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Full-Text Articles in Law

Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh Oct 2017

Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh

All Faculty Scholarship

After a hamstring injury in October of 2004 forced her to surrender her athletic scholarship at St. John's University, Shamere McKenzie chose to spend her winter break working in order to save the money she needed to pay the remainder of her tuition. In January of 2005, Shamere met a man named Corey Davis, who expressed an interest in dating her. After getting to know him for several weeks, she eventually shared with him the challenges she was having earning the money she needed to continue her enrollment in college. Davis encouraged her to consider exotic dancing as a ...


The Negative Capital Account Maze, Walter D. Schwidetzky Aug 2017

The Negative Capital Account Maze, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

Outside Hubert I and Hubert II, there has been little discussion of negative capital accounts in the tax context and almost no discussion in the nontax context. Nontax law, however, is critically important. This report provides an integrated discussion of the application of tax and nontax law to negative capital accounts.

One of the challenges in writing this report is that it requires a discussion of both the at-risk rules of section 465 and the debt allocation rules of section 752. Complex issues involving sections 465 and 752 and their interaction are worthy of their own articles. Indeed, others have ...


Hearsay And The Confrontation Clause (2017), Lynn Mclain May 2017

Hearsay And The Confrontation Clause (2017), Lynn Mclain

All Faculty Scholarship

This material is a part of a lecture delivered at the Maryland Judicial Center on May 11, 2017. It is an update of previous versions available at the following locations:

2016: http://scholarworks.law.ubalt.edu/all_fac/955/

2012: http://scholarworks.law.ubalt.edu/all_fac/924/

The material is a series of flowcharts that explain the nuances of hearsay law and the confrontation clause under Maryland law.


Partnership Tax Allocations: The Basics, Walter D. Schwidetzky May 2017

Partnership Tax Allocations: The Basics, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

This article endeavors to help practitioners who are not partnership tax allocation experts identify when they should consult with those with that expertise. The partnership-allocation Treasury Regulations have been called "a creation of prodigious complexity ... essentially impenetrable to all but those with the time, talent, and determination to become thoroughly prepared experts on the subject." This article is written for those, to date at least, without that time and determination. At the same time, the article provides an introduction to the partnership tax allocation rules for those contemplating making the requisite investment of time and determination.

The term "partnership," for ...


Comment: Solving The Depraved Heart Murder Problem In Maryland: A Suggestion For Successful Prosecution Of Police Officers, Rachele Norfolk May 2017

Comment: Solving The Depraved Heart Murder Problem In Maryland: A Suggestion For Successful Prosecution Of Police Officers, Rachele Norfolk

University of Baltimore Law Review

Currently, there is no statutory framework for depraved heart murder in Maryland. Additionally, there is a problem with prosecuting this specific kind of murder because Maryland’s common law provides very vague and somewhat flimsy guidance. While prosecuting police officers may prove to be a challenging feat itself, it may be even harder when an officer fails to follow certain procedures or act in certain ways through “acts of omission.”

This Comment will proceed in four parts following this introduction. Part II will provide background information on the Freddie Gray case and the common law in Maryland on depraved

heart ...


Who Will Protect The Consumers Of Trademarked Goods?, James Astrachan May 2017

Who Will Protect The Consumers Of Trademarked Goods?, James Astrachan

University of Baltimore Law Review

Federal and state law recognizes multiple forms of intellectual property, including patents,1 copyrights,2 trademarks,3 and trade secrets.4 Alleged violations of patents and copyrights are required by statute to be litigated in the federal courts.5 Trademark rights can arise under the Federal Lanham Act6 or state law.7 Trademark infringement can be litigated in state or federal courts.8 Trade secrets arising under state statutes are litigated in state courts unless diversity jurisdiction exists and is pled.9

Infringement of intellectual property in the case of patents arises when a patented invention is used, manufactured or ...


University Of Baltimore Law Review Volume 46 Number 3 Summer 2017 Front Matter May 2017

University Of Baltimore Law Review Volume 46 Number 3 Summer 2017 Front Matter

University of Baltimore Law Review

No abstract provided.


Comment: Prison For You. Profit For Me. Systemic Racism Effectively Bars Blacks From Participation In Newly-Legal Marijuana Industry, Elizabeth Danquah-Brobby May 2017

Comment: Prison For You. Profit For Me. Systemic Racism Effectively Bars Blacks From Participation In Newly-Legal Marijuana Industry, Elizabeth Danquah-Brobby

University of Baltimore Law Review

Historically, blacks have been prosecuted and convicted across the United States at significantly higher rates when compared to whites for marijuana-related crimes, despite the fact that studies indicate marijuana use by whites and blacks is relatively equal. Further, individuals with lower economic means were dually susceptible to conviction as a result of less vigorous legal representation.

