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Full-Text Articles in Law

Step Therapy: Legal And Ethical Implications Of A Cost-Cutting Measure, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2018

Step Therapy: Legal And Ethical Implications Of A Cost-Cutting Measure, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

The very high and ever-increasing costs of medical care in the United States are well-recognized and much discussed. Health insurers have employed a variety of strategies in an effort to control their expenditures, including one that is common but has received relatively little attention: step therapy. Step therapy programs require patients to try less expensive treatments and find them to be ineffective or otherwise problematic before the insurer will approve a more high-priced option. This Article is the first law journal piece dedicated to analyzing this important cost control measure.

The Article explores the strengths and weaknesses of step therapy ...


Auer Evasions, Jonathan Adler Jan 2018

Auer Evasions, Jonathan Adler

Faculty Publications

Auer v. Robbins requires federal courts to defer to federal agency interpretations of ambiguous regulations. Auer built upon, and arguably expanded, the Court’s long-standing practice of deferring to agency interpretations of their own regulations born in Bowles v. Seminole Rock. Although initially uncontroversial, the doctrine has come under fire from legal commentators and prominent jurists, including Auer’s author, the late Justice Antonin Scalia. As Justice Scalia came to recognize, Auer deference enables agencies to evade a wide range of legal constraints that are otherwise imposed upon agency behavior, the ability of agencies to take action with the force ...


Food For Thought: Flexible Farm To School Procurement Policies Can Increase Access To Fresh, Healthy School Meals, Lauren Tonti Jan 2017

Food For Thought: Flexible Farm To School Procurement Policies Can Increase Access To Fresh, Healthy School Meals, Lauren Tonti

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article focuses on the enactment of farm to school procurement policies for providing students health and its impact in increasing access to fresh, healthy school meals in the U.S.


Caring For The Body And The Soul: Small Businesses Post-Hobby Lobby And Hhs Contraceptive Rule, James Lesinski Jan 2017

Caring For The Body And The Soul: Small Businesses Post-Hobby Lobby And Hhs Contraceptive Rule, James Lesinski

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article examines the corporate personhood movement and its impact on closely-held corporations and individuals focusing on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services rule.


Sex Education: Funding Facts, Not Fear, Rachel Rubenstein Jan 2017

Sex Education: Funding Facts, Not Fear, Rachel Rubenstein

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article offers information on the funding sex education programs enacted by the government for teaching about abstinence as the best method for avoiding sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancy and risks factors associated with it in the U.S. Topics discussed include analysis of California Healthy Youth Act as a model for adequate sex education; different forms of sex education; and enactment of Abstinence Education Grant Program for the same.


A Crisis Of Patent Law And Medical Innovation: The Category Of Diagnostic Claims In The Wake Of Ariosa V. Sequenom, Alexa Johnson Jan 2017

A Crisis Of Patent Law And Medical Innovation: The Category Of Diagnostic Claims In The Wake Of Ariosa V. Sequenom, Alexa Johnson

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article analysis the scope of patent eligibility of diagnostic tests in the U.S. focusing on Ariosa v. Sequenom and Mayo Collaborative Servs. v. Prometheus Labs., Inc. court case.


Essay: Creating A Culture Of Health - One University's Experience, Elizabeth Click Jan 2017

Essay: Creating A Culture Of Health - One University's Experience, Elizabeth Click

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article focuses on the university wellness initiative programs made for improving employee health, enhancing morale and the culture of health, and modifying healthcare expenses in the U.S.


Weapons Of Mass Hysteria, Faulty Biothreat Predictions, And Their Impact On National (In)Security: A Case-Study Of Smallpox, Barbara Pfeffer Billauer Jan 2017

Weapons Of Mass Hysteria, Faulty Biothreat Predictions, And Their Impact On National (In)Security: A Case-Study Of Smallpox, Barbara Pfeffer Billauer

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

Biothreat projections for pandemic and bioterrorist planning are generated by a straight-forward computational system, rather than scientific evidence.


