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Full-Text Articles in Law

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone Mar 2018

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone

Nicole G. Iannarone

Digital investment advisers are the fastest growing segment of financial technology (fintech) and are disrupting traditional investment advisory delivery models. The computer-led investment advisory service model may be growing particularly quickly due to a confluence of social and political factors. Politicians and regulators have increasingly focused on the standards of care applicable to investment advice providers. Fewer Americans are ready for retirement and many lack access to affordable investment advice. At the same time, comfort with digital platforms have increased, with some preferring electronic interaction over human interaction. Claiming that they can democratize retirement service by pro- viding advice meeting ...


Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges Jun 2016

Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges

Patricia A. McCoy

Historically, U.S. financial regulation has normally been procyclical, with federal regulators and Congress relaxing oversight during bull markets and cracking down once financial crises hit. After 2008, the wisdom of this approach came under attack. Critics argued that procyclical regulation left financial institutions undercapitalized and unable to withstand panics. Other critics asserted that economic downturns could be mitigated and even averted if regulators took steps to puncture asset bubbles.

The concept of countercyclical regulation responds to both of these critiques. This new approach posits that financial regulation would be more effective if financial regulation clamped down during financial expansions ...


The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

The benefits to free movement of international financial flows are numerous but include an efficient asset market and the opportunity for economic growth and development for countries engaged in an agreement allowing for such freedom. The free movement of capital is one of the four pillars of the Treaty on the Function of the European Union (TFEU) along with the free movement of goods, services, and labor. Article 63 of the TFEU prohibits limitations on the free movement of capital while Article 65 of the TFEU allows for some exceptions. Not only does the free movement of capital doctrine suppose ...


Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Protectionism can come in a variety of methods including the use of internal taxation policies that discriminate against imports making those imports more expensive on the domestic market and thus favoring domestically-produced goods. Discriminatory taxation policies have been developed by member-states to mask protectionism by distinguishing products based on import status, product similarity, product life cycle, consumption, tax collection practices, transportation charges, and state aid. The Framers of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) wrote Article 110 with the objective in mind to prohibit internal taxation policies from discriminating against goods in made in other member-states ...


Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert Lloyd, Nicholas Chase Mar 2015

Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert Lloyd, Nicholas Chase

Robert M Lloyd

ABSTRACT Recovery of Damages for Lost Profits: The Historical Development The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale is widely considered the most important rule of contract damages. In fact, however, the rule that damages must be proven with reasonable certainty is far more important in the modern practice of law. The reasonable certainty rule originated in Roman law and came to the common law through the civil law of Western Europe, developing first in the United States and spreading from the United States to England. The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale developed much in the same way, and, contrary to popular ...


What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy Feb 2015

What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

This blog post describes the implications of the recent US loss mitigation experience for housing reform.


Liquidity, Systemic Risk, And The Bankruptcy Treatment Of Financial Contracts, Riz Mokal Dec 2014

Liquidity, Systemic Risk, And The Bankruptcy Treatment Of Financial Contracts, Riz Mokal

Riz Mokal

Parties to repos, and to swaps and other derivatives are accorded privileged treatment under the bankruptcy laws of several dozen countries. Several key international “best practice” standards urge legislators in other jurisdictions to provide likewise. The beneficiaries of these privileges are solvent counterparties enabled, unimpeded by bankruptcy moratoria, to implement close-out netting arrangements and to dispose of collateral. The purported rationale is mitigation of systemic risk.
Taking a broad international perspective, this Article explores the “domino” contagion view of distress that motivates the privileges. This view derives from the outdated “microprudential” understanding of systemic risk, and is theoretically flawed and ...


Controles De Câmbio No Brasil: Teoria E Prática, Bruno Meyerhof Salama Dec 2014

Controles De Câmbio No Brasil: Teoria E Prática, Bruno Meyerhof Salama

Bruno Meyerhof Salama

Para abordar a regulação do mercado de câmbio sob a ótica do Direito Econômico, organizo este texto em duas partes. Na primeira, apresento um panorama geral sobre a regulação cambial no Brasil. Inicialmente abordo, de forma concisa, (a) o conceito de controle de câmbio; a seguir (b) trago notas sobre a história da regulação cambial no Brasil; e, adiante, (c) apresento uma discussão resumida acerca de dificuldades que se põem para o profissional do direito que se depara com questões jurídicas concretas na seara cambial. A segunda parte ilustra os problemas acima indicados apresentando duas contendas jurídicas recorrentes atinentes à ...


