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Full-Text Articles in Law

Memorandum From The Office Of Legal Counsel On Presidential Succession, Department Of Justice. Office Of Legal Counsel. Jan 2023

Memorandum From The Office Of Legal Counsel On Presidential Succession, Department Of Justice. Office Of Legal Counsel.

Executive Branch Materials

Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel Memorandum on presidential succession issued during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Roy E. Brownell II secured this document from the papers of Attorney General Herbert Brownell at the Eisenhower Presidential Library.


Medical Harm Without Negligence, Valerie Gutmann Koch Dec 2022

Medical Harm Without Negligence, Valerie Gutmann Koch

Fordham Law Review

In December 2019, seven women from one family underwent highly invasive surgeries based on genetic test results that indicated that each were at significant risk of developing cancer by age seventy. Subsequently, after procedures that (among other things) permanently scarred and disfigured their bodies and ended their chances of having biological children, they learned that their particular mutation was not, in fact, pathogenic.

This Article focuses on a previously under-recognized problem: what happens when a patient’s previously classified pathogenic variant is downgraded to uncertain (or even benign) status? Intuitively, it might seem that the genetic testing company, the surgeons, or …


Second-Best Free Exercise, Christopher C. Lund Dec 2022

Second-Best Free Exercise, Christopher C. Lund

Fordham Law Review

The future of the Free Exercise Clause is up in the air. Thirty years ago, in Employment Division v. Smith, the Supreme Court held the Free Exercise Clause only protected against religious discrimination and did not require exemptions from neutral and generally applicable laws.

Yet despite having an official rule against religious exemptions, the Roberts Court has somehow managed to give religious exemptions in case after case. This illustrates Smith’s waning power—the case has become more of an obstacle for courts to work around than a precedent for courts to obey. But these victories have also come to …


Within A City's Limits: A Local Government's Power To Hold Police Officers Accountable, Josselin Aldana Dec 2022

Within A City's Limits: A Local Government's Power To Hold Police Officers Accountable, Josselin Aldana

Fordham Law Review

When a person’s constitutional rights are violated by a public official, such as a police officer, who acts under color of law, the official can invoke a qualified immunity defense that immunizes the official unless it is clearly established that such action is unlawful. Over the years, the qualified immunity doctrine has developed into a shield that makes it difficult for aggrieved individuals to recover when they are harmed. As a result of nationwide focus on police brutality, four states—Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Mexico—have modified the use of qualified immunity as a defense in state courts for individuals harmed …


The Prison Mailbox Rule: Can Represented Incarcerated Litigants Benefit?, Nico Corti Dec 2022

The Prison Mailbox Rule: Can Represented Incarcerated Litigants Benefit?, Nico Corti

Fordham Law Review

In 1988, the U.S. Supreme Court created the “Prison Mailbox Rule,” which assesses the timeliness of incarcerated litigants’ filings based on the day they hand them to prison authorities. The rule reduces the structural barriers to filing while imprisoned. Although Houston v. Lack highlighted the unique challenges that pro se incarcerated litigants face, the Prison Mailbox Rule’s subsequent federal codifications did not limit its benefits to pro se litigants, despite purportedly “reflecting” the Houston decision. Federal circuit courts of appeal today are split on whether represented people in prison can benefit from the Prison Mailbox Rule, leaving both litigants and …


Closing The Door On Permanent Incorrigibility: Juvenile Life Without Parole After Jones V. Mississippi, Juliet Liu Dec 2022

Closing The Door On Permanent Incorrigibility: Juvenile Life Without Parole After Jones V. Mississippi, Juliet Liu

Fordham Law Review

In April 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Jones v. Mississippi, its latest opinion in a line of cases addressing when, if ever, a child should be sentenced to life in prison with no hope of parole or release. Although Jones purported to resolve division among lower courts over the findings that a sentencing court must make about a child defendant’s character and prospects for reform and rehabilitation, the decision will likely lead to further disagreement among courts.

This Note argues that although the Supreme Court’s jurisprudence has protected children from harsh sentences, it has also opened a Pandora’s …


Let's Get Real: Weak Artificial Intelligence Has Free Speech Rights, James B. Garvey Dec 2022

Let's Get Real: Weak Artificial Intelligence Has Free Speech Rights, James B. Garvey

Fordham Law Review

The right to free speech is a strongly protected constitutional right under the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court significantly expanded free speech protections for corporations in Citizens United v. FEC. This case prompted the question: could other nonhuman actors also be eligible for free speech protection under the First Amendment? This inquiry is no longer a mere intellectual exercise: sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) may soon be capable of producing speech. As such, there are novel and complex questions surrounding the application of the First Amendment to AI. Some commentators argue that AI …