Reproductive Selection Bias, Lauren R. Roth Jan 2017

Reproductive Selection Bias, Lauren R. Roth

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

Decades after the advent of assisted reproductive technology ("ART") that allows prospective parents to deselect embryos with grave genetic illnesses—a procedure called preimplantation genetic diagnosis ("PGD")— it remains a tool largely of upper-class whites. I argue that the time has come to focus on closing the access gap in this area of reproductive rights in spite of the current political climate. If reproductive liberty is tied to equality through access to medical procedures, scholars must finally answer the question of what equality requires in a system that permits the use of ARTs. This Article shows how the current system ...


The Prescription For Rising Drug Prices: Competition Or Price Controls?, Joanna Shepherd Jan 2017

The Prescription For Rising Drug Prices: Competition Or Price Controls?, Joanna Shepherd

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article focuses on the implementing of reforms aimed at promoting competition or prohibiting anticompetitive practices in rising drug prices in the U.S.


Caveat Emptor: How The Intersection Of Big Data And Consumer Genomics Exponentially Increases Information Privacy Risks, Katherine Drabiak Jan 2017

Caveat Emptor: How The Intersection Of Big Data And Consumer Genomics Exponentially Increases Information Privacy Risks, Katherine Drabiak

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

Our genomic sequence constitutes the most sensitive and personal of information: uniquely identifying us, revealing our propensity to develop certain diseases and conditions, and exposing familial connections of close genetic relatives. Big Data enables consumer-genomics companies to collect, store, and electronically share genomic-sequence data in conjunction with numerous pieces of private health and personal information.


Controlling Excessive Off-Label Medicare Drug Costs Through The False Claims Act, David Kwok Jan 2017

Controlling Excessive Off-Label Medicare Drug Costs Through The False Claims Act, David Kwok

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

High prescription drug prices are driving ever-increasing United States healthcare costs, and the federal government is following this alarming trend …


Underutilized Community Health Needs Assessments: Four Environmental Actions For Hospitals That Improve Community Health, Warren G. Lavey Jan 2017

Underutilized Community Health Needs Assessments: Four Environmental Actions For Hospitals That Improve Community Health, Warren G. Lavey

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

Tax-exempt hospitals' community health needs assessments ("CHNAs") provide an underutilized resource for healthcare organizations and communities. These studies and action commitments, which the Affordable Care Act ("ACA") requires, are linked to financial incentives for hospitals to manage population health.


The Eeoc, The Ada, And Workplace Wellness Programs, Samuel R. Bagenstos Jan 2017

The Eeoc, The Ada, And Workplace Wellness Programs, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article focuses on the role of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in workplace wellness programs in the U.S.


How Assuming Autonomy May Undermine Wellness Programs, Jessica L. Roberts, Leah R. Fowler Jan 2017

How Assuming Autonomy May Undermine Wellness Programs, Jessica L. Roberts, Leah R. Fowler

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

In recent years, corporate wellness programs have become a routine aspect of the employer-provided health-insurance system. While they vary tremendously in their requirements and incentives, what these programs share is the common goal of modifying employee behavior to improve health and, as a result, to lower costs. However, the effectiveness of wellness programs has been called into question.


Moving Beyond "Wellness Does Not Work", Dennis G. Shea, Dennis Scanlon Jan 2017

Moving Beyond "Wellness Does Not Work", Dennis G. Shea, Dennis Scanlon

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article focuses on the worksite wellness program (WWP) made by the employers for maintaining the industrial hygiene and also discusses the challenges faced by the employees in implementing the same in the U.S. Topics discussed include Pennsylvania State University's problematic effort in implementing a WWP.


Health Matrix, Health Matrix Jan 2017

Health Matrix, Health Matrix

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

No abstract provided.


The Outcomes, Economics, And Ethics Of The Workplace Wellness Industry, Al Lewis Jan 2017

The Outcomes, Economics, And Ethics Of The Workplace Wellness Industry, Al Lewis

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

On its surface, who can argue with the concept of workplace wellness? How could there be anything wrong with corporations helping their employees reduce their risk of disease while saving money in the process?


The Dubious Empirical And Legal Foundations Of Wellness Programs, Adrianno Mcintyre, Nicholas Bagley, Austin Frakt, Aaron Carroll Jan 2017

The Dubious Empirical And Legal Foundations Of Wellness Programs, Adrianno Mcintyre, Nicholas Bagley, Austin Frakt, Aaron Carroll

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

The article offers information on the dubious empirical and legal foundations of workplace wellness programs in the U.S. Topics discussed include enactment of Affordable Care Act for expanding the scope of incentives availas; analysis of financial incentives offered to the employees for encouraging their participation in wellness programs; and targeting incentives specifically toward individuals diagnosed with chronic diseases.


