemergence of capital market participation by retail investors, a marked shift from the growing domination of those markets by large institutional investors. Some commentators have greeted retail investing, which has been fueled by app-based brokerage accounts and social media, with alarm and called for regulatory reform. The goals of such reforms are twofold. First, critics argue that retail investors need greater protection from the risks of investing in the stock market. Second, they argue that the stock market, in term, needs protection from retail investors. …


Sentencing Co-Offenders, Ehud Guttel, Ittai Paldor, Gideon Parchomovsky Oct 2022

Sentencing Co-Offenders, Ehud Guttel, Ittai Paldor, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Tort law and criminal law are the two main vehicles utilized by the state to deter wrongful behavior. Despite the many similarities between the two legal fields, they differ in their treatment of collaborations. While tort law divides liability among joint-tortfeasors, criminal law abides by a no-division rule that imposes on each co-offender the full brunt of the sanction. Thus, each of two offenders who jointly steal $1,000, will be subject to the full corresponding penalty (rather than the divided penalty for stealing $500).

This Article demonstrates that in property and financial crimes, the no-division regime of criminal law harms …


Reflections Of An Unapologetic Safety Regulator, Robert S. Adler Oct 2022

Reflections Of An Unapologetic Safety Regulator, Robert S. Adler

The Regulatory Review in Depth

No abstract provided.


Neutralizing The Atmosphere, Shelley Welton Oct 2022

Neutralizing The Atmosphere, Shelley Welton

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

“Net zero” has rapidly become the new organizing paradigm of climate change law. In the past few years, thousands of countries, companies, states, and cities have developed pledges that promise by a set date—typically around 2050—that any carbon they emit will be counterbalanced by capturing an equal amount of carbon out of the atmosphere. Collectively, these pledges now cover more than 91% of the global economy. This widespread adoption of scientifically aligned climate policy appears on its surface like a cause for celebration. However, concerns are mounting. To date, critiques of net zero have centered on what this Feature terms …


Supreme Illegitimacy, Eric W. Orts Oct 2022

Supreme Illegitimacy, Eric W. Orts

The Regulatory Review in Depth

No abstract provided.


Negligence And Culpability: Reflections On Alexander And Ferzan, Mitchell N. Berman Oct 2022

Negligence And Culpability: Reflections On Alexander And Ferzan, Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Philosophers of criminal punishment disagree about whether infliction of punishment for negligence can be morally justified. One contending view holds that it cannot be because punishment requires culpability and culpability requires, at a minimum, advertence to the facts that make one’s conduct wrongful. Larry Alexander and Kim Ferzan are prominent champions of this position. This essay challenges that view and their arguments for it. Invoking a conceptual distinction between an agent’s being blameworthy for an act and their deserving punishment (or suffering) for that act, it explains that an agent can be blameworthy for negligent conduct, and thus liable to …


Beyond Guantanamo: Restoring The Rule Of Law To The Law Of War, Claire O. Finkelstein, Harvey Rishikof Sep 2022

Beyond Guantanamo: Restoring The Rule Of Law To The Law Of War, Claire O. Finkelstein, Harvey Rishikof

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

In June 2021, CERL assembled a working group to address the difficult legal and policy questions that arise in anticipation of renewed attempts to close the Guantánamo detention facility. The CERL 2021 Working Group on Guantánamo Bay is co-chaired by Claire Finkelstein, a professor of criminal and national security law at the University of Pennsylvania and CERL’s faculty director, and Harvey Rishikof, former convening authority for the commissions and a visiting professor of national security law at Temple University. The group comprises over thirty national security and counterterrorism experts, retired military officers, lawyers, former Department of Justice officials, psychologists, psychiatrists, …


Solving The Congressional Review Act’S Conundrum, Cary Coglianese Sep 2022

Solving The Congressional Review Act’S Conundrum, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Congress routinely enacts statutes that require federal agencies to adopt specific regulations. When Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2010, for example, it mandated that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) adopt an anti-corruption regulation requiring energy companies to disclose payments they make to foreign governments. Although the Dodd-Frank Act specifically required the SEC to adopt this disclosure requirement, the agency’s eventual regulation was also, like other administrative rules, subject to disapproval by Congress under a process outlined in a separate statute known as the Congressional Review Act (CRA).

After the SEC issued its …


Purpose Proposals, Jill E. Fisch Sep 2022

Purpose Proposals, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Repurposing the corporation is the hot issue in corporate governance. Commentators, investors and increasingly issuers, maintain that corporations should shift their focus from maximizing profits for shareholders to generating value for a more expansive group of stakeholders. Corporations are also being called upon to address societal concerns – from climate change and voting rights to racial justice and wealth inequality.

The shareholder proposal rule, Rule 14a–8, offers one potential tool for repurposing the corporation. This Article describes the introduction of innovative proposals seeking to formalize corporate commitments to stakeholder governance. These “purpose proposals” reflect a new dynamic in the debate …


Reining In Repeat Offenders, Rohit Chopra Sep 2022

Reining In Repeat Offenders, Rohit Chopra

The Regulatory Review in Depth

No abstract provided.


