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Comment Of Legal Scholars On Authority To Require Supervision And Regulation Of Certain Nonbank Financial Companies, Financial Stability Oversight Council Rin 4030-Aa00, Daniel Schwarcz, Patricia A. Mccoy, Jeremy Kress Oct 2019

Comment Of Legal Scholars On Authority To Require Supervision And Regulation Of Certain Nonbank Financial Companies, Financial Stability Oversight Council Rin 4030-Aa00, Daniel Schwarcz, Patricia A. Mccoy, Jeremy Kress

Patricia A. McCoy

Professor McCoy coauthored this comment on a proposal by the Financial Stability Oversight Council to overhaul systemic risk regulation for nonbank financial firms.


Comment Of Professor Patricia A. Mccoy On Docket No. Cfpb-2019-0039, Patricia A. Mccoy Oct 2019

Comment Of Professor Patricia A. Mccoy On Docket No. Cfpb-2019-0039, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

In this comment letter, Professor McCoy responds to the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Qualified Mortgages issued by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.


Inside Job: The Assault On The Structure Of The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Patricia A. Mccoy Oct 2019

Inside Job: The Assault On The Structure Of The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

Soon after the 2016 election of Donald Trump as President of the United States, while Republicans controlled Congress, opponents of the fledgling Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) opened a campaign against the Bureau. Their target was less the substance of federal consumer financial protection laws than the structure of the CFPB itself. This emphasis on structure was a response to the fact that Congress in 2010 had given special thought to the design of the CFPB to safeguard the Bureau and its mission.

In 2017, after legislation to weaken the Bureau’s structure failed in Congress and constitutional challenges to ...


Comment Of Legal Scholars On Occ's Community Reinvestment Act Anpr (Docket Id Occ-2018-0008), Vincent Rougeau, Patricia A. Mccoy Apr 2019

Comment Of Legal Scholars On Occ's Community Reinvestment Act Anpr (Docket Id Occ-2018-0008), Vincent Rougeau, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

Comment submitted to the federal government on a proposal to revise the rule implementing the Community Reinvestment Act.


Brief Of Amici Curiae Finance Regulation Scholars In Support Of Plaintiff's Motion For A Preliminary Injunction In English V. Trump, Patricia A. Mccoy Feb 2018

Brief Of Amici Curiae Finance Regulation Scholars In Support Of Plaintiff's Motion For A Preliminary Injunction In English V. Trump, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

Professor McCoy was the lead author of an amicus brief in support of the lawsuit by CFPB Deputy Director Leandra English against the Trump Administration, asserting that she lawfully became the Acting Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau under the Dodd-Frank Act.


Why Cyclicality Matters To Access To Mortgage Credit, Patricia A. Mccoy, Susan M. Wachter Oct 2017

Why Cyclicality Matters To Access To Mortgage Credit, Patricia A. Mccoy, Susan M. Wachter

Patricia A. McCoy

Virtually no attention has been paid to the problem of cyclicality in debates over access to mortgage credit, despite its importance as a driver of tight credit. Housing markets are prone to booms accompanied by bubbles in mortgage credit in which lenders cut underwriting standards, leading to elevated loan defaults. During downturns, these cycles artificially impede access to mortgage credit for underserved communities. During upswings, these cycles make homeownership unnecessarily precarious for many who attain it. This volatility exacerbates wealth and income disparities by ethnicity and race. The boom-bust cycle must be addressed in order to assure healthy and sustainable ...


Has The Mortgage Pendulum Swung Too Far? Reviving Access To Mortgage Credit, Patricia A. Mccoy Oct 2017

Has The Mortgage Pendulum Swung Too Far? Reviving Access To Mortgage Credit, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

In the wake of the financial crisis, mortgage lending to lower-income and minority borrowers overcorrected and has not recovered. Although homeownership is a riskier investment than previously realized, still it remains a proven path to increased wealth on balance for lower-income households. There are a number of reasonable reforms that could achieve greater access to credit while containing default risk. These include strategies to reduce down payments safely and to keep monthly payments manageable, combined with fixed-rate loans. Prepurchase counseling is important to preparing applicants for the financial demands of homeownership and strengthening their credit histories, while rapid foreclosure prevention ...


