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Full-Text Articles in Law

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos Jan 2019

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Imagine that a close friend is raped, and you encourage her to report it to the police. At first, she thinks that the police are taking her report seriously, but the investigation does not seem to move forward. The next thing she knows, they accuse her of lying and ultimately file charges against her. You and your friend are in shock; this outcome never entered your minds. This nightmare may seem inconceivable, but it has in fact occurred repeatedly in both the United States and Britain—countries that are typically lauded for their high levels of gender equality. In Britain ...


Collected Works, November 3, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 2017

Collected Works, November 3, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Understanding Nautilus's Reasonable-Certainty Standard: Requirements For Linguistic And Physical Definiteness Of Patent Claims, Gary M. Fox Nov 2017

Understanding Nautilus's Reasonable-Certainty Standard: Requirements For Linguistic And Physical Definiteness Of Patent Claims, Gary M. Fox

Michigan Law Review

Patent applicants must satisfy a variety of requirements to obtain a patent from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The definiteness requirement forces applicants to describe their inventions in unambiguous terms so that other inventors will understand the scope of granted patent rights. Although the statutory provision for the definiteness requirement has been stable for many years, the Supreme Court’s decision in Nautilus v. Biosig Instruments altered the doctrine. The Court abrogated the Federal Circuit’s insoluble-ambiguity standard and replaced it with a new reasonable-certainty standard. Various district courts have applied the new standard in different ways ...


Rationing Criminal Justice, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas Nov 2017

Rationing Criminal Justice, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas

Michigan Law Review

Of the many diagnoses of American criminal justice’s ills, few focus on externalities. Yet American criminal justice systematically overpunishes in large part because few mechanisms exist to force consideration of the full social costs of criminal justice interventions. Actors often lack good information or incentives to minimize the harms they impose. Part of the problem is structural: criminal justice is fragmented vertically among governments, horizontally among agencies, and individually among self-interested actors. Part is a matter of focus: doctrinally and pragmatically, actors overwhelmingly view each case as an isolated, short-term transaction to the exclusion of broader, long-term, and aggregate ...


Corpus Linguistics: Misfire Or More Ammo For The Ordinary - Meaning Canon?, John D. Ramer Nov 2017

Corpus Linguistics: Misfire Or More Ammo For The Ordinary - Meaning Canon?, John D. Ramer

Michigan Law Review

Scholars and judges have heralded corpus linguistics—the study of language through collections of spoken or written texts—as a novel tool for statutory interpretation that will help provide an answer in the occasionally ambiguous search for “ordinary meaning” using dictionaries. In the spring of 2016, the Michigan Supreme Court became the first to use corpus linguistics in a majority opinion. The dissent also used it, however, and the two opinions reached different conclusions. In the first true test for corpus linguistics, the answer seemed to be just as ambiguous as before.

This result calls into question the utility of ...


Are Taxes Converging?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Gianluca Mazzoni Oct 2017

Are Taxes Converging?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Gianluca Mazzoni

Law & Economics Working Papers

Eduardo Baistrocchi’s outstanding new book on tax treaty disputes is the result of an intense five-year global collaborative project among international tax scholars, practitioners and administrators. The book provides an unprecedented set of information and offers the first global qualitative and quantitative analysis on one of the most important debates over international tax scholarship across the last decades, that is, whether an international tax regime exists and is binding upon states as a matter of customary international law.


The Impact Of Mandated Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence From India’S Companies Act Of 2013, Dhammika Dharmapala, Vikramaditya Khanna Oct 2017

The Impact Of Mandated Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence From India’S Companies Act Of 2013, Dhammika Dharmapala, Vikramaditya Khanna

Law & Economics Working Papers

Firms’ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity has become the subject of a large literature in recent years. This paper analyzes CSR activity using quasi-experimental variation created by Section 135 of India’s Companies Act of 2013, which requires (on a “comply-or-explain” basis) that firms satisfying specific size or profit thresholds spend a minimum of 2% of their net profit on CSR. We examine effects along a number of different dimensions including firm value, CSR spending, and other outcomes, as well as exploring broader theoretical implications. Our analysis uses financial statement and stock price data on Indian firms from the Prowess ...


China And The Future Of The International Tax Regime, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu Oct 2017

China And The Future Of The International Tax Regime, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu

Law & Economics Working Papers

The International tax regime (ITR) has been transformed after the Great Recession of 2008-2009. The G20/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project (2013-2015) has fundamentally changed the ITR, giving new life to the single tax principle (income should be taxed once, i.e. no double taxation and no double non taxation).