Comment On Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Proposed Rulemaking, David J. Reiss Oct 2014

Comment On Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Proposed Rulemaking, David J. Reiss

David J Reiss

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's Home Mortgage Disclosure Act proposed rulemaking (proposed Aug. 29, 2014) is a reasonable one. It increases the amount of information that is to be collected about important consumer products, such as reverse mortgages. It also increases the amount of important information it collects about all mortgages. At the same time, it releases lenders from having to determine borrowers’ intentions about how they will use their loan proceeds, something that can be hard to do and to document well. Finally, while the proposed rule raises some privacy concerns, the CFPB can address them.


Halliburton, Basic And Fraud On The Market: The Need For A New Paradigm, Charles W. Murdock Sep 2014

Halliburton, Basic And Fraud On The Market: The Need For A New Paradigm, Charles W. Murdock

Charles W. Murdock

Summary: Halliburton, Basic and Fraud on the Market: The Need for a New Paradigm

If defrauded securities plaintiffs cannot bring a class-action lawsuit, there often will be no effective remedy since the amount at stake for individual plaintiffs is not sufficient to warrant the substantial costs of litigation. To surmount the problem of individualized reliance and establish commonality, federal courts for twenty-five years have been employing the Basic fraud-on-the-market theory which posits that, in an efficient market, investors rely on the integrity of the market price.

While class certification at one time was a matter of course, today it is ...


Turning A Blind Eye: Wall Street Finance Of Predatory Lending, Kathleen C. Engel, Patricia A. Mccoy Aug 2014

Turning A Blind Eye: Wall Street Finance Of Predatory Lending, Kathleen C. Engel, Patricia A. Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

No abstract provided.


Testimony To The Committee On Financial Institutions, Kansas House Of Representatives March 13, 2014, Brian M. Mccall Mar 2014

Testimony To The Committee On Financial Institutions, Kansas House Of Representatives March 13, 2014, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

This document contains the text of testimony given before the Committee on Financial Institutions, Kansas House of Representatives March 13, 2014, in a hearing to address potential changes to the regulation of payday lending in Kansas.


Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, Amy Sepinwall Dec 2013

Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, Amy Sepinwall

Amy J. Sepinwall

Why is it that so few bankers have been prosecuted and punished in the wake of the financial meltdown? Pundits are quick to point to inadequate funding for addressing financial crime or, more cynically, the revolving door between government regulatory agencies and Wall Street. But the ultimate answer may be at once more banal and more dispiriting, lying as it does at the very foundations of our criminal law.

The conception of responsibility underpinning much of our criminal law contemplates the individual in isolation from others. As a result, our criminal law has tremendous difficulty tracking culpability in organizational contexts ...


The Home Mortgage Foreclosure Crisis: Lessons Learned Dec 2013

The Home Mortgage Foreclosure Crisis: Lessons Learned

Patricia A. McCoy

From 2007 through 2011, the United States housing market suffered a severe imbalance in supply and demand due to an excessive number both of foreclosed homes and homes awaiting foreclosure in the shadow housing inventory. Foreclosure prevention can help reduce the shadow housing inventory by keeping troubled mortgages from entering that inventory to begin with. The loan modification experience post-2008 yielded four main lessons about the best way to optimize foreclosure prevention. First, servicers should design loan modifications to lower monthly payments, including through principal reduction whenever appropriate. Second, servicers should evaluate loss mitigation as soon as possible following delinquency ...


Gambling On Our Financial Future: How The Federal Government Fiddles While State Common Law Is A Safer Bet To Prevent Another Financial Collapse, Brian M. Mccall Dec 2013

Gambling On Our Financial Future: How The Federal Government Fiddles While State Common Law Is A Safer Bet To Prevent Another Financial Collapse, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

No abstract provided.


Entender Los Males Económicos Modernos A La Luz De La Doctrina Social Católica, Brian M. Mccall Dec 2013

Entender Los Males Económicos Modernos A La Luz De La Doctrina Social Católica, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

In a general sense, St. Thomas Aquinas predicted the paralysis and chaos of the financial and economic systems in America and Europe which occurred in 2008, when he predicted that in a society where unjust exchanges dominate, eventually all exchanges will cease. St. Thomas also points out that although human law cannot prohibit all injustice, society cannot escape the consequences of transgressing the divine law which leaves “nothing unpunished.” Thus, at least part of the explanation for that crisis whose effects remain with us today lies in continuous violations of natural justice by our economic system. Neither one product nor ...