Foreword, Patricia A. Mccoy Oct 2017

Foreword, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

In the wake of the financial crisis, mortgage lending to lower-income and minority borrowers overcorrected and has not recovered. Although homeownership is a riskier investment than previously realized, still it remains a proven path to increased wealth on balance for lower-income households. There are a number of reasonable reforms that could achieve greater access to credit while containing default risk. These include strategies to reduce down payments safely and to keep monthly payments manageable, combined with fixed-rate loans. Prepurchase counseling is important to preparing applicants for the financial demands of homeownership and strengthening their credit histories, while rapid foreclosure prevention ...


A New Coalescence In The Housing Finance Reform Debate?, Patricia Mccoy, Susan Wachter Mar 2017

A New Coalescence In The Housing Finance Reform Debate?, Patricia Mccoy, Susan Wachter

Patricia A. McCoy

This policy brief examines recent proposals for reform of the housing finance system.


Representations And Warranties: Why They Did Not Stop The Crisis, Patricia Mccoy, Susan Wachter Mar 2017

Representations And Warranties: Why They Did Not Stop The Crisis, Patricia Mccoy, Susan Wachter

Patricia A. McCoy

During the run-up to the 2008 financial crisis, representations and warranties (contractual statements enforceable through legal action) may have given investors false assurance that mortgage loans were being properly underwritten. This assurance in turn may have contributed to overinvestment in mortgage-backed securities in two ways. First, the assumption that legally enforceable penalties associated with reps and warranties would deter lax underwriting may have led to less monitoring of these contracts than would otherwise have occurred. In turn, the lack of monitoring of actual underwriting practices enabled the spread of lax lending practices. The existence of these reps and warranties and ...


Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges Jun 2016

Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges

Patricia A. McCoy

Historically, U.S. financial regulation has normally been procyclical, with federal regulators and Congress relaxing oversight during bull markets and cracking down once financial crises hit. After 2008, the wisdom of this approach came under attack. Critics argued that procyclical regulation left financial institutions undercapitalized and unable to withstand panics. Other critics asserted that economic downturns could be mitigated and even averted if regulators took steps to puncture asset bubbles.

The concept of countercyclical regulation responds to both of these critiques. This new approach posits that financial regulation would be more effective if financial regulation clamped down during financial expansions ...


Degrees Of Intermediation, Patricia A. Mccoy Feb 2016

Degrees Of Intermediation, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.


What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy Feb 2015

What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

This blog post describes the implications of the recent US loss mitigation experience for housing reform.


Systemic Risk Oversight And The Shifting Balance Of State And Federal Authority Over Insurance Dec 2014

Systemic Risk Oversight And The Shifting Balance Of State And Federal Authority Over Insurance

Patricia A. McCoy

The state-based model of U.S. insurance regulation has been remarkably enduring to date, in part because the traditional rationales for a greater federal role – efficiency, uniformity, and consumer protection – have not succeeded in displacing it. However, the 2008 financial crisis, the federal government’s unprecedented bailouts of parts of the insurance sector, and the need for a coordinated international approach radically shifted the debate about the proper allocation of power between the federal government and the states by supplanting traditional concerns about efficiency, uniformity, and consumer protection in insurance with a new federal mission to control systemic risk. Unprepared ...