Reaction to BEPS has varied dramatically between the EU and the US, the two largest markets in the world. In the EU BEPS is taken very seriously, as shown for example by the new Anti Tax Avoidance Directives that implement ...


Collected Works, October 20, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2017

Collected Works, October 20, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Collected Works, October 6, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2017

Collected Works, October 6, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Slicing And Dicing: The Structural Problems Of The Tax Reform Framework, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Oct 2017

Slicing And Dicing: The Structural Problems Of The Tax Reform Framework, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

The “Unified Framework for Fixing Our Broken Tax Code” (the “Framework”) released by the “Big Six” group of Treasury, White House and Congressional leaders on September 27 has been the focus of a lot of commentary. Most of the comments have focused on the distributive aspects of the plan and on the proposed rate structure, as well as the impact on revenues and the federal deficit. In this comment, I plan to focus instead on the structural aspects of the plan and in particular on the various new lines that it draws, because these are more likely to be lasting.


Introduction To Symposium On Unauthorized Military Interventions For The Public Good, Monica Hakimi Oct 2017

Introduction To Symposium On Unauthorized Military Interventions For The Public Good, Monica Hakimi

Articles

On April 6, 2017, the United States launched fifty-nine Tomahawk missiles against an air base in Syria, after evidence surfaced that Bashar Al-Assad’s regime had again used chemical weapons against its people. President Trump announced that the strikes were intended “to prevent and deter the spread and use of deadly chemical weapons.” But as of this Symposium’s publication, the United States has not articulated a formal legal justification for the strikes. Instead, it reportedly circulated a document that listed several case-specific considerations that, in its view, justified the use of force. Yet the global reaction was overwhelmingly positive ...


Saving Title Ix: Designing More Equitable And Efficient Investigation Procedures, Emma Ellman-Golan Oct 2017

Saving Title Ix: Designing More Equitable And Efficient Investigation Procedures, Emma Ellman-Golan

Michigan Law Review

In 2011, the Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights (OCR) issued guidance on Title IX compliance. This guidance has resulted in the creation of investigative and adjudicatory tribunals at colleges and universities receiving federal funds to hear claims of sexual assault, harassment, and violence. OCR’s enforcement efforts are a laudable response to an epidemic of sexual violence on college campuses, but they have faced criticism from administrators, law professors, and potential members of the Trump Administration. This Note suggests ways to alter current Title IX enforcement mechanisms to placate critics and to maintain OCR enforcement as a ...


Humanizing The Corporation While Dehumanizing The Individual: The Misuse Of Deferred-Prosecution Agreements In The United States, Andrea Amulic Oct 2017

Humanizing The Corporation While Dehumanizing The Individual: The Misuse Of Deferred-Prosecution Agreements In The United States, Andrea Amulic

Michigan Law Review

American prosecutors routinely offer deferred-prosecution and nonprosecution agreements to corporate defendants, but not to noncorporate defendants. The drafters of the Speedy Trial Act expressly contemplated such agreements, as originally developed for use in cases involving low-level, nonviolent, noncorporate defendants. This Note posits that the almost exclusive use of deferrals in corporate cases is inconsistent with the goal that these agreements initially sought to serve. The Note further argues that this exclusivity can be attributed to prosecutors’ tendency to only consider collateral consequences in corporate cases and not in noncorporate cases. Ultimately, this Note recommends that prosecutors evaluate collateral fallout when ...


Chevron In The Circuit Courts, Kent Barnett, Christopher J. Walker Oct 2017

Chevron In The Circuit Courts, Kent Barnett, Christopher J. Walker

Michigan Law Review

This Article presents findings from the most comprehensive empirical study to date on how the federal courts of appeals have applied Chevrondeference— the doctrine under which courts defer to a federal agency’s reasonable interpretation of an ambiguous statute that it administers. Based on 1,558 agency interpretations the circuit courts reviewed from 2003 through 2013 (where they cited Chevron), we found that the circuit courts overall upheld 71% of interpretations and applied Chevrondeference 77% of the time. But there was nearly a twenty-five-percentage-point difference in agency-win rates when the circuit courts applied Chevrondeference than when they ...


Collected Works, September 22, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 2017

Collected Works, September 22, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


International Perspectives On Privacy And Free Expression: Concepts, Conflicts, Consequences, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 2017

International Perspectives On Privacy And Free Expression: Concepts, Conflicts, Consequences, University Of Michigan Law School

Event Materials

This conference contributes to the energetic and transnational dialogue currently going on about privacy: How do we define it? Is it a right, an interest, a value, or something else? Privacy against what? Privacy from whom? Is privacy necessarily in tension with free expression? Or is it often an essential predicate to it? How have different political regimes answered these questions? How do entities and individuals navigate those conflicting transnational approaches?

