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Articles 1 - 30 of 5755

Full-Text Articles in Law

Prevailing Wage Legislation And The Continuing Significance Of Race, David E. Bernstein Apr 2018

Prevailing Wage Legislation And The Continuing Significance Of Race, David E. Bernstein

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Reforming By Re-Norming: How The Legal System Has The Potential To Change A Toxic Culture Of Domestic Violence, Melissa L. Breger Apr 2018

Reforming By Re-Norming: How The Legal System Has The Potential To Change A Toxic Culture Of Domestic Violence, Melissa L. Breger

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


"Thou Shalt Not Ration Justice": The Importance Of Autism Insurance Reform For Military Autism Families, And The Economic And National Security Implications Of Improving Access To Aba Therapy Under Tricare, Ariana Cernius Apr 2018

"Thou Shalt Not Ration Justice": The Importance Of Autism Insurance Reform For Military Autism Families, And The Economic And National Security Implications Of Improving Access To Aba Therapy Under Tricare, Ariana Cernius

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Sentencing Enhancement For Aggravating Role: The Need For The Numerosity Test As The Legal Standard For The "Otherwise Extensive" Criminal Activity Determination, Nicole Borczyk Apr 2018

Sentencing Enhancement For Aggravating Role: The Need For The Numerosity Test As The Legal Standard For The "Otherwise Extensive" Criminal Activity Determination, Nicole Borczyk

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


The Pragmatic Disappointment Of State Preemption: The 2016 Defend Trade Secrets Act And Its Failure To Protect Employee Whistleblowers From Federal Computer Crime Law, Kristine Craig Apr 2018

The Pragmatic Disappointment Of State Preemption: The 2016 Defend Trade Secrets Act And Its Failure To Protect Employee Whistleblowers From Federal Computer Crime Law, Kristine Craig

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


The Criminalization Of School Choice: Punishing The Poor For The Inequities Of Geographic School Districting, La Darien Harris Apr 2018

The Criminalization Of School Choice: Punishing The Poor For The Inequities Of Geographic School Districting, La Darien Harris

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


Rejoining Moral Culpability With Criminal Liability: Reconsideration Of The Felony Murder Doctrine For The Current Time, William Bald Apr 2018

Rejoining Moral Culpability With Criminal Liability: Reconsideration Of The Felony Murder Doctrine For The Current Time, William Bald

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


The Ambiguous Ambiguity Inquiry: Seeking To Clarify Judicial Determinations Of Clarity Versus Ambiguity In Statutory Interpretation, Meredith A. Holland Mar 2018

The Ambiguous Ambiguity Inquiry: Seeking To Clarify Judicial Determinations Of Clarity Versus Ambiguity In Statutory Interpretation, Meredith A. Holland

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will apply Judge Kavanaugh’s proposed mechanism to the interpretation of the Title IX prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex. Part I discusses recent cases decided by the Roberts Court that demonstrate the difficulties with the current jurisprudential approach to the clarity versus ambiguity determination. Part II explores Judge Kavanaugh’s recent proposal for reducing threshold findings of ambiguity. Part III considers various interpretive methods and applies Judge Kavanaugh’s proposal in the context of Title IX. Finally, this Note concludes that Judge Kavanaugh’s approach, while most dramatically transforming the purposivist approach, also has consequences ...


Extremist Speech, Compelled Conformity, And Censorship Creep, Danielle Keats Citron Mar 2018

Extremist Speech, Compelled Conformity, And Censorship Creep, Danielle Keats Citron

Notre Dame Law Review

Silicon Valley has long been viewed as a full-throated champion of First Amendment values. The dominant online platforms, however, have recently adopted speech policies and processes that depart from the U.S. model. In an agreement with the European Commission, the dominant tech companies have pledged to respond to reports of hate speech within twenty-four hours, a hasty process that may trade valuable expression for speedy results. Plans have been announced for an industry database that will allow the same companies to share hashed images of banned extremist content for review and removal elsewhere. These changes are less the result ...


Computationally Assisted Regulatory Participation, Michael A. Livermore, Vladimir Eidelman, Brian Grom Mar 2018

Computationally Assisted Regulatory Participation, Michael A. Livermore, Vladimir Eidelman, Brian Grom

Notre Dame Law Review

With the increased politicization of agency rulemaking and the reduced cost of participating in the notice-and-comment rulemaking process, administrative agencies have, in recent years, found themselves deluged in a flood of public comments. In this Article, we argue that this deluge presents both challenges and opportunities, and we explore how advances in natural language processing technologies can help agencies address the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities created by the recent growth of public participation in the regulatory process. We also examine how scholars of public bureaucracies can use this important new publicly available data to better understand how ...