The Home Mortgage Foreclosure Crisis: Lessons Learned Dec 2013

The Home Mortgage Foreclosure Crisis: Lessons Learned

Patricia A. McCoy

From 2007 through 2011, the United States housing market suffered a severe imbalance in supply and demand due to an excessive number both of foreclosed homes and homes awaiting foreclosure in the shadow housing inventory. Foreclosure prevention can help reduce the shadow housing inventory by keeping troubled mortgages from entering that inventory to begin with. The loan modification experience post-2008 yielded four main lessons about the best way to optimize foreclosure prevention. First, servicers should design loan modifications to lower monthly payments, including through principal reduction whenever appropriate. Second, servicers should evaluate loss mitigation as soon as possible following delinquency ...


Barriers To Foreclosure Prevention During The Financial Crisis Dec 2012

Barriers To Foreclosure Prevention During The Financial Crisis

Patricia A. McCoy

The number of modifications to distressed residential loans following the 2008 financial crisis has been disappointingly low compared to the number of foreclosures. This raises concerns about the presence of artificial barriers to loan modifications in situations where foreclosure should be avoidable. There are three pressing reasons to care about what the real barriers to foreclosure prevention are. First, foreclosures that could have been avoided inflict enormous, needless losses on borrowers, investors, and society at large. Second, overcoming artificial barriers to foreclosure prevention will result in loan modifications with higher rates of success. Finally, knowing what to fix is necessary ...


Keeping Tabs On Financial Innovation: Product Identifiers In Consumer Financial Regulation Dec 2012

Keeping Tabs On Financial Innovation: Product Identifiers In Consumer Financial Regulation

Patricia A. McCoy

The financial crisis of 2008 gave rise to renewed discussion about whether financial innovations should undergo higher scrutiny for potential harm and, if so, what type? In this Article, the authors propose a new system for monitoring financial innovations through a system of registration, data collection and analysis using unique product identifiers. Creating product identifiers would increase monitoring abilities substantially at relatively low cost by facilitating the linkage of separate databases. The assignment of unique product identifiers would also minimize errors in the identification and classification of different financial products. These identifiers would be available to both the government and ...


The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: Financial Regulation For The 21st Century Jun 2012

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: Financial Regulation For The 21st Century

Patricia A. McCoy

After existing regulatory systems failed to prevent the recent financial crisis, Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a sweeping reform designed to alleviate the crisis and prevent its recurrence. Out of this Act, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau was born. This new agency is charged with making markets for consumer financial products and services work for Americans, a task that was previously spread out among seven different federal agencies with varying priorities. This Article describes, with a series of concrete case studies, four key principles that have guided the Bureau as it strives to fulfill ...


Federal Preemption And Consumer Financial Protection: Past And Future Feb 2012

Federal Preemption And Consumer Financial Protection: Past And Future

Patricia A. McCoy

Starting in 1995 and throughout the subprime boom during the next decade, Congress failed to take action to curb predatory mortgage lending. Many states and cities filled the void by passing anti-predatory lending laws of their own. Lenders, worried about potential liability, quickly organized a full-scale attack on the state and local initiatives. Their most potent strategy lay in challenging the laws and ordinances under federal preemption rules for national banks and federal savings associations that precluded states from enforcing their anti-predatory lending laws.

The Dodd-Frank Act curtailed the preemption rules by establishing that state consumer financial laws can only ...


Public Engagement In Rulemaking: The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’S New Approach Dec 2011

Public Engagement In Rulemaking: The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’S New Approach

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.


Securitization And Systemic Risk Amid Deregulation And Regulatory Failure Apr 2009

Securitization And Systemic Risk Amid Deregulation And Regulatory Failure

Patricia A. McCoy

During the recent housing boom, private-label securitization without regulation was unsustainable. Without regulation, securitization allowed mortgage industry actors to gain fees and to put off risks. The ability to pass off risk allowed lenders and securitizers to compete for market share by lowering their lending standards, which activated more borrowing. Lenders who did not join in the easing of lending standards were crowded out of the market. Meanwhile, the mortgages underlying securities became more exposed to growing default risk, but investors did not receive higher rates of return. Artificially low risk premia caused the asset price of houses to go ...