Qualifying Prosecutorial Immunity Through Brady Claims, Paul Heaton, Brian M. Murray, Jon B. Gould Sep 2022

Qualifying Prosecutorial Immunity Through Brady Claims, Paul Heaton, Brian M. Murray, Jon B. Gould

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

This Article considers the soundness of the doctrine of absolute immunity as it relates to Brady violations. While absolute immunity serves to protect prosecutors from civil liability for good-faith efforts to act appropriately in their official capacity, current immunity doctrine also creates a potentially large class of injury victims—those who are subjected to wrongful imprisonment due to Brady violations—with no access to justice. Moreover, by removing prosecutors from the incentive-shaping forces of the tort system that are thought in other contexts to promote safety, absolute immunity doctrine may under-incentivize prosecutorial compliance with constitutional and statutory requirements and increase criminal justice …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 10 - Administrative Law's Racial Blind Spot, Daniel E. Ho Aug 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 10 - Administrative Law's Racial Blind Spot, Daniel E. Ho

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

Administrative law has a racial blind spot, argues Daniel E. Ho of Stanford Law School. Judges have long set aside agency actions when government officials have failed to consider the differential impacts of their policy decisions on subgroups of business owners, park visitors, and even animals—but not when they have failed to consider differential impacts based on race or ethnicity. In this episode, Professor Ho traces how civil rights and administrative law have diverged over the past fifty years, as U.S. court decisions have removed issues of racial discrimination from administrative law’s purview. He concludes by discussing reforms that could …


Brief Of Professor Tobias B. Wolff As Amicus Curiae In Support Of Respondents In U.S. Supreme Court Case 303 Creative Llc V. Elenis, Tobias Barrington Wolff Aug 2022

Brief Of Professor Tobias B. Wolff As Amicus Curiae In Support Of Respondents In U.S. Supreme Court Case 303 Creative Llc V. Elenis, Tobias Barrington Wolff

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

This amicus brief, filed in support of the Colorado anti-discrimination law in 303 Creative v. Elenis, is the product of about ten years of work on these First Amendment issues as a scholar and advocate. Its arguments rest on a core proposition: When a business sells goods and services in the public marketplace, it is not a street corner speaker engaging in a personal act of expression, it is a vendor engaged in commerce. Customers do not pay for the privilege of promoting a commercial vendor’s own personal message, they pay for goods and services chosen by them and …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 9 - Board Diversity And Community Lending, Brian D. Feinstein Aug 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 9 - Board Diversity And Community Lending, Brian D. Feinstein

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

The racial wealth gap in the U.S. is driven in part by a lack of access to credit among communities of color. But as Brian D. Feinstein of the Wharton School relays in this episode, new empirical research indicates that increasing the level of diversity on regional Federal Reserve Bank boards improves credit access for underbanked minority communities. He draws out the major implications of this research not only for narrowing the racial wealth gap, but for understanding the role that diversity in institutional leadership, including on corporate boards, can play in advancing racial equity more broadly.


Are All Risks Created Equal? Rethinking The Distinction Between Legal And Business Risk In Corporate Law, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Aug 2022

Are All Risks Created Equal? Rethinking The Distinction Between Legal And Business Risk In Corporate Law, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Should corporate legal risk be treated similarly to corporate business risks? Currently, the law draws a clear-cut distinction between the two sources of risk, permitting the latter type of risk and banning the former. As a result, fiduciaries are shielded from personal liability in the case of business risk and are entirely exposed to civil and criminal liability that arises from legal risk-taking. As corporate law theorists have underscored, the differential treatment of business and legal risk is highly problematic from the perspective of firms and shareholders. To begin with, legal risk cannot be completely averted or eliminated. More importantly, …


Selling Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Aug 2022

Selling Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Antitrust enforcers and its other defenders have never done a good job of selling their field to the public. That is not entirely their fault. Antitrust is inherently technical, and a less engaging discipline to most people than, say, civil rights or criminal law. The more serious problem is that when the general press does talk about antitrust policy it naturally gravitates toward the fringes, both the far right and the far left. Extreme rhetoric makes for better press than the day-to-day operations of a technical enterprise. The extremes are often stated in overdramatized black-and-white terms that avoid the real …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 8 - Vaccination Equity By Design, Olatunde C. Johnson Aug 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 8 - Vaccination Equity By Design, Olatunde C. Johnson

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

Racial disparities have occurred in COVID-19’s health effects and fatalities. They have persisted through the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines too, which saw a greater uptake in socioeconomically privileged segments of the population. These outcomes did not have to occur. Olatunde Johnson of Columbia Law School discusses how regulators could have made different policy design choices to promote greater equity in the vaccine rollout—and she draws key lessons not only for the next public health emergency but also for improving racial equity more generally.


Building Better Compliance, Cary Coglianese Aug 2022

Building Better Compliance, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

A response to Dorothy Lund & Natasha Sarin: "Corporate Crime and Punishment: An Empirical Study"


Influence By Intimidation: Business Lobbying In The Regulatory Process, Alex Acs, Cary Coglianese Jul 2022

Influence By Intimidation: Business Lobbying In The Regulatory Process, Alex Acs, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Interest group influence in the policy process is often assumed to occur through a mechanism of exchange, persuasion, or subsidy. Here, we explore how business groups may also exert influence by intimidating policymakers—a form of persuasion, but one based not on the provision of policy information but of political information. We develop a theory where a business firm lobbies a regulator to communicate political information about its capacity to commit to future influence-seeking activities that would sanction the regulator. The regulator assesses the credibility of this message by evaluating the firm’s commitment to lobbying. Guided by our theory, we present …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 7 - Citizenship, Race, And Political Inequality, Ming Hsu Chen Jul 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 7 - Citizenship, Race, And Political Inequality, Ming Hsu Chen

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

Formal citizenship requirements for political participation excludes not only noncitizens, but also many individuals from racial communities perpetually seen as foreigners. Ming Hsu Chen of the University of California Hastings College of Law looks at regulatory barriers, such as voter ID laws, that inhibit both racial minorities and non-citizens from participating equally in the American political process. She offers proposals for regulatory changes that would create a more equitable political order.