Solitary Troubles, Alexander A. Reinert Mar 2018

Solitary Troubles, Alexander A. Reinert

Notre Dame Law Review

Solitary confinement is one of the most severe forms of punishment that can be inflicted on human beings. In recent years, the use of extreme isolation in our prisons and jails has been questioned by correctional officials, medical experts, and reform advocates alike. Yet for nearly the entirety of American history, judicial regulation of the practice has been extremely limited. This Article explains why judges hesitate to question the use of solitary confinement, while also providing a path forward for greater scrutiny of the practice.


Regulating Complacency: Human Limitations And Legal Efficacy, Steven L. Schwarcz Mar 2018

Regulating Complacency: Human Limitations And Legal Efficacy, Steven L. Schwarcz

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article examines how insights into limited human rationality can improve financial regulation. The Article identifies four categories of limitations—herd behavior, cognitive biases, overreliance on heuristics, and a proclivity to panic—that undermine the perfect-market regulatory assumptions that parties have full information and will act in their rational self-interest. The Article then analyzes how insights into these limitations can be used to correct resulting market failures. Requiring more robust disclosure and due diligence, for example, can help to reduce reliance on misleading information cascades that motivate herd behavior. Debiasing through law, such as requiring more specific, poignant, and concrete ...


Progressive Genetic Ownership, Jessica L. Roberts Mar 2018

Progressive Genetic Ownership, Jessica L. Roberts

Notre Dame Law Review

Recently, property law scholars have challenged neoclassical economic theory as the primary lens for understanding ownership. As an alternative to the all-too-familiar concepts of welfarism, rational choice theory, and cost-benefit analysis, they offer “progressive property,” a school of thought grounded in value pluralism, communitarianism, and redistribution. To date, much of the progressive property literature has focused exclusively on land use. This Article tests the versatility of this new property school by applying it to a novel context: genetic ownership. As with real property, discussions surrounding genetic ownership have been entrenched in the language of neoclassical economics. Given the proliferation of ...


The Breakdown Of International Treaties, Jide Nzelibe Mar 2018

The Breakdown Of International Treaties, Jide Nzelibe

Notre Dame Law Review

“[A] cause seldom triumphs unless somebody’s personal interest is bound up with it.” In the past few years, we have witnessed a rise in antiglobalization sentiment in which certain treaties have succumbed to domestic political backlash. But why are particular treaties susceptible to breakdown while others tend to be more resilient? Paradoxically, this Article argues that the fragility of treaties follows a peculiar logic: treaties are most vulnerable to breakdown or withdrawal if they were originally negotiated in the absence of social conflict among domestic groups. The reason is that, having been negotiated and ratified with hardly any political ...


The Canon Of Rational Basis Review, Katie R. Eyer Mar 2018

The Canon Of Rational Basis Review, Katie R. Eyer

Notre Dame Law Review

The modern constitutional law canon fundamentally misdescribes rational basis review. Through a series of errors—of omission, simplification, and recharacterization—we have largely erased a robust history of the use of rational basis review by social movements to generate constitutional change. Instead, the story the canon tells is one of dismal prospects for challengers of government action—in which rational basis review is an empty, almost meaningless form of review.

This Article suggests that far from the weak and ineffectual mechanism that most contemporary accounts suggest, rational basis review has, in the modern era, served as one of the primary ...


Qui Tam Litigation Against Government Officials: Constitutional Implications Of A Neglected History, Randy Beck Mar 2018

Qui Tam Litigation Against Government Officials: Constitutional Implications Of A Neglected History, Randy Beck

Notre Dame Law Review

The Supreme Court concluded twenty-five years ago, in Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, that uninjured private plaintiffs may not litigate “generalized grievances” about the legality of executive branch conduct. According to the Lujan Court, Congress lacked power to authorize suit by a plaintiff who could not establish some “particularized” injury from the challenged conduct. The Court believed litigation to require executive branch legal compliance, brought by an uninjured private party, is not a “case” or “controversy” within the Article III judicial power and impermissibly reassigns the President’s Article II responsibility to “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed ...


