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Full-Text Articles in Law

Shells Of The Stores They Once Were: Returning Vacant Retail Property To Productive Use In The Midst Of The "Retail Apocalypse", Mairead J. Fitzgerald-Mumford Jun 2019

Shells Of The Stores They Once Were: Returning Vacant Retail Property To Productive Use In The Midst Of The "Retail Apocalypse", Mairead J. Fitzgerald-Mumford

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note intends to address responses to retail vacancies by local governments in nonurban areas where land is relatively cheap and low-density development predominates. Its purpose is to assist these municipalities in motivating owners of vacant retail structures to return the property to productive use, thereby significantly reducing the number of empty retail shells that litter the landscapes of many communities. Alternatively, in cases where the owner is unable or unwilling to mitigate the negative externalities imposed on the community by a vacant retail structure, I propose solutions tailored to commercial properties that will allow local governments to intervene in ...


Bounded Rationality And The Theory Of Property, Oren Bar-Gill, Nicola Persico Feb 2019

Bounded Rationality And The Theory Of Property, Oren Bar-Gill, Nicola Persico

Notre Dame Law Review

Strong, property rule protection—implemented via injunctions, criminal sanctions, and supercompensatory damages—is a defining aspect of property. What is the theoretical justification for property rule protection? The conventional answer has to do with the alleged shortcomings of the weaker liability rule alternative: it is widely held that liability rule protection—implemented via compensatory damages—would interfere with efficient exchange and jeopardize the market system. We show that these concerns are overstated and that exchange efficiency generally obtains in a liability rule regime—but only when the parties are perfectly rational. When the standard rationality assumption is replaced with a ...


Progressive Genetic Ownership, Jessica L. Roberts Mar 2018

Progressive Genetic Ownership, Jessica L. Roberts

Notre Dame Law Review

Recently, property law scholars have challenged neoclassical economic theory as the primary lens for understanding ownership. As an alternative to the all-too-familiar concepts of welfarism, rational choice theory, and cost-benefit analysis, they offer “progressive property,” a school of thought grounded in value pluralism, communitarianism, and redistribution. To date, much of the progressive property literature has focused exclusively on land use. This Article tests the versatility of this new property school by applying it to a novel context: genetic ownership. As with real property, discussions surrounding genetic ownership have been entrenched in the language of neoclassical economics. Given the proliferation of ...


The Current Predatory Nature Of Land Contracts And How To Implement Reforms, Stacy Purcell Mar 2018

The Current Predatory Nature Of Land Contracts And How To Implement Reforms, Stacy Purcell

Notre Dame Law Review

Because land contracts are frequently inequitable, advocates and legislators have called for enhanced regulation. This Note examines the imbalance of power between sellers and buyers during the formation of land contracts, the ways the law has attempted to lessen the inequality, and how to implement potential reforms. Part II discusses the history of land contracts and their recent resurgence since the 2008 housing crash. Part III explains that while current land contracts are often predatory, land contracts could potentially be a useful way for low-income individuals to become homeowners. Part IV outlines proposed national and state reforms. Part V makes ...


In Defense Of The Fee Simple, Katrina M. Wyman Nov 2017

In Defense Of The Fee Simple, Katrina M. Wyman

Notre Dame Law Review

Prominent economically oriented legal academics are currently arguing that the fee simple, the dominant form of private landownership in the United States, is an inefficient way for society to allocate land. They maintain that the fee simple blocks transfers of land to higher value uses because it provides property owners with a perpetual monopoly. The critics propose that landownership be reformulated to enable private actors to forcibly purchase land from other private owners, similar to the way that governments can expropriate land for public uses using eminent domain. While recognizing the significance of the critique, this Article takes issue with ...


Indirect Sovereignty Through Property Rights, Andreas Rahmatian May 2017

Indirect Sovereignty Through Property Rights, Andreas Rahmatian

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The careful distinction between property and sovereignty is a central part of legal thought from the early modern period onwards. But the reality shows that this division is socioeconomically not that clear. Property rights are rights against persons in relation to things, but effectively they can be rights over people in relation to resources and space—notional, conceptual, or real. Examples of this general trend are the international financial system and international intellectual property protection. If one looks at international commercial and banking law and the corresponding regulations, one realizes that the classical understanding of sovereignty in political philosophy and ...


Penn Central Take Two, Christopher Serkin Mar 2017

Penn Central Take Two, Christopher Serkin

Notre Dame Law Review

Penn Central v. New York City is the most important regulatory takings case of all time. There, the Supreme Court upheld the historic preservation of Grand Central Terminal in part because the City offset the burden of the landmarking with a valuable new property interest—a transferable development right (TDR)—that could be sold to neighboring property. Extraordinarily, 1.2 million square feet of those very same TDRs, still unused for over forty years, are the subject of newly resolved takings litigation. According to the complaint, the TDRs that saved Grand Central were themselves taken by the government, which allegedly ...


