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Full-Text Articles in Law

Categories Of Anti-Obviousness Case Law: (1) Laundry Lists; (2) Redundant Advantages; And (3) Advantage Not Needed And Not Relevant, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 395 (2018), Tom Brody Jan 2018

Categories Of Anti-Obviousness Case Law: (1) Laundry Lists; (2) Redundant Advantages; And (3) Advantage Not Needed And Not Relevant, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 395 (2018), Tom Brody

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Obviousness rejections are most commonly rebutted by arguments that the prior art fails to disclose all the claim elements or that the examiner had failed to assert a proper rationale for combining references. Additional rebuttal strategies include those based on Federal Circuit case law on: (1) Non-analogous art, (2) Rendering the prior art unsatisfactory for its intended purpose, (3) Proposed modification cannot change the principle of operation of a reference, (4) Redundant advantages, (5) Advantage provided by the secondary reference is not needed by and not relevant to the primary reference, (6) Disparate references, (7) Context differs between cited references ...


Knowledge/Skill Standards Of A "Person Skilled In Art": A Concern Less Visited, 17 Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 588 (2018), Naina Khanna, Jasmeet Gulati Jan 2018

Knowledge/Skill Standards Of A "Person Skilled In Art": A Concern Less Visited, 17 Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 588 (2018), Naina Khanna, Jasmeet Gulati

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The law is differential across jurisdictions when it comes to the skill standard required for the PSITA/PHOSITA in Patent Law. This article will analyze the various levels of skill addressed throughout European, Indian, and U.S. Patent Law. Whether the level of skill be ‘ordinary’, ‘extraordinary’ or otherwise, discrepencies exist throughout the court systems, manuals of examination and the like. Much hinges on the determination of patentability when the expertise or level of skill of the PSITA/PHOSITA is often vague and indeterminative. It is submitted that since the advancement in technology is taking place at a very rapid ...


The Supreme Court: A Help Or A Hindrance To The Federal Circuit's Mission?, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 298 (2018), Donald Dunner Jan 2018

The Supreme Court: A Help Or A Hindrance To The Federal Circuit's Mission?, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 298 (2018), Donald Dunner

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Before the establishment of the Federal Circuit, the system of patent enforcement was deeply flawed, with the circuit courts then responsible for reviewing district court patent decisions harboring widely varying attitudinal views in the interpretation of the patent law. Suggestions for solving the problem through a single specialized appellate patent court were consistently rejected due to general hostility to specialized courts. The formation of the Federal Circuit in 1982 initially appeared to solve the problem in providing uniform and predictable rules governing the enforcement of patents, an essential aspect of the court’s mission. The Supreme Court did not provide ...


The Trademark Disclaimer Provision Of The Lanham Act: Is Uspto Flexibility Worth Litigant Ambiguity?, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 305 (2018), Scott Locke Jan 2018

The Trademark Disclaimer Provision Of The Lanham Act: Is Uspto Flexibility Worth Litigant Ambiguity?, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 305 (2018), Scott Locke

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Most trademark applicants and the attorneys who counsel them are familiar with the requirement that they disclaim terms within their trademarks because those terms are descriptive or generic. The United States Patent and Trademark Office’s authority to direct applicants to disclaim terms is codified in the Trademark Disclaimer Provision of the Lanham Act, which provides examiners with a great deal of discretion. The same provision has been interpreted as providing applicants with the options of: taking conflicting positions, e.g., that the term is neither descriptive nor generic in the context of their marks, when asserting common law rights ...


