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Full-Text Articles in Law

Ensuring Justice Without "Beating The Deal", Sean P. Flynn Feb 2019

Ensuring Justice Without "Beating The Deal", Sean P. Flynn

Notre Dame Law Review Online

In 1950 military justice changed drastically with the enactment of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The UCMJ brought many protections to service members that were standard in civilian criminal practice, but there still existed differences between the two systems. Recent changes to the UCMJ eliminated more of those differences. The Joint Service Committee recommended further changes, which were accepted, to the way the military handles guilty pleas and plea agreements in the Rules for Courts-Martial (RCM), which govern the procedure and substance of courts-martial. The primary change discussed here is the removal of the military’s “beat the ...


Falling Through The Gap: The Culpability Of Child Soldiers Under International Criminal Law, Ally Mcqueen Jan 2019

Falling Through The Gap: The Culpability Of Child Soldiers Under International Criminal Law, Ally Mcqueen

Notre Dame Law Review Online

This Essay, in Part I, will begin with an overview of the use of child soldiers in armed conflicts around the world. Part II will explore provisions within the Geneva Conventions, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Beijing Rules that are applicable to child soldiers and can shed some light on their culpability after an armed conflict. In Part III, this Essay will then discuss the varying degrees to which international criminal tribunals and the International Criminal Court have addressed the criminal responsibility of children for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Finally, Part IV will ...


Due Process Of War, Nathan S. Chapman Jan 2019

Due Process Of War, Nathan S. Chapman

Notre Dame Law Review

The application of the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment to the government’s deprivation of rights during war is one of the most challenging and contested questions of constitutional law. The Supreme Court has not provided a consistent or historically informed framework for analyzing due process during war. Based on the English background, the text and history of the U.S. Constitution, and early American practice, this Article argues that due process was originally understood to apply to many but not to all deprivations of rights during war. It proposes a framework for analyzing due process during war ...


Why Federal Courts Apply The Law Of Nations Even Though It Is Not The Supreme Law Of The Land, Anthony J. Bellia, Bradford R. Clark Jan 2018

Why Federal Courts Apply The Law Of Nations Even Though It Is Not The Supreme Law Of The Land, Anthony J. Bellia, Bradford R. Clark

Journal Articles

We are grateful to the judges and scholars who participated in this Symposium examining our book, The Law of Nations and the United States Constitution. One of our goals in writing this book was to reinvigorate and advance the debate over the role of customary international law in U.S. courts. The papers in this Symposium advance this debate by deepening understandings of how the Constitution interacts with customary international law. Our goal in this Article is to address two questions raised by this Symposium that go to the heart of the status of the law of nations under the ...


The More? Uniform Code Of Military Justice (And A Practical Way To Make It Better), Sean Patrick Flynn Jul 2017

The More? Uniform Code Of Military Justice (And A Practical Way To Make It Better), Sean Patrick Flynn

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note offers suggestions for the successful transition of the military sentencing system, in light of the responses to the federal sentencing system. It goes on to argue that ,because sentencing guidelines are detrimental to the defendant, the military sentencing process should offer a guaranteed, but waivable, two days of preparation to the defendant post-conviction and presentencing.


21st Century Arms Control Challenges: Drones, Cyber Weapons, Killer Robots, And Wmds, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2015

21st Century Arms Control Challenges: Drones, Cyber Weapons, Killer Robots, And Wmds, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

The world faces tough arms control challenges from preventing the development and use of weapons of mass destruction to regulating the new weapons of the computer revolution. This article considers what works in arms control. Using military force in violation of international law to destroy nuclear facilities, to stop weapons shipments, or to punish the use of prohibited weapons typically fails. Diplomacy paired with lawful counter-measures has the superior track record. Reviving the art of diplomacy and re-committing to authentic international law will pay dividends in peace and security.


Ungoverned Spaces, Transnational Crime, And The Prohibition On Extraterritorial Enforcement Jurisdiction In International Law, Dan E. Stigall Oct 2013

Ungoverned Spaces, Transnational Crime, And The Prohibition On Extraterritorial Enforcement Jurisdiction In International Law, Dan E. Stigall

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

This Article explicates the international legal framework governing State action against transnational crime; it also explores the disparity in what international law permits military actors to do in situations of armed conflict versus what actions civilians may undertake in the course of extraterritorial law enforcement operations. This Article argues that the trend of militarization in the U.S. approach to transnational crime law is, in part, a function of this legal disparity and that this trend could be reversed a degree if international law recognized a greater degree of flexibility for certain limited categories of extraterritorial law enforcement actions by ...


The Choice Of Law Against Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2010

The Choice Of Law Against Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

The Obama administration has continued to apply the wartime paradigm first developed by the Bush administration after 9/11 to respond to terrorism. In cases of trials before military commissions, indefinite detention, and targeted killing, the U.S. has continued to claim wartime privileges even with respect to persons and situations far from any battlefield. This article argues that both administrations have made a basic error in the choice of law. Wartime privileges may be claimed when armed conflict conditions prevail as defined by international law. These privileges are not triggered by declarations or policy preferences.


