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A Reasonable Solution For Working Parents: Expanding Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act To Parents Of Children With Disabilities, Katherine Lease Jun 2019

A Reasonable Solution For Working Parents: Expanding Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act To Parents Of Children With Disabilities, Katherine Lease

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

There is a growing intersection between a woman’s child-rearing and work responsibilities, but federal law inadequately addresses this issue. For mothers who have a child with a disability, they face increased parenting demands, which often lead to detrimental changes in their employment status and negative perceptions of their work ability and commitment. Many women face expectations to simultaneously be the perfect mother and the ideal worker, but this is largely unattainable when faced with the demands of raising a child with a disability.

This Note will explore the development and inadequacy of the current protection against association discrimination, that ...


Graduate Student Employees Or Employee Graduate Students? The National Labor Relations Board And The Unionization Of Graduate Student Workers In Postsecondary Education, Leslie Crudele Apr 2019

Graduate Student Employees Or Employee Graduate Students? The National Labor Relations Board And The Unionization Of Graduate Student Workers In Postsecondary Education, Leslie Crudele

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Note concerns the ongoing debate over the unionization of graduate student employees at private universities. An issue that the National Labor Relations Board (the Board) has historically been inconsistent on, graduate student unionization remains a contentious topic as university administrators continue to try to oppose student unionization efforts while graduate student employees seek to assert their collective bargaining rights under the National Labor Relations Act (the NLRA or the Act).

This Note will propose two considerations that the Board should take into account concerning issues of graduate student employee unionization: the appropriate bargaining unit and bargainable issues in academia ...


#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle Apr 2019

#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Black Hair(Tage): Career Liability Or Civil Rights Issue?, Kaili Moss Apr 2019

Black Hair(Tage): Career Liability Or Civil Rights Issue?, Kaili Moss

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Chronic Harm, Ann Kennedy Apr 2019

Chronic Harm, Ann Kennedy

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Salary History Should Be Her Story: Upholding Regulations Of Salary History Through A Commercial Speech Analysis, Elizabeth Lester-Abdalla Nov 2018

Salary History Should Be Her Story: Upholding Regulations Of Salary History Through A Commercial Speech Analysis, Elizabeth Lester-Abdalla

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pregnancy As A Normal Condition Of Employment: Comparative And Role-Based Accounts Of Discrimination, Reva B. Siegel Feb 2018

Pregnancy As A Normal Condition Of Employment: Comparative And Role-Based Accounts Of Discrimination, Reva B. Siegel

William & Mary Law Review

As the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (PDA) turns forty, it is time to consider how we define pregnancy discrimination.

In recent years, courts have come to define pregnancy discrimination almost exclusively through comparison. Yet our understanding of discrimination, inside and outside the pregnancy context, depends on judgments about social roles as well as comparison. Both Congress and the Court appealed to social roles in defining the wrongs of pregnancy discrimination. In enacting the PDA, Congress repudiated employment practices premised on the view that motherhood is the end of women’s labor force participation, and affirmed a world in which ...


Motion To Dismiss For Failure To Succeed On The Merits: The Eeoc And Rule 12(B)(6), Perry F. Austin Feb 2018

Motion To Dismiss For Failure To Succeed On The Merits: The Eeoc And Rule 12(B)(6), Perry F. Austin

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bringing Up Baby Under The Fmla: How The Federal Unpaid Maternity Leave System In The United States Will Not Carry To Term, Samantha Jean Quan Forsyth Jan 2018

Bringing Up Baby Under The Fmla: How The Federal Unpaid Maternity Leave System In The United States Will Not Carry To Term, Samantha Jean Quan Forsyth

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Note will examine current maternity leave laws both within the United States and internationally, and argues that there are major issues with the existing federal law in the United States that render such legislation ineffective. This Note will further argue that because paid maternity leave remains almost exclusively as a benefit employers can choose to provide, the federal government should not only adopt a paid maternity leave program, but also ensure that it is broader and more encompassing than current legislation.


A Return On Investment: How The Breastfeeding Promotion Act Can Change The Make-Up Of The Private Workforce, Krishna Jani Apr 2017

A Return On Investment: How The Breastfeeding Promotion Act Can Change The Make-Up Of The Private Workforce, Krishna Jani

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Data-Driven Discrimination At Work, Pauline T. Kim Feb 2017

Data-Driven Discrimination At Work, Pauline T. Kim

William & Mary Law Review

A data revolution is transforming the workplace. Employers are increasingly relying on algorithms to decide who gets interviewed, hired, or promoted. Although data algorithms can help to avoid biased human decision-making, they also risk introducing new sources of bias. Algorithms built on inaccurate, biased, or unrepresentative data can produce outcomes biased along lines of race, sex, or other protected characteristics. Data mining techniques may cause employment decisions to be based on correlations rather than causal relationships; they may obscure the basis on which employment decisions are made; and they may further exacerbate inequality because error detection is limited and feedback ...