Gambling On Our Financial Future: How The Federal Government Fiddles While State Common Law Is A Safer Bet To Prevent Another Financial Collapse, Brian M. Mccall Dec 2013

Gambling On Our Financial Future: How The Federal Government Fiddles While State Common Law Is A Safer Bet To Prevent Another Financial Collapse, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

Many politicians and commentators agree that credit default swaps (CDS) played a significant role in the financial crisis of 2008. Yet, few who observe this role are aware that CDS were set loose on the economy by the federal pre-emption of thousands of years of public policy. Since the time of Aristotle law, philosophy and public policy have been hostile to gambling. Viewed as a socially unproductive zero sum wealth transfer, the law has generally refused to permit parties to use the courts to enforce wagers. Courts and legislatures worked in harmony to control and in some cases punish financial ...


Remic Tax Enforcement As Financial-Market Regulator, Bradley T. Borden, David J. Reiss Dec 2013

Remic Tax Enforcement As Financial-Market Regulator, Bradley T. Borden, David J. Reiss

David J Reiss

Lawmakers, prosecutors, homeowners, policymakers, investors, news media, scholars and other commentators have examined, litigated, and reported on numerous aspects of the 2008 Financial Crisis and the role that residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) played in that crisis. Big banks create RMBS by pooling mortgage notes into trusts and selling interests in those trusts as RMBS. Absent from prior work related to RMBS securitization is the tax treatment of RMBS mortgage-note pools and the critical role tax enforcement should play in ensuring the integrity of mortgage-note securitization.

This Article is the first to examine federal tax aspects of RMBS mortgage-note pools formed ...


The Regulation Of Sentencing Decisions: Why Information Disclosure Is Not Sufficient, And What To Do About It, W. C. Bunting Dec 2013

The Regulation Of Sentencing Decisions: Why Information Disclosure Is Not Sufficient, And What To Do About It, W. C. Bunting

W. C. Bunting

ABSTRACT: This Article identifies a number of problems, both in practice and in theory, in what is denoted here as the “information disclosure model of sentencing regulation.” While the disclosure model places a lack of information at the heart of the problem of inefficient sentencing policy, the present article explains how the problem is better understood, not as informational, but incentives-based. A statutory appropriation requirement is described that seeks to correct an explained incentive to engage in myopic legislative decision-making; specifically, a one-year appropriation is required from a general budget fund into a statutorily-created special reserve fund for any proposed ...


Should The Mortgage Follow The Note?, John Hunt Aug 2013

Should The Mortgage Follow The Note?, John Hunt

John P Hunt

The law of mortgage assignment has taken center stage amidst foreclosure crisis, robosigning scandal, and controversy over the Mortgage Electronic Registration System. Yet a concept crucially important to mortgage assignment law, the idea that “the mortgage follows the note,” apparently has never been subjected to a critical analysis in a law review.

This Article makes two claims about that proposition, one positive and one normative. The positive claim is that it has been much less clear than typically assumed that the mortgage follows the note, in the sense that note transfer formalities trump mortgage transfer formalities. “The mortgage follows the ...


Ucc Update: 2013 Case Law Updates And Examples Of How A Bank May Be Able To Reduce Exposure On Potential Future Losses, William P. Huttenbach Jun 2013

Ucc Update: 2013 Case Law Updates And Examples Of How A Bank May Be Able To Reduce Exposure On Potential Future Losses, William P. Huttenbach

William P. Huttenbach

No abstract provided.


Faith-Based Financial Regulation: A Primer On Oversight Of Credit Rating Organizations, Christopher L. Sagers, Thomas J. Fitzpatrick Mar 2013

Faith-Based Financial Regulation: A Primer On Oversight Of Credit Rating Organizations, Christopher L. Sagers, Thomas J. Fitzpatrick

Chris Sagers

In light of the present economic crisis and their role in it, the world seems suddenly keen to know more about the handful of private corporations--variously known as bond rating agencies, credit rating agencies, credit rating organizations (CROs), or the like--that rate the creditworthiness of corporate and government debt securities. By most accounts, these companies hold extensive sway in public capital markets, and for about thirty years, a few of them have enjoyed literally de jure delegation of federal regulatory oversight over much of the U.S. financial sector. With that power their ratings have value regardless of their accuracy ...


