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Full-Text Articles in Law

Fisa Section 702: Does Querying Incidentally Collected Information Constitute A Search Under The Fourth Amendment?, Rachel G. Miller Mar 2020

Fisa Section 702: Does Querying Incidentally Collected Information Constitute A Search Under The Fourth Amendment?, Rachel G. Miller

Notre Dame Law Review Reflection

An inherent source of conflict in the United States exists between protecting national security and safeguarding individual civil liberties. Throughout history, Americans have consistently been skeptical and fearful of the government abusing its power by spying on Americans. In an effort to curtail government abuses through surveillance, President Carter and Congress enacted the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA). The purpose of FISA was to establish a “statutory procedure authorizing the use of electronic surveillance in the United States for foreign intelligence purposes.” FISA provides the government with the authority to engage in electronic surveillance, targeted at foreign powers ...


Collusion, Obstruction Of Justice, And Impeachment, Ediberto Roman, Melissa Gonzalez, Dianet Torres Dec 2018

Collusion, Obstruction Of Justice, And Impeachment, Ediberto Roman, Melissa Gonzalez, Dianet Torres

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


"Thou Shalt Not Ration Justice": The Importance Of Autism Insurance Reform For Military Autism Families, And The Economic And National Security Implications Of Improving Access To Aba Therapy Under Tricare, Ariana Cernius Apr 2018

"Thou Shalt Not Ration Justice": The Importance Of Autism Insurance Reform For Military Autism Families, And The Economic And National Security Implications Of Improving Access To Aba Therapy Under Tricare, Ariana Cernius

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Disciplining Deference: Strengthening The Role Of The Federal Courts In The National Security Realm, Dominic X. Barceleau Jan 2018

Disciplining Deference: Strengthening The Role Of The Federal Courts In The National Security Realm, Dominic X. Barceleau

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will argue that federal courts need to be more “disciplined” in their deference determinations in order to effectively check the Executive’s power. Part I will look at the Constitution and its allocation of foreign relations powers for evidence of the appropriate amount of deference that ought to be shown by the judiciary. While the text of the Constitution is largely silent on this question, Part I will show that this silence does not exclude a role for the judiciary in foreign affairs. Part II will proceed to discuss several important Supreme Court decisions that have helped to ...


Investigative Journalism And Counter Terrorism Laws, Clive Walker Jan 2017

Investigative Journalism And Counter Terrorism Laws, Clive Walker

Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy

Since terrorism is now perceived as a primary and pervasive threat to state security, many states have adopted broad legal definitions of “terrorism” and, upon that basis, have enacted correspondingly expansive policing powers and criminal offences. As a dramatic instance of how these approaches, which affect major Western jurisdictions such as the U.S. and U.K., this paper will focus on the paradigm case of David Miranda. In August 2013, Miranda was transporting computer materials (including files from security agencies) supplied by Edward Snowden, a former contractor with the U.S. National Security Agency, to journalist Glenn Greenwald to ...


U.S. Biological Quarantine: A Look At The Legal Framework, Katherine T. Rooney Jan 2016

U.S. Biological Quarantine: A Look At The Legal Framework, Katherine T. Rooney

Journal of Legislation

Biological terrorism is a growing problem. Search and seizure protections have an on-going balancing relationship with national security that is balanced by a least restrictive means test. The Kaci Hickox case exposed the difficulty of maintaining the civil rights protections of search and seizure while combating a potentially catastrophic danger.


The Need To Refocus The U.S. Government's Post-9/11 Counter-Terrorist Financing Strategy Directed At Al Qaeda To Target The Funding Of Isis, Jimmy Gurule Jan 2016

The Need To Refocus The U.S. Government's Post-9/11 Counter-Terrorist Financing Strategy Directed At Al Qaeda To Target The Funding Of Isis, Jimmy Gurule

Journal Articles

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ("ISIS") is the most deadly and well-funded foreign terrorist organization in the world. There are estimates that ISIS has an annual budget of over $2 billion to finance its goal of establishing a caliphate, or Islamic state, governed by its twisted version of Islamic law.1 Flush with funds, the terror group has acquired and controls large swaths of territory in Syria and Iraq, and the threat it poses extends to Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Lebanon, and beyond. 2 While depriving ISIS of funding is a central component of the United ...


Swatting Political Discourse: A Domestic Terrorism Threat, Matthew James Enzweiler Aug 2015

Swatting Political Discourse: A Domestic Terrorism Threat, Matthew James Enzweiler

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will attempt to address the question of whether or not incidents of swatting aimed at contrary political ideals meet the characterization of domestic terrorism in the post–9/11 era. In particular, there will be consideration of the extent to which treatment of political swatting as domestic terrorism is consistent with the maintenance of the delicate balance between public safety concerns and protection of the constitutional values of free speech and free expression. This Note will proceed in four parts. Part I will examine the growth of telecommunication manipulation practices from products of curiosity to an alarming means ...


Viewing Privilege Through A Prism: Attorney-Client Privilege In Light Of Bulk Data Collection, Paul H. Beach May 2015

Viewing Privilege Through A Prism: Attorney-Client Privilege In Light Of Bulk Data Collection, Paul H. Beach

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will argue that the attorney-client privilege is justified not only by the popular instrumentalist rationales, but also by noninstrumentalist thinking. It will further argue that Federal Rule of Evidence 502 gives federal courts the tools to protect the attorney-client privilege in light of bulk data collection. Even where courts do not find that traditional modes of communication constitute reasonable steps to protect a confidential communication, general considerations of fairness—as noted in Rule 502’s committee notes—should encourage courts to uphold attorney-client privilege in future situations of bulk data collection disclosures. Part I will discuss the establishment ...