Bare Minimum: Stripping Pay For Independent Contractors In The Share Economy, Michael H. Leroy Jan 2017

Bare Minimum: Stripping Pay For Independent Contractors In The Share Economy, Michael H. Leroy

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

My study explores a small but revealing corner of the share economy, where an individual’s private resources are bartered for limited use by others in exchange for compensation. Strip clubs create value for owners by commoditizing sexual labor. Clubs avoid employment in favor of independent contracting with dancers. They pay no wages or benefits; patrons pay dancers with fees and tips. But clubs extract entry fees from dancers who work; require them to rent dressing rooms and stage time; and compel them to share tips with DJs, emcees, house moms, bouncers, and bartenders. My research identified seventy-five federal and ...


Leave And Marriage: The Flawed Progress Of Paternity Leave In The U.S. Military, T. J. Keefe Nov 2016

Leave And Marriage: The Flawed Progress Of Paternity Leave In The U.S. Military, T. J. Keefe

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Madonnas And Whores In The Workplace, Jessica Fink Feb 2016

Madonnas And Whores In The Workplace, Jessica Fink

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Much has been written about “lookism”—the preferential treatment given to those who conform to societal standards of beauty. But in a recent case before the Iowa Supreme Court, a sex discrimination plaintiff alleged “reverse-lookism,” claiming that her male employer terminated her long-term employment because she was too physically attractive, thus tempting the employer to consider entering into an extramarital affair. To the great surprise of many who followed this case, the Iowa Supreme Court sided with the employer, declining to find him liable for sex discrimination. As one might expect, uproar ensued, with the media, the public, and the ...


Jack & Jill Take Lots Of Pills, But Jill Comes Tumbling After: Gender Inequality In Privately Funded Early Phase Clinical Trials, Shana F. Oppenheim Feb 2016

Jack & Jill Take Lots Of Pills, But Jill Comes Tumbling After: Gender Inequality In Privately Funded Early Phase Clinical Trials, Shana F. Oppenheim

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Employment Discrimination Against Bisexuals: An Empirical Study, Ann E. Tweedy, Karen Yescavage May 2015

Employment Discrimination Against Bisexuals: An Empirical Study, Ann E. Tweedy, Karen Yescavage

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Cry Havoc: Are Incompetent Private Military Companies Ruining The Defense Base Act?, William Burke Feb 2015

Cry Havoc: Are Incompetent Private Military Companies Ruining The Defense Base Act?, William Burke

William & Mary Business Law Review

The Defense Base Act (“DBA” or “Act”) provides a no-fault, insurancebacked workers’ compensation mechanism for compensating private security contractors who are injured overseas. Critics of the Act allege that it should be fundamentally altered or replaced because combat zone work is uninsurable, the Act’s compensation is insufficient, and it is less efficient than the alternatives. This Note argues that, on the contrary, the DBA insurance market is functional and improving, its benefits are sufficient when viewed in combination with contractors’ other compensation, and it is a far more efficient compensation system than is offered by tort litigation. The flaws ...


Dias V. Archdiocese Of Cincinnati: Deciphering The Ministerial Exception To Title Vii Post-Hosanna-Tabor, Caroline O. Dehaan Feb 2015

Dias V. Archdiocese Of Cincinnati: Deciphering The Ministerial Exception To Title Vii Post-Hosanna-Tabor, Caroline O. Dehaan

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Social Framework Studies Such As Women Don’T Ask And It Does Hurt To Ask Show Us The Next Step Toward Achieving Gender Equality—Eliminating The Long-Term Effects Of Implicit Bias—But Are Not Likely To Get Cases Past Summary Judgment, Andrea Doneff May 2014

Social Framework Studies Such As Women Don’T Ask And It Does Hurt To Ask Show Us The Next Step Toward Achieving Gender Equality—Eliminating The Long-Term Effects Of Implicit Bias—But Are Not Likely To Get Cases Past Summary Judgment, Andrea Doneff

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Lawyers and judges long have relied on outside evidence—usually studies or empirical research—to help them better understand the impact or meaning of the facts in certain cases. In employment cases, lawyers have used studies that show statistical variance in hiring or promotion between men and women to prove discrimination. They have used studies that talk about implicit bias, the kind of bias that we apply without even knowing we are biased, perhaps the kind of bias we apply even when we are doing our best not to be biased, to understand that comments like “You should go to ...


The Unwelcome Requirement In Sexual Harassment: Choosing A Perspective And Incorporating The Effect Of Supervisor-Subordinate Relations, Larsa K. Ramsini May 2014

The Unwelcome Requirement In Sexual Harassment: Choosing A Perspective And Incorporating The Effect Of Supervisor-Subordinate Relations, Larsa K. Ramsini

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Prostitutes, Orphans, And Entrepreneurs: The Effect Of Public Perceptions Of Ghana's Girl Child Kayayei On Public Policy, Sheryl Buske Feb 2014

Prostitutes, Orphans, And Entrepreneurs: The Effect Of Public Perceptions Of Ghana's Girl Child Kayayei On Public Policy, Sheryl Buske

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

For a variety of reasons, including the growing disparity in resources and opportunities between Ghana’s mostly rural North and its urban South, the numbers and patterns of internal migration have changed dramatically over the last twenty years. Historically the province of men, and later women on a temporary basis that was tied to the rainy seasons, young girls between ten and sixteen years of age now make up the majority of the North-South migrants.