Now, laws have legalized marijuana for medicinal purposes in twenty-six states, along with a small portion of states (seven) legalizing marijuana for recreational use. Yet retroactive ameliorative relief is not widely available to those who were convicted under circumstances that are now legal, and ...


"A Middle Temperature Between The Two": Exploring Intermediate Remedies For The Failure To Comply With Maryland's Eyewitness Identification Statute, Marc A. Desimone Jr. May 2017

"A Middle Temperature Between The Two": Exploring Intermediate Remedies For The Failure To Comply With Maryland's Eyewitness Identification Statute, Marc A. Desimone Jr.

University of Baltimore Law Review

This article addresses what remedies should be available to a criminal defendant in Maryland who has been identified in an extrajudicial identification procedure that does not comply with the present statutory requirements. Part II of this article provides an overview of the present due process test for evaluating the admissibility of extrajudicial eyewitness identifications, the present Maryland iteration of that test, and alternatives to that approach that have been adopted in other jurisdictions. Part III reviews recent legislative reforms to extrajudicial identification procedures, which are required in Maryland as of January 1, 2016. Section IV.A of this article argues ...


A Court Pure And Unsullied: Justice In The Justice Trial At Nuremberg, Stephen J. Sfekas May 2017

A Court Pure And Unsullied: Justice In The Justice Trial At Nuremberg, Stephen J. Sfekas

University of Baltimore Law Review

In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the common understanding was that the Nazi regime had been maintained by a combination of instruments of terror, such as the Gestapo, the SS, and concentration camps, combined with a sophisticated propaganda campaign. Modern historiography, however, has revealed the critical importance of the judiciary, the Justice Ministry, and the legal profession to maintaining the stability of the regime.

As an example, although the number of persons confined to concentration camps from 1933 to 1934 rose to as many as 100,000 people, most were quickly released. The number of concentration camp inmates ...


Editorial Notes: April 2017, Barbara A. Babb Apr 2017

Editorial Notes: April 2017, Barbara A. Babb

All Faculty Scholarship

This issue of Family Court Review (FCR) begins by honoring the life and memory of Ruth Stern, former Managing Editor of Family Court Review, who passed away in October, 2016. Her husband, Professor Herbie DiFonzo, offers glimpses into Ruth's life and their life together. Coming from a baseball family myself, I am particularly moved by Ruth's and Herbie's mutual passion for the New York Mets. It is obvious from the details Herbie graciously shares that theirs was a love and a life of unique tenderness and togetherness. I am deeply grateful to Herbie for allowing us the ...


University Of Baltimore Law Forum Volume 47 No. 2 (Spring 2017) Jan 2017

University Of Baltimore Law Forum Volume 47 No. 2 (Spring 2017)

University of Baltimore Law Forum

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Proposals For Creating A Realistic Family Court For The Future, Theresa Furnari, Melissa View Jan 2017

Book Review: Proposals For Creating A Realistic Family Court For The Future, Theresa Furnari, Melissa View

University of Baltimore Law Forum

During one of the snowstorms in the winter of 2016, I sat before the fireplace and read Divorced from Reality: Rethinking Family Dispute Resolution, by Jane C. Murphy and Jana B. Singer. Because I know the authors and their wealth of experience in family law, as well as their sincere interest in improving the effectiveness of the family law court, I was delighted when asked to share my opinion of the book. As a Family Magistrate in a high volume court, it never ceases to amaze me of the variety of issues the court is confronted with on a daily ...


Recent Development: Colvin V. State: Not Polling The Jury Foreperson Individually After Announcing The Jury's Verdict Is A Procedural Error, Which Does Not Rise To The Level Of A Cognizable Claim Under Maryland Rule 4-345(A), Kayla M. Dinuccio Jan 2017

Recent Development: Colvin V. State: Not Polling The Jury Foreperson Individually After Announcing The Jury's Verdict Is A Procedural Error, Which Does Not Rise To The Level Of A Cognizable Claim Under Maryland Rule 4-345(A), Kayla M. Dinuccio

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that a motion to correct an illegal sentence can only be granted if the error is based on substantive law. Colvin v. State, 450 Md. 718, 728, 150 A.3d 850, 856 (2016). Not polling the jury foreperson after she announced the jury's verdicts was a procedural error, and thus not one of the limited exceptions to correct an illegal sentence under Maryland Rule 4-345(a). Id. at 726-27, 150 A.3d at 855-56. In 1989, Roderick Colvin ("Colvin") was tried before a jury in the Circuit Court for Baltimore City on ...