Functional Government In 3-D, Robert L. Glicksman, Alejandro E. Camacho Feb 2013

Functional Government In 3-D, Robert L. Glicksman, Alejandro E. Camacho

Robert L. Glicksman

The creation of new administrative agencies and the realignment of existing governmental authority are commonplace and high-stakes events, as illustrated by the recent creation of the Department of Homeland Security after 9/11 and of new financial regulatory agencies after the global recession of 2009. Scholars and policymakers have not devoted sufficient attention to this subject, failing to clearly identify the different dimensions along which government authority may be structured or to consider the relationships among them. Analysis of these institutional design issues typically also gives short shrift to whether authority should be allocated differently based on agency function. These ...


Taxation And Incentives In The Business Enterprise, David Gamage, Shruti Rana Jan 2013

Taxation And Incentives In The Business Enterprise, David Gamage, Shruti Rana

Shruti Rana

This book chapter discusses the tax perspective on business enterprise law with a comparative focus on the U.S. and Japan.


Barriers To Foreclosure Prevention During The Financial Crisis Dec 2012

Barriers To Foreclosure Prevention During The Financial Crisis

Patricia A. McCoy

The number of modifications to distressed residential loans following the 2008 financial crisis has been disappointingly low compared to the number of foreclosures. This raises concerns about the presence of artificial barriers to loan modifications in situations where foreclosure should be avoidable. There are three pressing reasons to care about what the real barriers to foreclosure prevention are. First, foreclosures that could have been avoided inflict enormous, needless losses on borrowers, investors, and society at large. Second, overcoming artificial barriers to foreclosure prevention will result in loan modifications with higher rates of success. Finally, knowing what to fix is necessary ...


Keeping Tabs On Financial Innovation: Product Identifiers In Consumer Financial Regulation Dec 2012

Keeping Tabs On Financial Innovation: Product Identifiers In Consumer Financial Regulation

Patricia A. McCoy

The financial crisis of 2008 gave rise to renewed discussion about whether financial innovations should undergo higher scrutiny for potential harm and, if so, what type? In this Article, the authors propose a new system for monitoring financial innovations through a system of registration, data collection and analysis using unique product identifiers. Creating product identifiers would increase monitoring abilities substantially at relatively low cost by facilitating the linkage of separate databases. The assignment of unique product identifiers would also minimize errors in the identification and classification of different financial products. These identifiers would be available to both the government and ...


Responsibility, Repair And Redistribution In The Wake Of The Financial Crisis, Amy Sepinwall Dec 2012

Responsibility, Repair And Redistribution In The Wake Of The Financial Crisis, Amy Sepinwall

Amy J. Sepinwall

The point of departure for this paper is a claim about widespread shared responsibility for the financial crisis and the bailout it necessitated. We are inclined to decry Wall Street’s villainy, all the while conveniently overlooking our own role in precipitating the crisis. But individuals, we now know, prefer to spend rather than save and, as a result, require the kind of financial alchemy that can transform one’s house into a virtual ATM, or one’s exceedingly modest savings into a fiscal cushion that can sustain a long, comfortable retirement. Risk, then, is the inevitable price of our ...


The Church And The Usurers: Unprofitable Lending For The Modern Economy, Brian M. Mccall Dec 2012

The Church And The Usurers: Unprofitable Lending For The Modern Economy, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

Professor McCall explains in a scholarly yet accessible manner the core principles of the usury doctrine. Tracing its history from Biblical texts, through Aristotelian philosophy and Roman law, to the great scholastic synthesis, Professor McCall separates the unchanging principles from the changes in their applications to new economic realities. With debt, personal, business and government spiraling out of control and massive insolvencies of ancient nations like Greece, contemporary economic theory has offered little in response. Professor McCall contributes the wisdom of the centuries in a concise and readable study.

Endorsements

"Professor McCall places the issues confronting our debt based economy ...


Redimir Nuestro Futuro, Brian M. Mccall Dec 2012

Redimir Nuestro Futuro, Brian M. Mccall

Brian M McCall

Este artículo en español se basa en la conclusión del libro del profesor McCall, La iglesia y los usureros: préstamos no rentables para la economía moderna (Sapientia Prensa 2013). Se argumenta a favor de la restauración de los antiguos principios de la justicia en relación con la usura. Después de explicar cómo el proceso democrático fué subvertido por la primacía federal a mutilar las leyes de usura que precedió la fundación de la república norteamericana, el artículo recomienda una restauración de la Ley de usura, la cual permita compensación por pérdidas resultantes de un préstamo monetario pero restringe los préstamos ...


The Dodd-Frank Act: A Moral Skeptic Framework, Ben Biran Sep 2012

The Dodd-Frank Act: A Moral Skeptic Framework, Ben Biran

Ben Biran

No abstract provided.