Planning For Density: Promises, Perils And A Paradox, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2017

Planning For Density: Promises, Perils And A Paradox, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This article, which was delivered as the 2017 Environmental Distinguished Lecture at Florida State University, discussed the promises, perils and an unappreciated paradox of current efforts to use land use policy to densify and urbanize American communities.


Justice Scalia's Rule Of Law And Law Of Takings, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2017

Justice Scalia's Rule Of Law And Law Of Takings, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This short essay reviews the regulatory takings legacy of Justice Antonin Scalia, evaluating both its impact on the Supreme Court's takings canon and its consistency with his stated jurisprudential principles.


Freeing The City To Compete, James J. Kelly Jr. Jan 2017

Freeing The City To Compete, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

In this paper, I examine how the rights of owners, lenders and residents threaten the functioning of real markets in distressed urban neighborhoods, perpetuating the pall that vacant and abandoned houses cast over their future. Even a single abandoned house can present an example of how the rights of several stakeholders create a form of gridlock known as anticommons, which isolates that property from a potentially transformative transfer of title. In addition to this legal anticommons, some neighborhoods are so beset by vacant property problems that they require coordination of investment that is frustrated by both the multiplicity of private ...


Freeing The City To Compete, James J. Kelly Jr. Jan 2017

Freeing The City To Compete, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

In this paper, I examine how the rights of owners, lenders and residents threaten the functioning of real markets in distressed urban neighborhoods, perpetuating the pall that vacant and abandoned houses cast over their future. Even a single abandoned house can present an example of how the rights of several stakeholders create a form of gridlock known as anticommons, which isolates that property from a potentially transformative transfer of title. In addition to this legal anticommons, some neighborhoods are so beset by vacant property problems that they require coordination of investment that is frustrated by both the multiplicity of private ...


Stop The Reach: Solving The Judicial Takings Problem By Objectively Defining Property, Steven C. Begakis Apr 2016

Stop The Reach: Solving The Judicial Takings Problem By Objectively Defining Property, Steven C. Begakis

Notre Dame Law Review

The future of judicial takings may rest on the ability of the Court to define property in a robust and objective way. Property has essential characteristics that make it easily identifiable, the most significant of which are the rights to exclude and use. However, even when a property right does not fit within a neat categorical definition, should that right have a long, well established pedigree in state court precedent, that property right is similarly within the capacity of the reviewing court to identify. And once it is determined that, prior to the judgment, the petitioners possessed a clearly defined ...


Sustaining Neighborhoods Of Choice: From Land Bank(Ing) To Land Trust(Ing), James J. Kelly Jr. Jun 2015

Sustaining Neighborhoods Of Choice: From Land Bank(Ing) To Land Trust(Ing), James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

This essay is based on my closing presentation at the Washburn Law Journal's 2015 symposium entitled “The Future of Housing -- Equity, Stability and Sustainability.” It explores how land banks and land trusts promote social goods, including socioeconomic integration, by connecting with and shielding against, respectively, market forces. Both engage in stewardship of land. Land banks take temporary ownership of vacant, abandoned properties in order to make them available for productive use. Land trusts hold land indefinitely to ensure a social purpose is met. Community land trusts hold land for a purpose that is responsive to the human environment, often ...


How To Kill A Zombie: Strategies For Dealing With The Aftermath Of The Foreclosure Crisis, Judith L. Fox Jun 2015

How To Kill A Zombie: Strategies For Dealing With The Aftermath Of The Foreclosure Crisis, Judith L. Fox

Journal Articles

The foreclosure crisis which began in 2008 is old news; or is it? A lot of attention has been paid to the plight of homeowners struggling to save their homes from foreclosure. Legislative and regulatory changes have made it easier for homeowners to navigate the loss mitigation process. A significant number of people, however, did not try to save their homes. In fact, some actively tried unsuccessfully to give the homes back to their lender. These abandoned homes and abandoned foreclosures have become zombie mortgages. This is the legacy of this crisis.

The existence of these homes is well documented ...


The Future Of Foreclosure Law In The Wake Of The Great Housing Crisis Of 2007-2014, Judy Fox Mar 2015

The Future Of Foreclosure Law In The Wake Of The Great Housing Crisis Of 2007-2014, Judy Fox

Journal Articles

As 2014 came to an end so, perhaps, did the worst foreclosure crisis in U.S. history. On January 15, 2015, RealityTrac, one of the nation’s leading reporters of housing data, declared the foreclosure crisis had ended. Whether or not their declaration proves true, the aftermath of the crisis will be felt for years to come. During the crisis it is estimated more than five million families lost their homes to foreclosure. Federal, state and local responses to the crisis changed laws and perceptions regarding foreclosure. Despite these changes, we end the crisis much the way we began -- with ...