Recent Development: Givens V. State: Preservation Of Allegedly Inconsistent Jury Verdicts In A Criminal Trial Must Be Made By Objection Before The Verdicts Are Rendered Final And The Jury Is Dismissed, Nicholas Mastracci Jan 2017

Recent Development: Givens V. State: Preservation Of Allegedly Inconsistent Jury Verdicts In A Criminal Trial Must Be Made By Objection Before The Verdicts Are Rendered Final And The Jury Is Dismissed, Nicholas Mastracci

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that a defendant waives review of any issue as to allegedly inconsistent verdicts by failing to object before the verdicts become final and the court discharges the jury. Givens v. State, 449 Md. 433, 486, 144 A.3d 717, 748 (2016). Although the defendant in this case did not request plain error review, the court stated that the alleged inconsistent verdicts were not clear and obvious; therefore the four-factor plain error test was not met. Id. at 482, 144 A.3d at 746.

On November 15, 2011, several people including Dominic Givens ("Givens ...


Comment: Maryland State Drone Law Puts Residents At Risk Of Privacy Intrusions From Drone Surveillance By Law Enforcement Agencies, Wayne Hicks Jan 2017

Comment: Maryland State Drone Law Puts Residents At Risk Of Privacy Intrusions From Drone Surveillance By Law Enforcement Agencies, Wayne Hicks

University of Baltimore Law Forum

As technology rapidly advances, society is becoming more efficient and interconnected than ever before. Unmanned Aircraft Systems ("UAS"), more frequently referred to as "drones," have taken on an increasingly involved role in the progression towards a more interconnected society. For example, drones are presently capable of improving our ability to monitor potentially devastating storms, improving wildlife conservation efforts, increasing efficiency in agriculture, transporting goods to underdeveloped countries, and providing several forms of vital assistance to law enforcement.

Although the potential for drones appears promising, the advancements of drone capabilities have been met with increasing concerns regarding the government's ability ...


Beyond The First Amendment: What The Evolution Of Maryland's Constitutional Free-Speech Guarantee Shows About Its Intended Breadth, Anthony W. Kraus Jan 2017

Beyond The First Amendment: What The Evolution Of Maryland's Constitutional Free-Speech Guarantee Shows About Its Intended Breadth, Anthony W. Kraus

University of Baltimore Law Forum

Most Maryland lawyers are vaguely aware that Maryland's Declaration of Rights contains its own guarantee of free speech that is worded differently from the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. What the Declaration of Rights actually says about free speech, however, and what can be inferred from its distinctive phrasing and legislative history, are not matters that have received much particularized attention. Decisions of Maryland's courts routinely state that Article 40 of the Declaration of Rights - the principal source of state free-speech rights - is construed in pari materia with the First Amendment, which, as a practical matter ...


Recent Development: Mitchell V. Md. Motor Vehicle Admin.: Vanity Licence Plates Constitute Private Speech In A Nonpublic Forum, Which Require Restrictions To Be Reasonable And Viewpoint Neutral, Sarah J. Jentilet Jan 2017

Recent Development: Mitchell V. Md. Motor Vehicle Admin.: Vanity Licence Plates Constitute Private Speech In A Nonpublic Forum, Which Require Restrictions To Be Reasonable And Viewpoint Neutral, Sarah J. Jentilet

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that the Motor Vehicle Administration acted within constitutional boundaries when it recalled a vanity license plate displaying the word "MIERDA." Mitchell v. Md. Motor Vehicle Admin., 450 Md. 282, 288, 148 A.3d 319, 323 (2016). The court found that the message on a vanity plate is considered private speech in a nonpublic forum, and accordingly government speech restrictions must be reasonable and viewpoint neutral. Id.

In 2009, the Motor Vehicle Administration ("MVA") issued vanity plates with the term "MIERDA" to John T. Mitchell ("Mitchell"). Two years later, Mitchell renewed the plates. Thereafter ...


Recent Development: Immanuel V. Comptroller Of Maryland: The Maryland Public Information Act's Financial Information Exemption And The Uniform Disposition Of Abandoned Property Act's Publication Provision Do Not Allow For Disclosure Of Information Beyond What Is Explicitly Permitted, Jason C. Parkins Jan 2017

Recent Development: Immanuel V. Comptroller Of Maryland: The Maryland Public Information Act's Financial Information Exemption And The Uniform Disposition Of Abandoned Property Act's Publication Provision Do Not Allow For Disclosure Of Information Beyond What Is Explicitly Permitted, Jason C. Parkins

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that information beyond the scope required under the Uniform Disposition of the Abandoned Property Act's publication provision cannot be disclosed in response to a request for information made under the Maryland Public Information Act. Immanuel v. Comptroller of Maryland, 449 Md. 76, 97-98, 141 A.3d 181, 194 (2016). The court also held that the information required to bze published under the Abandoned Property Act may not be ordered by value, because such ordering would reveal personal financial information. Id. at 97, 141 A.3d at 194. Lastly, the court held that ...