Adhering To Law And Values Against Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2012

Adhering To Law And Values Against Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Self-Judging Wto Security Exception, Roger P. Alford Jan 2011

The Self-Judging Wto Security Exception, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

This Article analyzes the WTO security exception, with a particular focus on State practice. In the absence of any GATT or WTO jurisprudence, State practice affords the best vehicle to understand the meaning of Article XXI. In the few instances when invocation of the security exception has been challenged, State practice suggests that the security exception is not judicially reviewable.

A critical question emerges from this analysis of State practice. If a Member State can avoid WTO obligations through a self-judging security exception, what is to prevent bad faith invocations? The WTO regime includes a number of devices to address ...


The Choice Of Law Against Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2010

The Choice Of Law Against Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

The Obama administration has continued to apply the wartime paradigm first developed by the Bush administration after 9/11 to respond to terrorism. In cases of trials before military commissions, indefinite detention, and targeted killing, the U.S. has continued to claim wartime privileges even with respect to persons and situations far from any battlefield. This article argues that both administrations have made a basic error in the choice of law. Wartime privileges may be claimed when armed conflict conditions prevail as defined by international law. These privileges are not triggered by declarations or policy preferences.


International Human Rights Law And Security Detention, Douglass Cassel Jan 2009

International Human Rights Law And Security Detention, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

This article analyzes the grounds, procedures, and conditions required by International Human Rights Law for preventive detention of suspected terrorists as threats to security. Such detention is generally permitted, provided it is based on grounds and procedures previously established by law; is not arbitrary, discriminatory, or disproportionate; is publicly registered and subject to fair and effective judicial review; and the detainee is not mistreated and is compensated for any unlawful detention. In Europe, however, preventive detention for security purposes is generally not permitted. If allowed at all, it is permitted only when a State in time of national emergency formally ...


The Memory Gap In Surveillance Law, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2008

The Memory Gap In Surveillance Law, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

U.S. information privacy laws contain a memory gap: they regulate the collection and disclosure of certain kinds of information, but they say little about its retention. This memory gap has ever-increasing significance for the structure of government surveillance law. Under current doctrine, the Fourth Amendment generally requires government agents to meet high standards before directly and prospectively gathering a target's communications. The law takes a dramatically different approach to indirect, surveillance-like activities, such as the compelled production of communications from a third party, even when those activities yield the same information as, or more information than, direct surveillance ...


Liberty, Judicial Review, And The Rule Of Law At Guantanamo: A Battle Half Won, Doug Cassell Jan 2008

Liberty, Judicial Review, And The Rule Of Law At Guantanamo: A Battle Half Won, Doug Cassell

Journal Articles

In Boumediene v. Bush, 128 S. Ct. 2229 (2008), five members of the Supreme Court held that foreign prisoners at Guantanamo enjoy the constitutional privilege of habeas corpus; that their imprisonment had lasted too long for the Court to await completion of statutory review by lower courts of military tribunal findings that the prisoners were "enemy combatants"; and that the statutory judicial review was too deficient to substitute for the Great Writ.

Four Justices vigorously dissented. On the surface they differed on the history of the reach of the common law writ of habeas corpus, and on the procedural guarantees ...


Defending Human Rights In The "War" Against Terror, Douglass Cassel Jan 2006

Defending Human Rights In The "War" Against Terror, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Legislative Responses To Terrorism: A View From Britain, Geoffrey Bennett Jan 2005

Legislative Responses To Terrorism: A View From Britain, Geoffrey Bennett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The "Lone Wolf" Amendment And The Future Of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Law, Patricia E. Simone, Patricia L. Bellia Jan 2005

The "Lone Wolf" Amendment And The Future Of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Law, Patricia E. Simone, Patricia L. Bellia

Journal Articles

In December 2004, Congress adopted an important change to the statutory framework authorizing domestic surveillance of foreign powers and their agents, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). The change, directly prompted by the events of September 11, 2001, makes it easier for the government to conduct surveillance of so-called lone wolf terrorists - that is, terrorists who act in sympathy with the aims of an international terrorist group but not on its behalf, or terrorists whose link to an international terrorist group cannot be demonstrated.

Although the logic of the lone wolf amendment at first seems quite compelling, the amendment offers ...


The Legal Case Against The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2004

The Legal Case Against The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


To Kill Or Capture Suspects In The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2003

To Kill Or Capture Suspects In The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

Presents a speech by law professor Mary Ellen O'Connell, delivered at the Case Western Reserve School of Law's War Crimes Research Symposium, February 28, 2003. Legal implications of pursuing terror suspects using military action by the U.S. government; Components of armed conflict; Analysis of the United States' involvement in the internal armed conflict in the Philippines.


American Exceptionalism And The International Law Of Self-Defense, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2002

American Exceptionalism And The International Law Of Self-Defense, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


God Bless America, John J. Coughlin Jan 2002

God Bless America, John J. Coughlin

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Terrorism, Territorial Sovereignty, And The Forcible Apprehension Of International Criminals Abroad, Jimmy Gurule Jan 1994

Terrorism, Territorial Sovereignty, And The Forcible Apprehension Of International Criminals Abroad, Jimmy Gurule

Journal Articles

Examines current international law governing use of force extraterritorially; in light of the Alvarez-Machain case in which a Mexican national suspected of murder was forcibly extradited to stand trial in the US.


A Proposed Electronic Surveillance Control Act, G. Robert Blakey, James A. Hancock Jan 1968

A Proposed Electronic Surveillance Control Act, G. Robert Blakey, James A. Hancock

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.