The Impact Of Predatory Lending Laws: Policy Implications And Insights Dec 2007

The Impact Of Predatory Lending Laws: Policy Implications And Insights

Patricia A. McCoy

Over half the states and several localities have enacted statutes and ordinances to regulate abuses in the residential mortgage market. The effect of these statutes is a matter of debate. This paper seeks to improve the understanding of this increasingly important issue and pays particular attention to the role that legal enforcement mechanisms play in this context.

We created a legal index of laws governing mortgage lending terms and practices, giving each state an overall score for the strength of its laws. In addition, we disaggregated the index to create sub-indices along three dimensions: (1) the scope of loans covered ...


The Moral Hazard Implications Of Deposit Insurance: Theory And Practice Dec 2007

The Moral Hazard Implications Of Deposit Insurance: Theory And Practice

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.


The Legal Infrastructure Of Subprime And Nontraditional Mortgage Lending Dec 2007

The Legal Infrastructure Of Subprime And Nontraditional Mortgage Lending

Patricia A. McCoy

This paper provides a critical analysis of the legal landscape of residential mortgage lending and explains how federal law abdicated regulation of the subprime market. First, the paper presents the historical backdrop to government oversight of mortgage lending and identifies the changes to and innovations in the lending process that contributed to the recent transformation of the residential mortgage market. We then describe recent attempts at the state and federal level to re-regulate and the backlash initiated by the federal banking agencies to thwart regulation of their constituent banks through preemption, resulting in parallel universes of regulation. Next, the article ...


Turning A Blind Eye: Wall Street Finance Of Predatory Lending Feb 2007

Turning A Blind Eye: Wall Street Finance Of Predatory Lending

Patricia A. McCoy

Today, Wall Street finances up to eighty percent of subprime home loans through securitization. The subprime sector, which is designed for borrowers with blemished credit, has been dogged by predatory lending charges, many of which have been substantiated. As subprime securitization has grown, so have charges that securitization turns a blind eye to financing abusive loans. In this paper, we examine why secondary market discipline has failed to halt the securitization of predatory loans.

When investors buy securities backed by predatory loans, they face a classic lemons problem in the form of credit risk, prepayment risk, and litigation risk. Securitization ...


Rethinking Disclosure In A World Of Risk-Based Pricing Dec 2006

Rethinking Disclosure In A World Of Risk-Based Pricing

Patricia A. McCoy

The residential mortgage market in the United States has changed significantly since the passage of current federal mortgage disclosure laws in the 1960s and 1970s. In this Article, Professor Patricia McCoy advocates for the reform of these traditional disclosure rules. After describing the evolution of the subprime mortgage market and providing a description of current federal disclosure laws, she explores how these new market dynamics cause the traditional disclosure rules to break down in the subprime market. Professor McCoy concludes with proposals to counteract false advertising practices, facilitate "meaningful comparison-shopping, and formulate streamlined disclosures addressing loan applicants' greatest concerns in ...


Predatory Lending And Community Development At Loggerheads Dec 2006

Predatory Lending And Community Development At Loggerheads

Patricia A. McCoy

For decades, cities have invested in decaying neighborhoods, leading to increases in home values and home equity. As a result, these neighborhoods have become ready targets for predatory lenders, who market their abusive loans to financially unsophisticated homeowners with home equity and no relationships with traditional lenders. Some borrowers lose their homes; others forsake home repairs to avoid default and foreclosure. Neighborhoods that once were stable become littered with abandoned and neglected homes, resulting in increased crime, falling home values, rising demands for social services, and lower tax revenues.

In the wake of the devastation done by predatory lenders, the ...


A Behavioral Analysis Of Predatory Lending Dec 2004

A Behavioral Analysis Of Predatory Lending

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.


Realigning Auditors' Incentives Dec 2002

Realigning Auditors' Incentives

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Three Markets Revisited Dec 2002

A Tale Of Three Markets Revisited

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.