Failure Is Not Falling Down But Refusing To Get Up: Implication Of Huawei/Zte Framework (Cjeu 2015) In Europe, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 326 (2018), Ashish Bharadwaj, Dipinn Verma Jan 2018

Failure Is Not Falling Down But Refusing To Get Up: Implication Of Huawei/Zte Framework (Cjeu 2015) In Europe, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 326 (2018), Ashish Bharadwaj, Dipinn Verma

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The jurisprudence on standard-essential patents (SEPs) has evolved substantially in the last few years, particularly in the European jurisdictions, where EU courts have dealt with certain FRAND and antitrust issues in an unambiguous and novel manner. The 2015 landmark judgement in Huawei v. ZTE by the Court of Justice of the European Union brought clarity in understanding ‘unwilling licensee’ and laid down terms under which the holder of a FRAND-compliant SEP can seek injunctive relief that does not amount to an abuse of its dominant position. Four important judgements in Germany followed, where the regional courts have applied the CJEU ...


Deja Vu Or Copyright Infringement? Why Melania Trump Infringed On Michelle Obama's Copyrighted Speech Through Subconscious Copying, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 360 (2018), Danielle Mobley Jan 2018

Deja Vu Or Copyright Infringement? Why Melania Trump Infringed On Michelle Obama's Copyrighted Speech Through Subconscious Copying, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 360 (2018), Danielle Mobley

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

In 2016, Melania Trump recited a beautiful speech at the Republican National Convention that had portions which sounded exactly like a speech given by Michelle Obama at the Democratic National Convention in 2008. Mrs. Trump feigned ignorance of the 2008 DNC speech, and essentially the speech was superseded by another news story within a week. While some critics claim plagiarism, Mrs. Obama could have a potential copyright infringement claim against Mrs. Trump based on the context of the speech, the actual portions lifted from Mrs. Obama’s speech, and the doctrine of subconscious copying. This article first examines the elements ...


The Slants Decision Understates The Value Of Trademark Registration In Promoting Speech - Correctly Decided With A Conclusory Analysis, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 380 (2018), David Brezina Jan 2018

The Slants Decision Understates The Value Of Trademark Registration In Promoting Speech - Correctly Decided With A Conclusory Analysis, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 380 (2018), David Brezina

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The highly anticipated case of Matal v. Tam resulted in the band, The Slants, eventually being able to register their band name as a trademark, with a goal in mind to reclaim Asian stereotypes. Despite this decision, it is not immediately clear how having a registration enhances the registrant’s right to use the mark as a part of free speech, when the Court observes that Tam could call his band The Slants even without registration. This article touches on the Tam case, by analyzing both the positive and negative rights that federal trademark registration yields. By expanding on a ...


Delaying Competition: How Sound Public Policy And Rigorous Antitrust Scrutiny Can Be Applied To Controversial Patent Settlements, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 655 (2018), Sam Hensel Jan 2018

Delaying Competition: How Sound Public Policy And Rigorous Antitrust Scrutiny Can Be Applied To Controversial Patent Settlements, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 655 (2018), Sam Hensel

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The rising costs of prescription drugs are a growing concern for many Americans. The restraint of trade for pharmaceutical drugs is a cause of rising costs for consumers, as companies seek to push potential competitors out of the market to maintain profits. This unlawful restraint of trade will be discussed in this comment. Specifically, this comment will focus on "Pay for Delay" agreements, mostly between generic versus brand name pharmaceutical manufacturers. The proliferation of these agreements only leads to an unsustainable market that discourages innovation and advancement, and promotes fraud, as invalid patents are used as leverage to prevent generics ...


A Battle Between Moral Rights And Freedom Of Expression: How Would Moral Rights Empower The "Charging Bull" Against The "Fearless Girl"?, 117 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 672 (2018), Tzu-I Lee Jan 2018

A Battle Between Moral Rights And Freedom Of Expression: How Would Moral Rights Empower The "Charging Bull" Against The "Fearless Girl"?, 117 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 672 (2018), Tzu-I Lee

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


The Balances Of Two Trademark Rights: Generation Systems In Japan's Trademark Laws, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 608 (2018), Weiguang Wu Jan 2018

The Balances Of Two Trademark Rights: Generation Systems In Japan's Trademark Laws, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 608 (2018), Weiguang Wu

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

This article consists of 6 sections. In Section I, the article mainly introduces the basic theory of a trademark right as a private right and its purpose. A trademark right as a private right is purposeful to protect goodwill of trademark users, which is their labor fruits during trademark use in the course of business. A trademark right generated by use is called a right subsisting upon use (RSUU) system, which is mainly adopted in common law countries. A trademark right generated by registration is called a right subsisting upon registration (RSUR) system, which is mainly adopted by civil law ...