The Factual Reality Of Koontz V. St. Johns, Eric Dean Hageman Feb 2015

The Factual Reality Of Koontz V. St. Johns, Eric Dean Hageman

Notre Dame Law Review Online

The Court’s opinion in Koontz has elicited many negative reactions in academia, most of which focus on the expansion of Nollan and Dolan to monetary exactions. Criticisms run the gamut: some scholars argue that the Court was wrong to ignore the environmental impact of land developments, while others suggest the Court gave the same consideration too much credence. These criticisms are likely premature and necessarily speculative, since the Court decided the case less than two years ago.

Scholars have scrutinized this case’s factual and procedural history less closely, and those elements may justify the Court’s holding. Two ...


Reconciling Intellectual And Personal Property, Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz Feb 2015

Reconciling Intellectual And Personal Property, Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article builds on our earlier work on exhaustion. We have previously emphasized the common law origins of copyright exhaustion, arguing for a judicial interpretation that is more expansive than the narrow statutory first sale rule. Subsequently, we have advocated increased reliance on exhaustion to resolve a range of disputes over personal use by consumers that are typically analyzed through the lenses of fair use and implied license. And, most recently, we have outlined two competing legislative frameworks for a contemporary exhaustion regime as a part of the broader copyright reform effort. This Article examines both the forces undermining copy ...


Mirrored Externalities, Lisa Grow Sun, Brigham Daniels Nov 2014

Mirrored Externalities, Lisa Grow Sun, Brigham Daniels

Notre Dame Law Review

A fundamental but underappreciated truth is that positive and negative externalities are actually mirror reflections of each other. What we call “mirrored externalities” exist because any action with externalities associated with it can be described as a choice to do or to refrain from doing that particular action. For example, if a person smokes and thereby creates a negative externality of more secondhand smoke, then her choice not to smoke creates a positive externality of less secondhand smoke. Conversely, if a person’s choice to get an immunization confers a positive externality of reducing vectors for disease transmission, then a ...


Banking And The Social Contract, Mehrsa Baradaran Feb 2014

Banking And The Social Contract, Mehrsa Baradaran

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article asserts that there are three major tenets of the social contract: (1) safety and soundness, (2) consumer protection, and (3) access to credit. Regulators can and should require banks to meet standards in these areas to benefit society even if these measures reasonably reduce bank profits. Implicit in the social contract is the idea that each party must give up something in the exchange. This Article provides policymakers not only the appropriate narrative and justifications needed to frame their regulatory philosophy, but it also provides important textual support from the most prominent acts of banking legislation to give ...


Private Law In The Gaps, Jeffrey A. Pojanowski Jan 2014

Private Law In The Gaps, Jeffrey A. Pojanowski

Journal Articles

Private law subjects like tort, contract, and property are traditionally taken to be at the core of the common law tradition, yet statutes increasingly intersect with these bodies of doctrine. This Article draws on recent work in private law theory and statutory interpretation to consider afresh what courts should do with private law in statutory gaps. In particular, it focuses on statutes touching on tort law, a field at the leading edge of private law theory. This Article's analysis unsettles some conventional wisdom about the intersection of private law and statutes. Many leading tort scholars and jurists embrace a ...


The Durability Of Private Claims To Public Property, Bruce R. Huber Jan 2014

The Durability Of Private Claims To Public Property, Bruce R. Huber

Journal Articles

Property rights and resource use are closely related. Scholarly inquiry about their relation, however, tends to emphasize private property arrangements while ignoring public property — property formally owned by government. The well-known tragedies of the commons and anticommons, for example, are generally analyzed with reference to the optimal form and degree of private ownership. But what about property owned by the state? The federal government alone owns nearly one-third of the land area of the United States. One could well ask: is there a tragedy associated with public property, too? If there is, here is what it might look like: private ...


The Right To Include, Daniel B. Kelly Jan 2014

The Right To Include, Daniel B. Kelly

Journal Articles

Recent scholarship has created renewed interest in the “right to exclude.” Many contend that, because owners have a right to exclude, private property has a tendency to promote individualism and exclusion. But, as I will argue, property can promote sociability and inclusion by providing owners with various ways of including others. Owners can assert their “right to include” by waiving exclusion rights, dividing existing rights by contracts or property forms, and creating new co-ownership arrangements. Inclusion is socially beneficial insofar as it enables sharing and exchange, facilitates financing and risk-spreading, and promotes specialization. Yet inclusion may entail costs, including coordination ...