Incorrigible Students: A Criminal Oxymoron?, Shannon Lewry Mar 2018

Incorrigible Students: A Criminal Oxymoron?, Shannon Lewry

Notre Dame Law Review

The Note proceeds in two Parts. The remainder of the Introduction presents a closed door: the Supreme Court’s hesitancy, to date, to find juvenile- life-without-parole sentences unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment. After exploring the contours of the closed Door, the Introduction turns to an open window: education law. This, I argue, may be wielded to attack the lawfulness of juvenile-life-without-parole sentences on wholly nonconstitutional grounds. The Introduction concludes with remarks regarding this Note’s relevance and timeliness. Part I tracks the Note’s central argument, premise by premise, that state compulsory education laws and juvenilelife- without-parole sentences are wholly ...


Letter From The Editor, Annie Bach Yen Nguyen Feb 2018

Letter From The Editor, Annie Bach Yen Nguyen

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The Notre Dame Journal of International and Comparative Law, Volume 8, Issue 1 (2018).


Masthead Volume 8 Feb 2018

Masthead Volume 8

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Amateur Vs. Professional In Cold War Hockey: A Consideration Of Relative Skill Levels And Their Implications For Professional Hockey Today, John Soares Feb 2018

Amateur Vs. Professional In Cold War Hockey: A Consideration Of Relative Skill Levels And Their Implications For Professional Hockey Today, John Soares

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Americans who follow sports often consider amateur sport inferior, by definition, to the skill level of professionals. This article argues that during the 1970s and 1980s, new competitions between amateur (mainly Soviet and Czechoslovakian) and professional (mostly Canadian and American) hockey teams demonstrated that the amateur game could be as skilled –or even more so – than the professional counterpart. The article considers the problematic nature of “amateurism,” international rules changes that made possible the new amateur-vs.-professional competitions, and the results of some of these Cold War confrontations. It concludes with consideration of the relative merits of styles of play ...


The Vatican View On Sport At The Service Of Humanity, Ed Edmonds Feb 2018

The Vatican View On Sport At The Service Of Humanity, Ed Edmonds

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Participation in sport, particularly the opportunity for children to enjoy and learn through play, is a human right and strongly supported by the goals of Catholic social teaching and the efforts of the Olympic Movement and the United Nations. On October 5-6, 2016, the Vatican held the Sport at the Service of Humanity Conference, the first global conference on sport and faith, an initiative promoted by Pope Francis and supported by the International Olympic Committee and the United Nations. This essay focuses on the conference, its vision and goals, and a challenge to use sport to advance human development and ...


Forced Evictions, Homelessness, And Destruction: Summer "Games"? Olympic Violations Of The Right To Adequate Housing In Rio De Janeiro, Leigha C. Crout Feb 2018

Forced Evictions, Homelessness, And Destruction: Summer "Games"? Olympic Violations Of The Right To Adequate Housing In Rio De Janeiro, Leigha C. Crout

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

This article details the violations of the right to housing that took place in preparation for the 2016 Summer Olympics held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analyzed under the international, regional, and domestic instruments that enumerate this guarantee, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, the Charter and the Declaration of the Rights and Duties of the Organization of American States, and the Constitution of Brazil, the aim of this work is to draw attention to the systematic deprivation of one of the most central human rights in the name of the Games.


Fairness At A Price: Protecting The Integrity Of Athletic Competitions At The Expense Of Female Athletes, Annie Bach Yen Nguyen Feb 2018

Fairness At A Price: Protecting The Integrity Of Athletic Competitions At The Expense Of Female Athletes, Annie Bach Yen Nguyen

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

Ever since women were allowed to compete in the Olympics, they have been subjected to some form of gender verification. Initially, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) required female athletes to present certificates from their doctors confirming that they were in fact women. In 1966, the IOC and the IAAF “decided they couldn’t trust individual nations to certify femininity, and instead implemented a mandatory genital check of every woman competing at international games.” This process was dubbed the “nude parades”. In response to the overwhelming disapproval of such examination, the IOC and IAAF began ...


Internet Safe Harbors And The Transformation Of Copyright Law, Matthew Sag Jan 2018

Internet Safe Harbors And The Transformation Of Copyright Law, Matthew Sag

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article explores the potential displacement of substantive copyright law in the increasingly important online environment. In 1998, Congress enacted a system of intermediary safe harbors as part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The internet safe harbors and the associated system of notice-and-takedown fundamentally changed the incentives of platforms, users, and rightsholders in relation to claims of copyright infringement. These different incentives interact to yield a functional balance of copyright online that diverges markedly from the experience of copyright law in traditional media environments. More recently, private agreements between rightsholders and large commercial internet platforms have been made ...