Oversharenting: Is It Really Your Story To Tell?, 33 J. Marshall J. Info. Tech. & Privacy L. 121 (2018), Holly Kathleen Hall Jan 2018

Oversharenting: Is It Really Your Story To Tell?, 33 J. Marshall J. Info. Tech. & Privacy L. 121 (2018), Holly Kathleen Hall

The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

Social media is about sharing information. If you are a parent, often the tendency is to relate every aspect of your children’s lives. Most of the time, children do not consent to postings about them and will have a permanent digital shadow created by their parents that follows them the rest of their lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the current status and potential future of children’s online privacy from a comparative legal approach, highlighting recent case law in the United Kingdom, which is trending toward carving out special privacy rights for children. This contrasts ...


Nothing Personal, It’S Just Business: How Google’S Course Of Business Operates At The Expense Of Consumer Privacy, 33 J. Marshall J. Info. Tech. & Privacy L. 187 (2018), Kayla Mckinnon Jan 2018

Nothing Personal, It’S Just Business: How Google’S Course Of Business Operates At The Expense Of Consumer Privacy, 33 J. Marshall J. Info. Tech. & Privacy L. 187 (2018), Kayla Mckinnon

The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

No abstract provided.


Are “Evan’S Law” And The Textalyzer Immediate Solutions To Today’S Rapid Changes In Technology Or Encroachments On Drivers’ Privacy Rights?, 33 J. Marshall J. Info. Tech. & Privacy L. 143 (2018), Aggie Baumert Jan 2018

Are “Evan’S Law” And The Textalyzer Immediate Solutions To Today’S Rapid Changes In Technology Or Encroachments On Drivers’ Privacy Rights?, 33 J. Marshall J. Info. Tech. & Privacy L. 143 (2018), Aggie Baumert

The John Marshall Journal of Information Technology & Privacy Law

No abstract provided.


Biologics As The New Antitrust Frontier: Reflections, Riposte, And Recommendations, 2018 U. Ill. L. Rev. Online 209 (2018), Daryl Lim Jan 2018

Biologics As The New Antitrust Frontier: Reflections, Riposte, And Recommendations, 2018 U. Ill. L. Rev. Online 209 (2018), Daryl Lim

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Bridges Ii: The Law–Stem Alliance & Next Generation Innovation, 112 Nw. U. L. Rev. Online 146 (2018), Daryl Lim Jan 2018

Bridges Ii: The Law–Stem Alliance & Next Generation Innovation, 112 Nw. U. L. Rev. Online 146 (2018), Daryl Lim

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A (Not So) Simple Question: Does Title Ix Encompass “Gender”?, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 225 (2018), J. Brad Reich Jan 2018

A (Not So) Simple Question: Does Title Ix Encompass “Gender”?, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 225 (2018), J. Brad Reich

The John Marshall Law Review

This article has five sections. Section I looks at critical, operational, definitions of “sex” and “gender.” As we shall see, the terms are not synonyms. That distinction is important as section II takes us back to Title IX’s original text. That language prohibited discrimination based on sex, but it remains silent on the issue of gender. Section III then examines how Title IX evolved in terms of depth, breadth, and scope. The most recent expansion brought campus sexual violence procedures under Title IX. That development may be particularly thought provoking as sexual violence, like gender, is not part of ...