The lives of these girl migrants, who live and work in Ghana’s markets as porters, known locally as kayayoo, are complex and multifaceted. They ...


Innocent Beware: On Religion Clause Jurisprudence And The Negligent Retention Or Hiring Of Clergy, Mark Strasser Oct 2013

Innocent Beware: On Religion Clause Jurisprudence And The Negligent Retention Or Hiring Of Clergy, Mark Strasser

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Applying Equitable Estoppel To Erisa Pension Benefit Claims, Adam S. Mcgonigle Dec 2012

Applying Equitable Estoppel To Erisa Pension Benefit Claims, Adam S. Mcgonigle

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Disability Cause Lawyers, Michael E. Waterstone, Michael Ashley Stein, David B. Wilkins Mar 2012

Disability Cause Lawyers, Michael E. Waterstone, Michael Ashley Stein, David B. Wilkins

William & Mary Law Review

There is a vast and growing cause lawyering literature demonstrating how attorneys and their relationship to social justice movements matter greatly for law’s ability to engender progress. But to date, there has been no examination of the work of ADA disability cause lawyers as cause lawyers. Similarly, despite an extensive literature focused on the ADA’s revolutionary civil rights aspects and the manner in which the Supreme Court’s interpretation of that statute has stymied potential transformation of American society, no academic accounts of disability law have focused on the lawyers who bring these cases. This Article responds to ...


Negligent Hiring And The Information Age: How State Legislatures Can Save Employers From Inevitable Liability, Katherine A. Peebles Mar 2012

Negligent Hiring And The Information Age: How State Legislatures Can Save Employers From Inevitable Liability, Katherine A. Peebles

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Compatible Or Conflicting: The Promotion Of A High Level Of Employment And The Consumer Welfare Standard Under Article 101, Tom C. Hodge Feb 2012

Compatible Or Conflicting: The Promotion Of A High Level Of Employment And The Consumer Welfare Standard Under Article 101, Tom C. Hodge

William & Mary Business Law Review

The antitrust, or competition, regime of the European Union (EU) differs substantially from that of the United States, because EU competition law forms part of the EU Treaties and is therefore imbibed with the multiple values of the European Union itself. Accordingly, it is by no means clear or settled if the anti-cartel law of the European Union, Article 101 TFEU, must focus solely on a consumer welfare standard or must also consider the broad and multiple policy aims enshrined in the EU Treaties. If Article 101 must balance multiple aims, this would be in stark contrast to Section 1 ...


Culture Matters: Cultural Differences In The Reporting Of Employment Discrimination Claims, Andrew Tae-Hyun Kim Dec 2011

Culture Matters: Cultural Differences In The Reporting Of Employment Discrimination Claims, Andrew Tae-Hyun Kim

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Why don’t reasonable people complain about discrimination? Behavioral science evidence points to structural barriers, like the fear of retaliation and the lack of sociocultural power in the workplace, that discourage employees from reporting. By not reporting perceived discriminatory or harassing conduct, the employee not only underutilizes Title VII’s administrative scheme—which was created precisely to remedy and deter such conduct—but also incurs a heavy litigative cost in employer liability suits. This Article claims that for certain minority groups, namely Asian Americans, certain cultural differences significantly heighten those structural barriers and consequently leave them underprotected in the legal ...


Disparate Impact Realism, Amy L. Wax Nov 2011

Disparate Impact Realism, Amy L. Wax

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Citizens, United And Citizens United: The Future Of Labor Speech Rights?, Charlotte Garden Oct 2011

Citizens, United And Citizens United: The Future Of Labor Speech Rights?, Charlotte Garden

William & Mary Law Review

Within hours of its announcement, the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United v. FEC came under attack from progressive groups. Among these groups were some of America’s largest laborunions—even though the decision applies equally to unions and for profit corporations. The reason is clear: there exist both practical andstructural impediments that will prevent unions from benefittingfrom Citizens United to the same extent as corporations. Therefore,Citizens United stands to unleash a torrent of corporate electioneering that could drown out the countervailing voice of organized labor.

This Article, however, takes a broader view of Citizens United to explore ...


Texas Elective Workers' Compensation: A Model Of Innovation?, Jason Ohana Apr 2011

Texas Elective Workers' Compensation: A Model Of Innovation?, Jason Ohana

William & Mary Business Law Review

Workers' Compensation is often described as a bargain between employers and employees. Employees give up the right to sue their employers in negligence for workplace injuries, and, in return, employers agree to pay predictable, statutorily mandated benefits to injured employees. Over time, this “bargain” became compulsory in every state but one. Texas is the only state in which employers and employees can decide whether or not to enter the workers' compensation bargain. This elective system has some fairly serious problems, and many have advocated its abandonment. This Note analyzes the system's history, compares the system to conventional compulsory systems ...