Honduras: Coup D’Etat In Constitutional Clothing?, Douglass Cassel Jan 2009

Honduras: Coup D’Etat In Constitutional Clothing?, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Preserving The Peace: The Continuing Ban On War Between States, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2007

Preserving The Peace: The Continuing Ban On War Between States, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

The history of international law is, in large part, about the development of restraints on states' right to resort to force in dealing with external conflicts. Today, states may use force only in self-defense to an armed attack or with Security Council authorization. Even in these cases, states may use force only as a last resort, and then only if doing so will not disproportionately harm civilians, their property, or the natural environment. These rules restricting force are found in treaties (especially the United Nations Charter), customary international law, and the general principles of international law. In other words, the ...


Defending Human Rights In The "War" Against Terror, Douglass Cassel Jan 2006

Defending Human Rights In The "War" Against Terror, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Washington's "War Against Terrorism" And Human Rights: The View From Abroad, Douglass Cassel Jan 2006

Washington's "War Against Terrorism" And Human Rights: The View From Abroad, Douglass Cassel

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The End Of Legitimacy, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2004

The End Of Legitimacy, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Legal Case Against The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2004

The Legal Case Against The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


To Kill Or Capture Suspects In The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2003

To Kill Or Capture Suspects In The Global War On Terror, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

Presents a speech by law professor Mary Ellen O'Connell, delivered at the Case Western Reserve School of Law's War Crimes Research Symposium, February 28, 2003. Legal implications of pursuing terror suspects using military action by the U.S. government; Components of armed conflict; Analysis of the United States' involvement in the internal armed conflict in the Philippines.


Lawful Self-Defense To Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2002

Lawful Self-Defense To Terrorism, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Claims Resolution Tribunal And Holocaust Claims Against Swiss Banks, Roger P. Alford Jan 2002

The Claims Resolution Tribunal And Holocaust Claims Against Swiss Banks, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

This article discusses the legal challenges for implementing settlements for Holocaust reparation claims to Swiss bank accounts. It specifically discusses the activities related to the settlement of these claims undertaken by the Independent Committtee of Eminent Persons (Volcker Commission). The article's first section presents historical information about Holocaust claims against Swiss banks. Specifically, it attempts to answer the question of why it has taken so long for Holocaust reparation claims against Swiss banks to be processed. The author blames this delay primarily on the obfuscation by the Swiss banks and the inattention of the Swiss government[,] which is indicated ...


American Exceptionalism And The International Law Of Self-Defense, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2002

American Exceptionalism And The International Law Of Self-Defense, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


On War As Hell, Roger P. Alford Jan 2002

On War As Hell, Roger P. Alford

Journal Articles

This article addresses the question of the proper international standard for war reparations. War reparations are especially hard on the credibility and efficacy of international law. Wars are hard because the suffering is so great and reparations so onerous that often there is no mutuality of interest between the victorious governments and their own constituent victims. Wars force victorious States to make hard choices between looking backward to repair the harm caused to constituent victims and looking forward to a relationship with a potential strong and strategic ally. Just as the conduct of war, in its great features, is...policy ...


Elihu Root And Crisis Prevention, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 2001

Elihu Root And Crisis Prevention, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Terrorism, Territorial Sovereignty, And The Forcible Apprehension Of International Criminals Abroad, Jimmy Gurule Jan 1994

Terrorism, Territorial Sovereignty, And The Forcible Apprehension Of International Criminals Abroad, Jimmy Gurule

Journal Articles

Examines current international law governing use of force extraterritorially; in light of the Alvarez-Machain case in which a Mexican national suspected of murder was forcibly extradited to stand trial in the US.


Continuing Limits On Un Intervention In Civil War, Mary Ellen O'Connell Jan 1992

Continuing Limits On Un Intervention In Civil War, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


On Clandestine Warfare, Robert E. Rodes Jan 1982

On Clandestine Warfare, Robert E. Rodes

Journal Articles

Common moral judgments on many types of clandestine warfare, referred to by some as terrorism, seem to be more nuanced and less severe than our current legal judgments. This paper begins by offering a detailed typology of clandestine operations and measures to combat them, a few general reflections on the laws of war, and a critique of those laws as they now stand. It then proposes a substantial revision of the laws which govern clandestine warfare based on four basic principles of the laws and the morality of just war: the independence of jus in bello from the jus ad ...


Military Action In Labor Disputes, William Burns Lawless Jan 1943

Military Action In Labor Disputes, William Burns Lawless

Journal Articles

Generally, we may say that the executive power to initiate military action is commensurate with the emergency. If the situation is grave, the civil courts may be closed and a military commission appointed by the governor to substitute for the judiciary. In all events the power is potentially a vast one. Discriminate, ly applied it bargains a temporary suspension of rights for a restoration of law and order.


Constitutional Law - War Powers Of Congress (Validity Of Conscription Act), Francis Joseph Vurpillat Jan 1920

Constitutional Law - War Powers Of Congress (Validity Of Conscription Act), Francis Joseph Vurpillat

Journal Articles

This paper was read before The Round Table of South Bend, Indiana, and before the classes in constitutional law prior to the rendition of the decision by the United States Supreme Court, sustaining the Conscription Act. The paper is here presented in its original form, by request, on account of its controversial character and legal-brief style, the subject-matter of constitutional law and war powers being ever new to students of the law.