Arbitration And Finra's Customer Code: A Tailored Approach To When A Forum Selection Clause May Supersede Finra Rule 12200, Peter Giovine Dec 2022

Arbitration And Finra's Customer Code: A Tailored Approach To When A Forum Selection Clause May Supersede Finra Rule 12200, Peter Giovine

Fordham Law Review

This Note examines a circuit split concerning whether forum selection clauses supersede Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Rule 12200, which requires FINRA members to arbitrate customer disputes upon the customer’s request. The U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Second and Ninth Circuits have upheld a waiver of the right to arbitrate even when arbitration is not explicitly mentioned in a forum selection clause. The U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Third and Fourth Circuits, on the other hand, have held that a forum selection clause that does not explicitly mention arbitration does not supersede FINRA Rule 12200. This Note explores …


One Person, How Many Votes? Measuring Prison Malapportionment, Ian Bollag-Miller Nov 2022

One Person, How Many Votes? Measuring Prison Malapportionment, Ian Bollag-Miller

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

“One-person, one-vote” is a fundamental principle of democracy. In practice, however, vote distribution among population groups is often less than equal. Even in established democracies, prison malapportionment—the distribution of legislative seats by counting incarcerated people in their prisons’ districts rather than their home districts—is one example of a practice that distorts voter representation. Prison malapportionment allows less populous districts that house prisons to maximize their voting power at the expense of more densely populated districts from which many incarcerated people previously lived. While there has been significant scholarship on the causes and effects of prison malapportionment, there is no standard …


Depoliticizing The Supreme Court Through Term Limits: A Worthwhile Reform Effort, Kara King Nov 2022

Depoliticizing The Supreme Court Through Term Limits: A Worthwhile Reform Effort, Kara King

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

The United States Supreme Court is in a legitimacy crisis. Americans are losing faith in the Supreme Court as an independent branch of government. As a result, policymakers and academics have put forth several proposals to reform the Court. The concept of an eighteen-year term limit maintains some bipartisan support and stands out as the most likely reform. This Article argues that term limits could help depoliticize the nomination process, bring greater stability to the Court, and restore confidence in the Court.


Taking History Seriously: Marjorie Taylor Greene, Reflections On Progressive Lawyering, And Section 3 Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Andrew G. Celli Jr. Nov 2022

Taking History Seriously: Marjorie Taylor Greene, Reflections On Progressive Lawyering, And Section 3 Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Andrew G. Celli Jr.

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

History has lessons to teach, and lawyers can learn from and use history in ways other than by cherry-picking from it. This Article contends that, while American history may be vexed, progressive lawyers can fully embrace history and hold it up into the light for consideration, all in service of progressive ends.

This Article describes a recent litigation that illustrates the point. In March 2022, the Author, together with other lawyers and a non-partisan pro-democracy group, represented voters from Georgia’s fourteenth congressional district in their effort to disqualify U.S. Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene from the Georgia ballot—based upon Section 3 …


Updating Anderson-Burdick To Evaluate Partisan Election Manipulation, Andrew Vazquez Nov 2022

Updating Anderson-Burdick To Evaluate Partisan Election Manipulation, Andrew Vazquez

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

This Article analyzes jurisprudence concerning the judicial review of election laws. It suggests that the United States Supreme Court’s approach should acknowledge the realities of political partisanship when reviewing challenged laws and regulations. Specifically, this Article proposes a judicial test to evaluate election laws for partisan biases using factors modeled on those employed by the Court in Gingles v. Thornburg. Simply put, the manipulation of election laws to pursue partisan advantages poses the greatest threat to our democracy. Accordingly, this Article concludes that protecting our democracy from election practices that benefit one party over another in the guise of …


An Anniversary Best Uncelebrated: The 75th Year Of The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, Roy E. Brownell Ii, John Rogan Nov 2022

An Anniversary Best Uncelebrated: The 75th Year Of The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, Roy E. Brownell Ii, John Rogan

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

On July 18, 1947, President Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act into law. The 1947 Act placed the Speaker of the House and the Senate president pro tempore in the presidential line of succession. Seventy-five years later, the statute needs major revision. Although the 1947 Act has not been used, the nation’s good fortune may change at any moment, especially given ever-present threats to the health and safety of the president and vice president.

This Article argues that Congress should revise the 1947 law in several ways, most notably by making Cabinet secretaries, in most circumstances, the immediate successors …


Increasing Voter Investment In American Democracy: Proposals For Reform, Adam Drake Nov 2022

Increasing Voter Investment In American Democracy: Proposals For Reform, Adam Drake

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

Millions of Americans choose to stay home every election cycle. Polling suggests that these nonvoters are either apathetic with respect to the democratic process or feel alienated from the United States government. Reforms to the democratic system should focus on alleviating these sentiments, ultimately encouraging more voters to show up to the polls. As turnout increases, so too does the legitimacy and stability of the U.S. government.