Substantive Due Process: The Trojan Horse Of Judicial Legislation, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 261 (2018), Daniel Kelly Jan 2018

Substantive Due Process: The Trojan Horse Of Judicial Legislation, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 261 (2018), Daniel Kelly

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


Evader, Avoider, Or None Of The Above? Shedding Light On The Implications Of The Illinois Employee Classification Act On Small Construction Contractors, And Considerations For Their Exemption, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 341 (2018), Taso Tsiganos Jan 2018

Evader, Avoider, Or None Of The Above? Shedding Light On The Implications Of The Illinois Employee Classification Act On Small Construction Contractors, And Considerations For Their Exemption, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 341 (2018), Taso Tsiganos

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Parent’S Final Sacrifice: Self-Incrimination In Failure To Protect Cases, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 377 (2018), Maggie Butzen Jan 2018

A Parent’S Final Sacrifice: Self-Incrimination In Failure To Protect Cases, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 377 (2018), Maggie Butzen

The John Marshall Law Review

When criminal proceedings commence, the passive parent is forced to choose the lesser of two evils: testify and risk selfincrimination or guard their constitutional right and risk the person who abused them and their child going free.14 The passive parent exists at a crossroads: defendant, parent, and victim. The main purpose of this Comment is to analyze this crossroads under a Fifth Amendment lens and propose a workable solution to allow these passive parents a way to better navigate these “two evils.” To be clear: this Comment’s purpose is not to assert whether a passive parent should be ...


Smart Machines And Smarter Policy: Foreign Investment Regulation, National Security, And Technology Transfer In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 279 (2018), Justin Shields Jan 2018

Smart Machines And Smarter Policy: Foreign Investment Regulation, National Security, And Technology Transfer In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 279 (2018), Justin Shields

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


Uber’S Arbitration Trickery: Mohamed’S Holding, The New Era Of Limiting The Scope Of Administrative Protection And The Vindication Of Rights Doctrine, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 439 (2018), Kerby Kniss Jan 2018

Uber’S Arbitration Trickery: Mohamed’S Holding, The New Era Of Limiting The Scope Of Administrative Protection And The Vindication Of Rights Doctrine, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 439 (2018), Kerby Kniss

The John Marshall Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Meaning Of Gravity At The International Criminal Court: A Survey Of Attitudes About The Seriousness Of Mass Atrocities, 24 U.C. Davis J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 209 (2018), Stuart Ford Jan 2018

The Meaning Of Gravity At The International Criminal Court: A Survey Of Attitudes About The Seriousness Of Mass Atrocities, 24 U.C. Davis J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 209 (2018), Stuart Ford

Faculty Scholarship

Gravity is an enormously important concept at the International Criminal Court (ICC). The word appears nine times in the Rome Statute and is crucial at every stage of the proceedings. It is an important factor in decisions about which situations to investigate, which individuals the court will try, and what sentences to impose on those convicted of violating international criminal law.

Gravity may also be important for the long-term success of the court. The Rome Statute states that the ICC will exercise jurisdiction over “the most serious crimes” that “deeply shock the conscience of humanity.” It also claims that the ...


No More Tiers? Proportionality As An Alternative To Multiple Levels Of Scrutiny In Individual Rights Cases, 38 Pace L. Rev. 384 (2018), Donald L. Beschle Jan 2018

No More Tiers? Proportionality As An Alternative To Multiple Levels Of Scrutiny In Individual Rights Cases, 38 Pace L. Rev. 384 (2018), Donald L. Beschle

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Hierarchy Of The Goals Of International Criminal Courts, 27 Minn. J. Int'l L. 179 (2018), Stuart K. Ford Jan 2018

A Hierarchy Of The Goals Of International Criminal Courts, 27 Minn. J. Int'l L. 179 (2018), Stuart K. Ford

Faculty Scholarship

This Article represents the first attempt to systematically assess and compare the goals of international criminal courts to one another. To compare them, it focuses on their expected value. This is the value of the benefit that would occur if the goal were to be achieved, multiplied by the likelihood that it will be achieved. This approach allows for goals of differing value and likelihood of achievement to be compared to one another. The goal with the highest expected value is the goal that is most important and that international criminal courts should prioritize.

This Article demonstrates that it is ...


