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University of Miami Law Review

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Editor's Foreword, Lance Maynard Feb 2020

Editor's Foreword, Lance Maynard

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


How Hard Can This Be? The Dearth Of U.S. Tax Treaties With Latin America, Patricia A. Brown Feb 2020

How Hard Can This Be? The Dearth Of U.S. Tax Treaties With Latin America, Patricia A. Brown

University of Miami Law Review

The United States has fewer tax treaties with countries in Latin America and the Caribbean than the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain and even China have with such countries. After first describing ways in which tax treaties reduce barriers to cross-border trade and investment, this Article considers in turn various possible explanations for this situation. It examines, and rejects, the hypothesis that Latin American countries are reluctant to enter into tax treaties in general. It then considers, and rejects, the possibility that Latin American countries are opposed to in-creased trade and investment from the United States in particular. It then ...


Privacy Protection(Ism): The Latest Wave Of Trade Constraints On Regulatory Autonomy, Svetlana Yakovleva Feb 2020

Privacy Protection(Ism): The Latest Wave Of Trade Constraints On Regulatory Autonomy, Svetlana Yakovleva

University of Miami Law Review

Countries spend billions of dollars each year to strengthen their discursive power to shape international policy debates. They do so because in public policy conversations labels and narratives matter enormously. The “digital protectionism” label has been used in the last decade as a tool to gain the policy upper hand in digital trade policy debates about cross-border flows of personal and other data. Using the Foucauldian framework of discourse analysis, this Article brings a unique perspective on this topic. The Article makes two central arguments. First, the Article argues that the term “protectionism” is not endowed with an inherent meaning ...


Cowboys And Indians: Settler Colonialism And The Dog Whistle In U.S. Immigration Policy, Hannah Gordon Feb 2020

Cowboys And Indians: Settler Colonialism And The Dog Whistle In U.S. Immigration Policy, Hannah Gordon

University of Miami Law Review

The nineteenth-century Indian problem has become the twenty-first century border crisis. While the United States fancies itself a nation of immigrants, this rhetoric is impossible to square with the reality of the systematic exclusion of migrants of color. In particular, the Trump administration has taken the exclusion of migrants descended from the Indigenous inhabitants of Mexico and Central America to a reductio ad absurdum. This Note joins a body of scholarship that centers the history of genocide in the United States to examine what our settler colonial history means for today’s immigration law and policy. It concludes that the ...


The Future Is Today: Preparing The Legal Ground For The United States Space Force, Clayton J. Schmitt Feb 2020

The Future Is Today: Preparing The Legal Ground For The United States Space Force, Clayton J. Schmitt

University of Miami Law Review

The Space Race officially launched on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union placed Sputnik I, the first man-made satellite, into Earth’s orbit. The United States fired back four months later, on January 31, 1958, by launching its own satellite, Explorer I. While both superpowers’ programs facially focused on scientific research, each was funded and directed by their respective militaries. Military functions in space followed shortly, with the United States beginning to place its first reconnaissance satellites in space in 1959 as part of the Corona program. American and Soviet discussions following these initial military developments eventually led to ...


Access To Law Or Access To Lawyers? Master’S Programs In The Public Educational Mission Of Law Schools, Mark Edwin Burge Nov 2019

Access To Law Or Access To Lawyers? Master’S Programs In The Public Educational Mission Of Law Schools, Mark Edwin Burge

University of Miami Law Review

The general decline in juris doctor (“J.D.”) law school applicants and enrollment over the last decade has coincided with the rise of a new breed of law degree. Whether known as master of jurisprudence, juris master, master of legal studies, or other names, these graduate degrees all have a target audience in common: adult professionals who neither are nor seek to become practicing attorneys. Inside legal academia and among the practicing bar, these degrees have been accompanied by expressed concerns that they detract from the traditional core public mission of law schools—educating lawyers. This Article argues that non-lawyer ...