A Continuum In Remedies: Reconnecting Vacant Houses To The Market, James J. Kelly Jr. Jan 2013

A Continuum In Remedies: Reconnecting Vacant Houses To The Market, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

For decades, America’s older, undercrowded cities have struggled with neighborhoods beset by vacant houses that seemingly have no connection with a functioning real estate market. A nationwide foreclosure crisis has brought even greater attention to the need for inner-city communities to address vacant house nuisances. This paper argues that recent developments in property theory help us understand and complete reforms of legal remedies that address this continuing national need.

Traditional, in personam code enforcement remedies emanate from a legal understanding of real estate ownership as the strongest of property-rule-protected entitlements. Local government authorities hold owners directly accountable for any ...


Sharing The Wealth, James J. Kelly Jr. Jan 2013

Sharing The Wealth, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

This review of the textbook, "Community Economic Development Law" (Aspen 2013), written by Susan Bennett, Brenda Bratton Blom, Louise Howells and Deborah Kenn, appeared in the Vol. 22, No.1 issue of the Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Economic Development Law.


Foreclosure Echo: How Abandoned Foreclosures Are Re-Entering The Market Through Debt Buyers, Judy Fox Jan 2013

Foreclosure Echo: How Abandoned Foreclosures Are Re-Entering The Market Through Debt Buyers, Judy Fox

Journal Articles

It is common knowledge that mortgage defaults increased steadily from 2006 through 2011. In some situations, lenders moved swiftly after default to foreclose the property; but for other homeowners the foreclosure process began and then stalled or was completely abandoned by the lender. The result of these abandoned foreclosures has been devastating to cities and consumers throughout the country. This article explores what is happening to homeowners caught up in the strange world of bank walkaways as the economy is beginning to improve. This second wave of collection activity, an echo of the original foreclosure crisis, could easily throw thousands ...


Strategic Spillovers, Daniel B. Kelly Jan 2011

Strategic Spillovers, Daniel B. Kelly

Journal Articles

The conventional problem with externalities is well known: Parties often generate harm as an unintended byproduct of using their property. This Article examines situations in which parties may generate harm purposely, in order to extract payments in exchange for desisting. Such “strategic spillovers” have received relatively little attention, but the problem is a perennial one. From the “livery stable scam” in Chicago to “pollution entrepreneurs” in China, parties may engage in externality-generating activities they otherwise would not have undertaken, or increase the level of harm given that they are engaging in such activities, to profit through bargaining or subsidies. This ...


Unbundling Homeownership: Regional Reforms From The Inside Out, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2010

Unbundling Homeownership: Regional Reforms From The Inside Out, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Two vexing puzzles plague American land use regulators. The first puzzle is how to protect property owners from harmful spillovers without unduly stifling land use diversity. The dominant forms of land use regulation in the United States - zoning and private covenants - rely on ex ante prohibitions. Yet, since local governments and private developers rarely can calibrate the level of regulation to residents’ true preferences, the costs imposed by these regulations tend to exceed the benefits of actual harm prevention. The result is the over-protection of property owners and, and, many would argue, a monotonous, sterile, inefficient, and inconvenient suburban landscape ...


Bringing Clarity To Title Clearing: Tax Foreclosure And Due Process In The Internet Age, James J. Kelly Jr. Jan 2008

Bringing Clarity To Title Clearing: Tax Foreclosure And Due Process In The Internet Age, James J. Kelly Jr.

Journal Articles

The foreclosure of property tax liens performs an essential economic function by reconnecting underutilized properties to the real estate market. To clear title in an efficient and just manner, local jurisdictions foreclosing on tax liens require clear, balanced procedures for the provision of notice to affected parties. In its 2006 decision in Jones v. Flowers, the U.S. Supreme Court found that the foreclosing jurisdiction's lack of direct follow-up on returned notice mailings denied the addressee due process because the foreclosing party did not take steps that would be chosen by one desirous of actually informing the property owner ...


"No Taking Without A Touching?" Questions From An Armchair Originalist, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2008

"No Taking Without A Touching?" Questions From An Armchair Originalist, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This paper is an invited contribution to the Bernard Siegan Memorial Conference on Economic Liberties, Property Rights, and the Original Meaning of the Constitution at the University of San Diego School of Law. The paper poses three questions about the historical evidence used to support the dominant academic view that the Fifth Amendment's Takings Clause, as originally understood, extended only to physical appropriations or invasions of private property. First, the paper questions the relevance of state and local regulatory practices to the pre-incorporation understanding of the Takings Clause. Second, the paper expresses concern about the use of state-court cases ...


Property In-Laws, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2007

Property In-Laws, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.