Active Judging And Access To Justice, Anna E. Carpenter Jan 2018

Active Judging And Access To Justice, Anna E. Carpenter

Notre Dame Law Review

“Being a good judge in this environment means unlearning what you learned in law school about what a judge is supposed to do. Fairness is doing things a federal judge would never do.”

Active judging, where judges step away from the traditional, passive role to assist those without counsel, is a central feature of recent proposals aimed at solving the pro se crisis in America’s state civil courts. Despite growing support for active judging as an access to justice intervention, we know little, empirically, about how judges interact with pro se parties as a general matter, and even less ...


The Nondelegation Doctrine: Alive And Well, Jason Iuliano, Keith E. Whittington Jan 2018

The Nondelegation Doctrine: Alive And Well, Jason Iuliano, Keith E. Whittington

Notre Dame Law Review

The nondelegation doctrine is dead. It is difficult to think of a more frequently repeated or widely accepted legal conclusion. For generations, scholars have maintained that the doctrine was cast aside by the New Deal Court and is now nothing more than a historical curiosity. In this Article, we argue that the conventional wisdom is mistaken in an important respect.

Drawing on an original dataset of more than one thousand nondelegation challenges, we find that, although the doctrine has disappeared at the federal level, it has thrived at the state level. In fact, in the decades since the New Deal ...


Trademarks And Private Environmental Governance, David E. Adelman, Graeme W. Austin Jan 2018

Trademarks And Private Environmental Governance, David E. Adelman, Graeme W. Austin

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article examines the relationship between private environmental governance and trademark law. Over the past two decades, green trademarks and other forms of private governance have flourished in tandem with the retreat from national and international public law modalities of environmental regulation. The rising political opposition to environmental regulation partly accounts for this change. Also relevant is the rise of globalization, which due to jurisdictional and trade constraints has diminished the effective regulatory control countries have over products sold in their markets.

Private environmental governance is premised on consumers “voting with their wallets” by selecting products that reflect not just ...


Structural Change In State Postconviction Review, Lee Kovarsky Jan 2018

Structural Change In State Postconviction Review, Lee Kovarsky

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article's ultimate objectives are to diagnose, predict, and evaluate structural change in State PCR. Because claims and evidence necessary to enforce constitutional rights increasingly require a meaningful collateral forum, and because the federal collateral forum is so limited, State PCR is, for lack of a better term, the Last Man Standing. That status is not lost on the Supreme Court and lower federal judges, who are adapting available legal rules to try to improve the efficacy of collateral process in state court. And such adaptation does add to the bite of criminal-process rights, the underenforcement of which is ...


Disciplining Deference: Strengthening The Role Of The Federal Courts In The National Security Realm, Dominic X. Barceleau Jan 2018

Disciplining Deference: Strengthening The Role Of The Federal Courts In The National Security Realm, Dominic X. Barceleau

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will argue that federal courts need to be more “disciplined” in their deference determinations in order to effectively check the Executive’s power. Part I will look at the Constitution and its allocation of foreign relations powers for evidence of the appropriate amount of deference that ought to be shown by the judiciary. While the text of the Constitution is largely silent on this question, Part I will show that this silence does not exclude a role for the judiciary in foreign affairs. Part II will proceed to discuss several important Supreme Court decisions that have helped to ...


Michigan's Religious Exemption For Faith-Based Adoption Agencies: State-Sanctioned Discrimination Or Guardian Of Religious Liberty?, Allison L. Mcqueen Jan 2018

Michigan's Religious Exemption For Faith-Based Adoption Agencies: State-Sanctioned Discrimination Or Guardian Of Religious Liberty?, Allison L. Mcqueen

Notre Dame Law Review

Historically, most of the legal obstacles faced by gay couples hoping to expand their families through adoption stemmed from prohibitions on marriage. That was until Obergefell. Barriers to same-sex adoption have been steadily falling over the past decade, and, in the wake of the Supreme Court’s decision, married couples are now able to adopt in every state. However, there remains one pressing barrier to adoption for same-sex couples: “conscience clause” adoption laws enacted to allow faith-based adoption agencies to turn away prospective parents whose sexuality conflicts with their “sincerely held religious beliefs.” Though Ms. DeBoer and Ms. Rowse successfully ...