Bitcoin Is Speech: Notes Toward Developing The Conceptual Contours Of Its Protection Under The First Amendment, Justin S. Wales, Richard J. Ovelmen Nov 2019

Bitcoin Is Speech: Notes Toward Developing The Conceptual Contours Of Its Protection Under The First Amendment, Justin S. Wales, Richard J. Ovelmen

University of Miami Law Review

Bitcoin permits users to engage in direct expressive activity with one another without the need for centralized intermediaries. It does so by utilizing an open and community-managed global database called a blockchain. While much of the literature about Bitcoin has focused on its use as a form of digital payment, this Article suggests an expanded understanding by demonstrating its use as a protocol network, not unlike the internet, that can be used to extend the possible range of human expression. After developing an appreciation of the technology, this Article recommends a framework for applying the First Amendment to Bitcoin and ...


A Modest Proposal: The Federal Government Should Use Firing Squads To Execute Federal Death Row Inmates, Stephanie Moran Nov 2019

A Modest Proposal: The Federal Government Should Use Firing Squads To Execute Federal Death Row Inmates, Stephanie Moran

University of Miami Law Review

The Eighth Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment in the criminal justice system. As the federal government looks to reinstate the death penalty, this Note argues that it should include firing squad as an option for carrying out executions. While firing squads may shock the senses, this Note argues that they are in fact the only way to comport with the requirements of the Eighth Amendment.


Evidence’S #Metoo Moment, Aníbal Rosario-Lebrón Nov 2019

Evidence’S #Metoo Moment, Aníbal Rosario-Lebrón

University of Miami Law Review

The #MeToo movement has drawn attention to the prevalence of sexual and gender-based violence. But more importantly, it has exposed how society discounts the testimony of women. This Article unfolds how this credibility discounting is reinforced in our evidentiary system through the use of character for untruthfulness evidence to impeach victims. Specifically, through defense attorneys’ practice of impeaching sexual and gender-based violence victims’ character for truthfulness as a way to introduce functional evidence of credibility biases regarding the trustworthiness of sexual and gender-based violence victims and the plausibility of their testimonies. The Article further shows a correlation between the poor ...


Nipped In The Bud: How Legal Disparities Create Financial Growth Hurdles In The State-Sanctioned Marijuana Industry And Why Bankruptcy Courts Can Provide A Remedy, Caitlyn Cullen Nov 2019

Nipped In The Bud: How Legal Disparities Create Financial Growth Hurdles In The State-Sanctioned Marijuana Industry And Why Bankruptcy Courts Can Provide A Remedy, Caitlyn Cullen

University of Miami Law Review

A new marijuana industry has emerged in the United States in the wake of state-by-state legalization of marijuana, and entrepreneurs, investors, and other advisory services are increasingly viewing the marijuana industry as an area of legitimate business opportunity. However, potential investors have been hesitant to establish formal relationships with marijuana businesses that operate legitimately in the eyes of the state but in a cloud of legal uncertainty at the federal level because the Controlled Substances Act criminalizes marijuana. This Note identifies two economic consequences of the conflicts of state and federal law and suggests a temporary solution that would allow ...


Prefatory Matter And Table Of Contents Nov 2019

Prefatory Matter And Table Of Contents

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


Justice Scalia Got It Right, But For The Wrong Reasons: Scalia’S Recognition Of The Supreme Court’S “Southern Exception” In U.S. Constitutional Jurisprudence And The Connection Of “Southern Exceptionalism” To “American Exceptionalism", James D. Wilets Nov 2019

Justice Scalia Got It Right, But For The Wrong Reasons: Scalia’S Recognition Of The Supreme Court’S “Southern Exception” In U.S. Constitutional Jurisprudence And The Connection Of “Southern Exceptionalism” To “American Exceptionalism", James D. Wilets

University of Miami Law Review

The late Justice Scalia has repeatedly and sardonically noted that the Supreme Court has discounted the views of Southern states in determining whether there is a consensus among the states with regards to a Constitutional norm. This Article has termed that Supreme Court position as “Southern Exception” and can be viewed as an effort by some Justices to address the unique social, economic, religious and cultural traditions in the South engendered by its unique" and “exceptional” history. This Article will also explore how this "Southern Exception" affected American jurisprudence to the point of rendering it "exceptional" from much of the ...