Recent Development: Robinson V. State: Decriminalization Of Possession Of Less Than Ten Grams Of Marijuana Does Not Eliminate A Police Officer's Probable Cause To Search Vehicles From Which The Odor Of Marijuana Emanates, Virginia J. Yeoman Jan 2017

Recent Development: Robinson V. State: Decriminalization Of Possession Of Less Than Ten Grams Of Marijuana Does Not Eliminate A Police Officer's Probable Cause To Search Vehicles From Which The Odor Of Marijuana Emanates, Virginia J. Yeoman

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that decriminalization does not equate to legalization of marijuana; therefore, a law enforcement officer has probable cause to search a vehicle if the officer detects the odor of marijuana coming from the vehicle. Robinson v. State, 451 Md. 94, 99, 152 A.3d 661, 664-65 (2017). The court explained that the odor of marijuana establishes probable cause to believe the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of a crime. Id. at 99, 152 A.3d at 665. Thus, there was probable cause to search the vehicles in each of the combined cases. Id. at ...


Stop Asking Which Came First, The Jail Or The Criminal - Start Reinvesting In Justice In Maryland, Bridget Lowrie Jan 2017

Stop Asking Which Came First, The Jail Or The Criminal - Start Reinvesting In Justice In Maryland, Bridget Lowrie

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The numerous cries for reform of the United States criminal justice system in recent time are not without merit based on an examination of the prison population. Despite violent crime being at record low rates in the United States, the prison population has expanded tremendously. On the global stage, the United States is the leader in incarceration rates. The United States has more people incarcerated than any other country, including China, Russia, and India. Looking at a local level, Maryland is not immune to this trend. In Maryland, while violent crime is on the decline, the amount of time an ...


Recent Development: Seley-Radtke V. Hosmane: The Standard Of Proof Requirement In A Purely Private Defamation Action For An Individual Asserting A Common Law Conditional Privilege Is Preponderance Of The Evidence, Makeda Curbeam Jan 2017

Recent Development: Seley-Radtke V. Hosmane: The Standard Of Proof Requirement In A Purely Private Defamation Action For An Individual Asserting A Common Law Conditional Privilege Is Preponderance Of The Evidence, Makeda Curbeam

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that a party seeking to overcome a common law conditional privilege in a purely private defamation suit must do so by a preponderance of the evidence. Seley-Radtke v. Hosmane, 450 Md. 468, 474, 149 A.3d 573, 576 (2016). The court also held that evidentiary issues not addressed by the court of special appeals are not subject to review by the court of appeals. Id. at 510, 149 A.3d at 598 (citing Md. R. 8- 131(b)(1)). Further, the court held that prejudicial evidence irrelevant to a claim is not admissible ...


Recent Development: Sellman V. State: Absent Additional Circumstances, Consent To A Vehicle Search In A High Crime Area Does Not Create Reasonable Suspicion To Justify A Terry Frisk Of A Passenger Who Displays Nervous Behavior; Theft From A Vehicle Does Not Automatically Infer That An Individual Is Armed, Ashley N. Simmons Jan 2017

Recent Development: Sellman V. State: Absent Additional Circumstances, Consent To A Vehicle Search In A High Crime Area Does Not Create Reasonable Suspicion To Justify A Terry Frisk Of A Passenger Who Displays Nervous Behavior; Theft From A Vehicle Does Not Automatically Infer That An Individual Is Armed, Ashley N. Simmons

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that, under the totality of the circumstances, a law enforcement officer did not have reasonable suspicion to conduct a Terry frisk of a passenger during a traffic stop. Sellman v. State, 449 Md. 526, 544, 144 A.3d 771, 782 (2016). The court ruled that a police department policy authorizing officers to conduct Terry frisks based on consent to search a vehicle violates the Fourth Amendment. Id. at 557, 144 A.3d at 790. The court further held that the crime of theft from vehicles does not imply the possession of a deadly ...