Corporate Ethics: Approaches And Implications To Expanding The Corporate Mindset Of Profitability, 49 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 637 (2018), Arthur Acevedo Jan 2018

Corporate Ethics: Approaches And Implications To Expanding The Corporate Mindset Of Profitability, 49 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 637 (2018), Arthur Acevedo

Faculty Scholarship

This Article discusses the convergence of law and ethics in the context of corporations. It begins by detailing past attempts at and limitations on regulating corporate conduct. It then explores the business judgment rule in the context of ethical conduct. Finally, it considers the growing influence of millennials and social investing on corporate conduct, and concludes by cautioning corporate directors to adopt ethical practices in order to remain relevant in the marketplace.


Police, Heroes, And Child Trafficking: Who Cries When Her Attacker Wears Blue?, 18 Nev. L.J. 1007 (2018), Samuel Vincent Jones Jan 2018

Police, Heroes, And Child Trafficking: Who Cries When Her Attacker Wears Blue?, 18 Nev. L.J. 1007 (2018), Samuel Vincent Jones

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Growing Inequality Of Opportunity In Texas: Causes And Solutions, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 309 (2018), Raj Salhotra Jan 2018

Growing Inequality Of Opportunity In Texas: Causes And Solutions, 51 J. Marshall L. Rev. 309 (2018), Raj Salhotra

The John Marshall Law Review

In this paper, I will discuss Texas-specific data regarding inequality, identify causes of rising inequality, and offer policy solutions to remedy the situation. Specifically, in Section II, I will offer data on inequality within Texas. In Section III, I will build a framework to conceptualize the various causes of this growing inequality. In Section IV, I will offer specific solutions to help reduce inequality. For each solution, I will offer a “dream” solution and a “politically-feasible” solution. Finally, in Section V, I will conclude the paper and relate this research back to the American Dream story.


The Rise And Fall Of Fear Of Abuse In Consumer Bankruptcy: Most Recent Comparative Evidence From Europe And Beyond, 96 Tex. L. Rev. 1327 (2018), Jason Kilborn Jan 2018

The Rise And Fall Of Fear Of Abuse In Consumer Bankruptcy: Most Recent Comparative Evidence From Europe And Beyond, 96 Tex. L. Rev. 1327 (2018), Jason Kilborn

Faculty Scholarship

Prepared for a symposium celebrating the groundbreaking career of Jay Westbrook, this Article examines recent evidence of fear of abuse of the benefits of consumer bankruptcy and the gradual abatement of that fear in modern consumer insolvency law reform. It marshals evidence of a recent and accelerating retreat in both the judicial discretion that Westbrook attributed to lawmakers' fear of abuse and other more direct techniques to avoid abusive recourse to consumer discharge. Fear of abuse appears to be diminishing with accumulated experience as indicated by recent liberalizing reforms in Denmark, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, Russia, and Romania. At the same ...


Ahead Of His Time: Cardozo And The Current Debates On Professional Responsibility, 34 Touro L. Rev. 63 (2018), Alberto Bernabe Jan 2018

Ahead Of His Time: Cardozo And The Current Debates On Professional Responsibility, 34 Touro L. Rev. 63 (2018), Alberto Bernabe

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


When Open Source Software Encounters Patents: Blockchain As An Example To Explore The Dilemma And Solutions, 18 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 55 (2018), Huang-Chih Sung Jan 2018

When Open Source Software Encounters Patents: Blockchain As An Example To Explore The Dilemma And Solutions, 18 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 55 (2018), Huang-Chih Sung

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The original blockchain developers set the core programs, development interfaces, and application software of the blockchain as open source software, which are open to all developers for free. They have never thought of collecting royalties by claiming copyright, nor did they apply for patents. Since then, however, many follow-up blockchain developers applied the core programs to further developments and filed a large numbers of patent applications, causing the original blockchain developers to be very concerned about whether these patents will otherwise slow down or even endanger the innovation of blockchain technology. Consequently, finding legal solutions for the conflicts between open ...