Why Don’T Judges Case Manage?, Hon. Jennifer D. Bailey Jun 2019

Why Don’T Judges Case Manage?, Hon. Jennifer D. Bailey

University of Miami Law Review

The problems of cost and delay experienced by parties seeking civil justice have been the subject of complaints for nearly one hundred years, going back to the days of Roscoe Pound. In the past few years, court leadership across the country has emphasized judicial case management as a significant tool for delivery of cost-effective, fair, and timely civil justice. The declining civil caseload has brought new urgency to these problems as evidence grows that litigants are deserting the civil justice system. Calls for case management to contain cost and delay have come from the Chief Justice of the United States ...


Advocacy Before The Eleventh Circuit: A Clerk’S Perspective, Kevin Golembiewski, Jessica Arden Ettinger Jun 2019

Advocacy Before The Eleventh Circuit: A Clerk’S Perspective, Kevin Golembiewski, Jessica Arden Ettinger

University of Miami Law Review

Appellate attorneys must tailor their advocacy to the court hearing their appeal. Each court of appeals has different jurisprudence, rules, traditions, and decision-making processes. Yet there are few articles on appellate advocacy tailored to a particular court. We wrote this article to help fill that gap. As former law clerks for the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, we offer advice specifically for attorneys who practice before the Eleventh Circuit. Our advice is based on our experiences as clerks, as well as our analysis of the Eleventh Circuit’s rules, procedures, and public statistics. We offer no ...


The Law As Uncopyrightable: Merging Idea And Expression Within The Eleventh Circuit’S Analysis Of “Law-Like” Writing, Christina M. Frohock Jun 2019

The Law As Uncopyrightable: Merging Idea And Expression Within The Eleventh Circuit’S Analysis Of “Law-Like” Writing, Christina M. Frohock

University of Miami Law Review

The Eleventh Circuit recently issued an opinion in Code Revision Commission v. Public.Resource.Org, Inc. that meditates on the law as much as resolves a dispute. For that reason alone, attention should be paid. A commission acting on behalf of the Georgia General Assembly and the State of Georgia filed a copyright infringement action against a nonprofit organization that had disseminated annotated state statutes. The Eleventh Circuit took these modest facts and delivered a philosophical analysis of the nature of law, finding that statutory annotations are outside copyright protection because the true author of such “law-like” writing is “the ...


Acting Differently: How Science On The Social Brain Can Inform Antidiscrimination Law, Susan D. Carle May 2019

Acting Differently: How Science On The Social Brain Can Inform Antidiscrimination Law, Susan D. Carle

University of Miami Law Review

Legal scholars are becoming increasingly interested in how the literature on implicit bias helps explain illegal discrimination. However, these scholars have not yet mined all of the insights that science on the social brain can offer antidiscrimination law. That science, which researchers refer to as social neuroscience, involves a broadly interdisciplinary approach anchored in experimental natural science methodologies. Social neuroscience shows that the brain tends to evaluate others by distinguishing between “us” versus “them” on the basis of often insignificant characteristics, such as how people dress, sing, joke, or otherwise behave. Subtle behavioral markers signal social identity and group membership ...


Is The United States Safely Repatriating Unaccompanied Children? Law, Policy, And Return To Guatemala, Karen S. Baker May 2019

Is The United States Safely Repatriating Unaccompanied Children? Law, Policy, And Return To Guatemala, Karen S. Baker

University of Miami Law Review

The United States regularly removes unaccompanied immigrant children and returns them to their countries of origin, with numbers rising rapidly in recent years. The United States has moral and legal obligations to this group of children. Rooted in deep moral underpinnings, the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 requires the government to establish policies and procedures to effectuate the safe repatriation of unaccompanied children. However, now more than a decade later, the U.S. government has failed to delineate its practices promoting safe return and, in addition to a general lack of transparency, the scant information available ...