With that goal in mind, this Article advocates for a five- prong approach to reforming the electoral system. The first proposed step is to eliminate unnecessary barriers to voting by establishing federal automatic …


Making It Harder To Challenge Election Districting, Erwin Chemerinsky Nov 2022

Making It Harder To Challenge Election Districting, Erwin Chemerinsky

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

No abstract provided.


The Consent Of The Governed And The Right To Access The Ballot, John D. Feerick Nov 2022

The Consent Of The Governed And The Right To Access The Ballot, John D. Feerick

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

No abstract provided.


I Hope Tilden Was Right, Jerry H. Goldfeder Nov 2022

I Hope Tilden Was Right, Jerry H. Goldfeder

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

No abstract provided.


Updating Anderson-Burdick To Evaluate Partisan Manipulation Nov 2022

Updating Anderson-Burdick To Evaluate Partisan Manipulation

Voting Rights and Democracy Forum

This Article analyzes jurisprudence concerning the judicial review of election laws. It suggests that the United States Supreme Court’s approach should acknowledge the realities of political partisanship when reviewing challenged laws and regulations. Specifically, this Article proposes a judicial test to evaluate election laws for partisan biases using factors modeled on those employed by the Court in Gingles v. Thornburg. Simply put, the manipulation of election laws to pursue partisan advantages poses the greatest threat to our democracy. Accordingly, this Article concludes that protecting our democracy from election practices that benefit one party over another in the guise of …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Nuclear Weapons And The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, Rebecca C. Lubot Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Nuclear Weapons And The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, Rebecca C. Lubot

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | A White House Counsel’S Perspective On Presidential Health And The Line Of Succession, Arthur B. Culvahouse Jr. Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | A White House Counsel’S Perspective On Presidential Health And The Line Of Succession, Arthur B. Culvahouse Jr.

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Presidential And Vice Presidential Illness And The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, Rose Mcdermott Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Presidential And Vice Presidential Illness And The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, Rose Mcdermott

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Continuity Of Government Efforts, Garrett M. Graff Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Continuity Of Government Efforts, Garrett M. Graff

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Carl Albert, Bipartisanship, And Presidential Succession: Lessons From Watergate, Joseph J. Fins Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Carl Albert, Bipartisanship, And Presidential Succession: Lessons From Watergate, Joseph J. Fins

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Proposals To Reform The 1947 Act And How Reform Could Be Effectuated, John C. Fortier Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | Proposals To Reform The 1947 Act And How Reform Could Be Effectuated, John C. Fortier

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | How Close Has The United States Come To Having Lawmakers Succeed To The Presidency?, Roy E. Brownell Ii Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | How Close Has The United States Come To Having Lawmakers Succeed To The Presidency?, Roy E. Brownell Ii

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The Incumbency “Requirement” In The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947: Policy And Constitutional Considerations, James Ronan Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The Incumbency “Requirement” In The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947: Policy And Constitutional Considerations, James Ronan

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The 1947 Act And The Judiciary: Would The Courts Decide Who Is President?, Gregory F. Jacob Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The 1947 Act And The Judiciary: Would The Courts Decide Who Is President?, Gregory F. Jacob

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The Bumping Provisions Of The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947: Policy And Constitutional Considerations, Americo Cinquegrana Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The Bumping Provisions Of The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947: Policy And Constitutional Considerations, Americo Cinquegrana

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The Twentieth Amendment, The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, And Pre-Inaugural Problems, Brian C. Kalt Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | The Twentieth Amendment, The Presidential Succession Act Of 1947, And Pre-Inaugural Problems, Brian C. Kalt

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …


The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | A Defense Of The Legislative “Officer” Succession Provisions, Seth Barrett Tillman Nov 2022

The Presidential Succession Act At 75 | A Defense Of The Legislative “Officer” Succession Provisions, Seth Barrett Tillman

Fordham Law Review Online

These remarks were delivered as part of the program entitled The Presidential Succession Act at 75: Praise It or Bury It?, which was held on April 6, 2022, and hosted by the Fordham University School of Law. The Presidential Succession Act sets out the presidential line of succession and other procedures for situations in which the president and vice president have both died, resigned, been removed, or become unable to discharge the presidency’s powers and duties. The Act also addresses succession scenarios before Inauguration Day. In light of the statute’s seventy-fifth anniversary, this program explored relevant history and analyzed …