This is the program for the conference.


Collected Works, September 8, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 2017

Collected Works, September 8, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Fiduciary Duties In Bankruptcy And Insolvency, John A. E. Pottow Sep 2017

Fiduciary Duties In Bankruptcy And Insolvency, John A. E. Pottow

Law & Economics Working Papers

Insolvency law (bankruptcy law to some) moves so quickly in the cross-border realm that this piece's discussion, started in 2015, is probably already outdated. Nonetheless, I publish it unrepentently because it turns overdue attention to the role of soft law in this domain. Building on earlier work in which I address the role of incrementalism, I discuss the marked success of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency and its cognate Insolvency Regulation in the EU (the latter now into its "Recast"). As predicted/hoped, the EU Recast, joining other contemporaneous reform projects, is building upon the scaffolding of ...


Juvenile Lifers And Juveniles In Michigan Prisons: A Population Of Special Concern, Kimberly A. Thomas Sep 2017

Juvenile Lifers And Juveniles In Michigan Prisons: A Population Of Special Concern, Kimberly A. Thomas

Articles

Prisoners serving life without parole for offenses they committed when they were juveniles have received much attention after the United States Supreme Court found in Miller v Alabama that mandatory life without parole for juveniles violated the Eighth Amendment and found that its Miller decision applied retroactively. Courts have begun the process of sentencing and resentencing these individuals, some of whom are still teens and some of whom have served 40 years or more in the Michigan Department of Corrections (MDOC). All told, not including new cases that come before the court, approximately 370 prisoners will receive individualized sentences under ...


Evaluating Beps, Reuven Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu Aug 2017

Evaluating Beps, Reuven Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu

Articles

This article evaluates the recently completed Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project of the G20 and OECD and offers some alternatives for reform.


Collected Works, August 25, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Aug 2017

Collected Works, August 25, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Collected Works, August 11, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Aug 2017

Collected Works, August 11, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Collected Works, July 28, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Jul 2017

Collected Works, July 28, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


The Forfeiture Of Coverage Defenses Rule: An Economic Analysis, Tom Baker, Ezra Friedman, Kyle D. Logue Jul 2017

The Forfeiture Of Coverage Defenses Rule: An Economic Analysis, Tom Baker, Ezra Friedman, Kyle D. Logue

Law & Economics Working Papers

In liability insurance, the duty to defend is broader than the duty to cover. Thus it is possible that an insurer that has a duty to defend a suit may not have the duty to cover the policyholder's liabilities in the suit. However, if the penalty for a breach of the duty to defend is limited to actual legal costs spent by the defendant, the insurer may have an incentive to refuse to defend, even when the duty to defend is clear. This occurs because the insurer will not internalize the consequences of an inadequate defense when it ultimately ...


Collected Works, July 14, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Jul 2017

Collected Works, July 14, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


The Fiction Of Locally Owned Mom And Pop Car Dealers: Some Data On Franchised Automobile Distribution In The State Of Michigan, Daniel A. Crane Jul 2017

The Fiction Of Locally Owned Mom And Pop Car Dealers: Some Data On Franchised Automobile Distribution In The State Of Michigan, Daniel A. Crane

Law & Economics Working Papers

No abstract provided.


Collected Works, June 30, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Jun 2017

Collected Works, June 30, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.


Stock Market Reactions To India's 2016 Demonetization: Implications For Tax Evasion, Corruption, And Financial Constraints, Vikramaditya Khanna, Dhammika Dharmapala Jun 2017

Stock Market Reactions To India's 2016 Demonetization: Implications For Tax Evasion, Corruption, And Financial Constraints, Vikramaditya Khanna, Dhammika Dharmapala

Law & Economics Working Papers

On November 8, 2016, the Indian government made a surprise announcement that certain currency notes (representing 86% of the currency then in circulation) would no longer be legal tender (although they could be deposited in banks over a limited period). The stated reason for this sudden “demonetization” was to combat tax evasion and corruption associated with “unaccounted-for” cash. We compute abnormal returns for firms on the Indian stock market around this event, and compare patterns of abnormal returns for different subsamples of firms defined by industry, ownership structure, and other characteristics. There is little evidence that sectors thought to be ...


Collected Works, June 16, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School Jun 2017

Collected Works, June 16, 2017, University Of Michigan Law School

Newsletters

Collected Works is a summary of faculty activities, publications, and news that has been collected in the last two weeks. Collected Works comprises information culled from a variety of sources, but most heavily relies on information submitted directly by faculty.