The Unlikely Duo That Shocked The Intellectual Property World And Why The Supreme Court Was The Chosen One To Restore Balance, Nicholas Dilts May 2019

The Unlikely Duo That Shocked The Intellectual Property World And Why The Supreme Court Was The Chosen One To Restore Balance, Nicholas Dilts

University of Miami Law Review

The United States Congress passed the Leahy Smith America Invents Act in 2011 in an effort to streamline the patent system and reduce patent litigation, allowing the United States to continue to be competitive globally. The Act enabled the U.S. Patent Office to facilitate patent challenges through an administrative process called inter partes review, an adversarial proceeding before the newly established Patent Trial and Appeal Board that was designed to be a cheaper and more efficient alternative for post-grant patent review than litigation in front of the federal district courts. In the years that followed, the Patent Trail and ...


A Court’S Continuing Obligation To Ensure Fairness Of Class Action Settlements, Filip Grzelak May 2019

A Court’S Continuing Obligation To Ensure Fairness Of Class Action Settlements, Filip Grzelak

University of Miami Law Review

In April 2010, Deepwater Horizon, a BP-operated drilling rig, exploded killing eleven workers and poisoning the waters of the Gulf of Mexico with 210 million gallons of oil. Some 90,000 cleanup workers become involved in the response; many became sick after exposure to crude oil and Corexit, a chemical used to disperse the oil. A class action against BP ensued. A settlement was reached in 2013 and provided for a two-phased compensation mechanism, which class action experts praised for effectiveness and fairness.

Soon, however, it became clear that the settlement was neither effective nor fair. Many cleanup workers were ...


Prefatory Matter And Table Of Contents May 2019

Prefatory Matter And Table Of Contents

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


The New Activist Non-Profits: Four Models Breaking From The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Michael Haber May 2019

The New Activist Non-Profits: Four Models Breaking From The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Michael Haber

University of Miami Law Review

Twenty-first century activists—inspired by recent social movements and criticisms of the “non-profit industrial complex”—have increasingly sought to avoid pursuing their activism through the hierarchical, professionally managed non-profit corporations that have been the norm for social justice organizations since the 1970s. While many of these activist groups have chosen to remain unincorporated, some activists have been experimenting with new, innovative structures for non-profit organizations, structures that aim to better align activists’ organizations with their values. This Article presents four models of activist non-profits: (1) sociocratic non-profits, (2) worker self-directed non-profits, (3) hub-and-spoke counter-institutions, and (4) swarm organizations. It describes ...


Requiring Broker-Dealers To Disclose Conflicts Of Interest: A Solution Protecting And Empowering Investors, Daniel P. Guernsey Jr. May 2019

Requiring Broker-Dealers To Disclose Conflicts Of Interest: A Solution Protecting And Empowering Investors, Daniel P. Guernsey Jr.

University of Miami Law Review

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank”) instructed the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) to analyze the gaps in the regulatory regimes of investment advisers and broker-dealers. After analyzing the differences between the two regimes, the SEC proposed a rule that essentially created a fiduciary duty for broker-dealers equivalent to that of investment advisers. In theory, a uniform fiduciary duty would increase investor protection; however, such a drastic overhaul of broker-dealer regulation has attendant consequences. Indeed, as seen from the federal government’s previous attempts to create a broker-dealer fiduciary duty, increasing broker-dealer regulatory requirements limits ...


Educational Environments And The Federal Right To Education In The Wake Of Parkland, Maybell Romero May 2019

Educational Environments And The Federal Right To Education In The Wake Of Parkland, Maybell Romero

University of Miami Law Review

A vociferous debate rages over the measures that should be taken to prevent high-profile incidents of mass school shootings like that at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Florida on February 14, 2018, or, more recently, that at Santa Fe High School in Texas on May 18, 2018. Heightened security and surveillance measures, such as metal detectors and closed-circuit television (“CCTV”) monitoring, have been proposed in a variety of school districts. These measures, however, have been shown to have only a deleterious effect on learning outcomes and the relationships between students and school faculty, and they may even be hazardous ...