Recent Development: Smallwood V. State: A Writ Of Actual Innocence Is Not Available To Convicted Defendants Who Are Guilty Of Their Crime, Even If They Are Deemed Not Criminally Responsible, Andrew Siske Jan 2017

Recent Development: Smallwood V. State: A Writ Of Actual Innocence Is Not Available To Convicted Defendants Who Are Guilty Of Their Crime, Even If They Are Deemed Not Criminally Responsible, Andrew Siske

University of Baltimore Law Forum

The Court of Appeals of Maryland held that convicted defendants must allege that they did not actually commit the crime resulting in their conviction to be eligible to petition for a writ of actual innocence under section 8-301 of Criminal Procedure Article of the Maryland Code. Smallwood v. State, 451 Md. 290, 323, 152 A.3d 776, 795 (2017). Additionally, the court ruled that a claim of not criminally responsible is not equivalent to an assertion of actual innocence as required by the court's interpretation of the actual innocence statute. Id.

Dameron Smallwood ("Smallwood") was physically and verbally abused ...


The Persistence Of The Confederate Narrative, Peggy Cooper Davis, Anderson Francois, Colin Starger Jan 2017

The Persistence Of The Confederate Narrative, Peggy Cooper Davis, Anderson Francois, Colin Starger

All Faculty Scholarship

Ever since the United States was reconstituted after the Civil War, a Confederate narrative of states’ rights has undermined the Reconstruction Amendments’ design for the protection of civil rights. The Confederate narrative’s diminishment of civil rights has been regularly challenged, but it stubbornly persists. Today the narrative survives in imprecise and unquestioning odes to state sovereignty. We analyze the relationship, over time, between assertions of civil rights and calls for the protection of local autonomy and control. This analysis reveals a troubling sequence: the Confederate narrative was shamefully intertwined with the defense of American chattel slavery. It survived profound ...


The Italian Enlightenment And The American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence On American Law, John Bessler Jan 2017

The Italian Enlightenment And The American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence On American Law, John Bessler

All Faculty Scholarship

The influence of the Italian Enlightenment—the Illuminismo—on the American Revolution has long been neglected. While historians regularly acknowledge the influence of European thinkers such as William Blackstone, John Locke and Montesquieu, Cesare Beccaria’s contributions to the origins and development of American law have largely been forgotten by twenty-first century Americans. In fact, Beccaria’s book, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764), translated into English as On Crimes and Punishments (1767), significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents—George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison—were inspired by ...


Cities, Inclusion And Exactions, Audrey Mcfarlane, Randall K. Johnson Jan 2017

Cities, Inclusion And Exactions, Audrey Mcfarlane, Randall K. Johnson

Articles

Cities across the country are adopting mandatory inclusionary zoning. Yet, consensus about the appropriate constitutional standard to measure the propriety of mandatory inclusionary zoning has not been fully reached. Under one doctrinal lens, inclusionary zoning is a valid land use regulation adopted to ensure a proper balance of housing within the jurisdiction. Under another doctrinal lens, challengers seek to characterize inclusionary zoning as an exaction, a discretionary condition subject to a heightened standard of review addressing the specific negative impact caused by an individual project on the supply of affordable housing in a jurisdiction. Drawing from the experience of Baltimore ...


Science As Speech, Natalie Ram Jan 2017

Science As Speech, Natalie Ram

All Faculty Scholarship

In April 2015, researchers in China reported the successful genetic editing of human embryos using a new technology that promised to make gene editing easier and more effective than ever before. In the United States, the announcement drew immediate calls to regulate or prohibit
outright any use of this technology to alter human embryos, even for purely research purposes. The fervent response to the Chinese announcement was, in one respect, unexceptional. Proposals to regulate or prohibit scientific research following a new breakthrough occur with substantial frequency. Innovations in cloning technology and embryonic stem cell research have prompted similar outcries, and ...


Editorial Notes: January 2017, Barbara A. Babb Jan 2017

Editorial Notes: January 2017, Barbara A. Babb

All Faculty Scholarship

I am extremely honored to write my first “Editorial Notes” for Family Court Review, and I am most grateful to the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC) Board of Directors for appointing me to succeed Professor Andrew Schepard. I have been a devoted reader of and contributor to FCR (and its predecessor journals) for many decades, and I have been a committed AFCC member since the early 1990s. Although I doubt anyone can fill Professor Schepard’s shoes, I certainly plan to try my best to follow in his incredibly large footsteps. He is a dear friend and colleague ...


Voting Realism, Gilda R. Daniels Jan 2017

Voting Realism, Gilda R. Daniels

All Faculty Scholarship

Since Shelby County v. Holder, the country has grown accustomed to life without the full strength of the Voting Rights Act. Efforts to restore Section 4 have been met with calls to ignore race conscious remedies and employ race neutral remedies for modern day voting rights violations. In this new normal, the country should adopt “voting realism” as the new approach to ensuring that law and reality work to address these new millennium methods of voter discrimination.