Access To Justice Through Technology: An Immigration Practitioner’S Perspective, Elizabeth Rieser-Murphy Feb 2019

Access To Justice Through Technology: An Immigration Practitioner’S Perspective, Elizabeth Rieser-Murphy

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


What Can Technology Do To Increase Access To Justice?, Vanessa Butnick Davis Feb 2019

What Can Technology Do To Increase Access To Justice?, Vanessa Butnick Davis

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


Professions And Expertise: How Machine Learning And Blockchain Are Redesigning The Landscape Of Professional Knowledge And Organization, John Flood, Lachlan Robb Feb 2019

Professions And Expertise: How Machine Learning And Blockchain Are Redesigning The Landscape Of Professional Knowledge And Organization, John Flood, Lachlan Robb

University of Miami Law Review

Machine learning has entered the world of the professions with differential impacts. Automation will have huge impacts on the nature of work and society. Engineering, architecture, and medicine are early and enthusiastic adopters of automation. Other professions, especially law, are late and, in some cases, reluctant adopters. This Article examines the effects of artificial intelligence (“AI”) and Blockchain on professions and their knowledge bases. We start by examining the nature of expertise in general and the function of expertise in law. Using examples from law, such as Gulati and Scott’s analysis of how lawyers create (or don’t create ...


Breaches Within Breaches: The Crossroads Of Erisa Fiduciary Responsibilities And Data Security, Gregg Moran Feb 2019

Breaches Within Breaches: The Crossroads Of Erisa Fiduciary Responsibilities And Data Security, Gregg Moran

University of Miami Law Review

Although the drafters of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) likely could not have anticipated the data security issues of the twenty-first century, ERISA’s duty of prudence almost certainly requires employee benefit plan fiduciaries to protect sensitive participant data in at least some manner. This Article suggests the Department of Labor should issue a regulation clarifying fiduciaries’ data security obligations. Given that fiduciaries are in the best positions to recognize their plans’ individual security needs and capabilities, the regulation should not attempt to micromanage fiduciaries’ substantive data security policies; rather, it should focus on the procedures ...


The Privacy Hierarchy: A Comparative Analysis Of The Intimate Privacy Protection Act Vs. The Geolocational Privacy And Surveillance Act, Katherine A. Mitchell Feb 2019

The Privacy Hierarchy: A Comparative Analysis Of The Intimate Privacy Protection Act Vs. The Geolocational Privacy And Surveillance Act, Katherine A. Mitchell

University of Miami Law Review

The advent of the technological boom brought the world smartphones, social media, and Siri. These novel benefits, however, were accompanied by unchartered invasions of privacy. Congress has embarked on the seemingly endless path of protecting its constituents through civil and criminal legislation aimed at combatting such invasions. Two recent examples include the Intimate Privacy Protection Act (“IPPA”) and the Geolocational Privacy and Surveillance Act (“GPS Act”). Nonetheless, the IPPA, which was proposed to criminalize the dissemination of nonconsensual pornography, has garnered much less support—and much more criticism—than its geolocational counterpart.

This Note discusses the striking similarities of both ...


Biometric Identification In India Versus The Right To Privacy: Core Constitutional Features, Defining Citizens’ Interests, And The Implications Of Biometric Identification In The United States, Madison Julia Levine Feb 2019

Biometric Identification In India Versus The Right To Privacy: Core Constitutional Features, Defining Citizens’ Interests, And The Implications Of Biometric Identification In The United States, Madison Julia Levine

University of Miami Law Review

In 2009, the Indian government introduced a widespread biometric identification system called Aadhaar—a national scheme that issues Indian citizens and residents a unique identification number while collecting and storing their most personal biometric and demographic information. As the Aadhaar system was implemented and promoted in India, widespread concerns grew regarding the storage and protection of such private information. How can Indian citizens enforce and protect their privacy rights? In 2017, the Indian Supreme Court attempted to address this issue by holding that an individual’s right to privacy is an inherent part of the right to life and personal ...


Editors' Foreword, Elizabeth Montano, Keelin Bielski, Maya Frucht Feb 2019

Editors' Foreword, Elizabeth Montano, Keelin Bielski, Maya Frucht

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.