Masthead, Volume 27 (2017) Jan 2017

Masthead, Volume 27 (2017)

Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine

No abstract provided.


Klatsky Endowed Lecture, Presented By The U.N. High Commissioner For Human Rights, Prince Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein Jan 2017

Klatsky Endowed Lecture, Presented By The U.N. High Commissioner For Human Rights, Prince Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

A speech that discusses the quest for global justice through monitoring, factfinding and reporting injustices such as torture, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearance, sexual violence, slavery, murder, and discrimination.


International Hurdles In Nazi-Era And Russian Revolution Cultural Property Cases, Jennifer Anglim Kreder Jan 2017

International Hurdles In Nazi-Era And Russian Revolution Cultural Property Cases, Jennifer Anglim Kreder

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

The FSIA, however, did not do away with the common law act of state doctrine, which is another hurdle plaintiffs must overcome. Under the act of state doctrine, U.S. courts decline to hear suits challenging the acts of another sovereign in its own territory. This doctrine, too, is grounded in flexible principles of international comity. This essay discusses both the FSIA and the act of state doctrine in the context of cases seeking to recover art and cultural property taken during the Nazi-era and Russian Revolution after providing necessary historical background.


Property As Prophesy: Legal Realism And The Indeterminancy Of Ownership, John Humbach Jan 2017

Property As Prophesy: Legal Realism And The Indeterminancy Of Ownership, John Humbach

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

Property law, like all law, is indeterminate. This means that ownership itself is indeterminate and every owner is vulnerable to challenges based on unexpected legal rules or newly created ones. Even the most seemingly secure rights can be defeated or compromised if a clever-enough lawyer is retained to mount a challenge. The casebooks used in first-year property courses are full of examples. In the case of particularly valuable property, such as works of art, the motivation to fashion arguments to support ownership challenges is obvious. Short and strictly interpreted statutes of limitations can mitigate the risks to ownership by cabining ...


Introduction: 2016 Klatsky Endowed Lecture In Human Rights, Bruce J. Klatsky Jan 2017

Introduction: 2016 Klatsky Endowed Lecture In Human Rights, Bruce J. Klatsky

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

No abstract provided.


A More Acceptable Solution: The Proposed European Union Agency Of Asylum And Refugees, Sarah Katz Jan 2017

A More Acceptable Solution: The Proposed European Union Agency Of Asylum And Refugees, Sarah Katz

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

This Note details the improvements that should be made to a recent proposal submitted by a group of scholars to the European Parliament. The scholars have suggested that the European Union create an independent organization to process asylum applications and to deal with refugee issues in the European Union. This Note agrees with this central proposal, but fleshes out more details that are missing from this initial proposition. The five aspects of refugee processing are detailed in turn: (1) defining a refugee; (2) assigning responsibility for dealing with asylum claims; (3) reception conditions; (4) temporary protection; and (5) long-term residence ...


Water Scarcity: Preventing Future Conflicts, Rush O'Connor Jan 2017

Water Scarcity: Preventing Future Conflicts, Rush O'Connor

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

This Note focuses on nations with shared water sources forming transboundary agreements to promote peaceful solutions and to protect people's right to water. Given the growing scarcity of water, this Note emphasizes the urgent need to create agreements. It argues that international agreements are ineffective with respect to protecting the right to water and do not create proper forums for settling disputes over water. Yet international organizations can take an active role in helping to form transboundary agreements and acting as mediators when an agreement fails. This Note then explores how transboundary agreements work and why they are better ...


Talking Foreign Policy: Art, Diplomacy And Accountability, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2017

Talking Foreign Policy: Art, Diplomacy And Accountability, Michael P. Scharf

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

Michael P. Scharf, Paul R. Williams, Mark Ellis, William Schabas, Shannon French, and Milena Sterio discuss art and international law topics.

Broadcast quarterly, "Talking Foreign Policy" is a one-hour radio program hosted by Case Western Reserve University School of Law Co-Dean Michael Scharf in which experts discuss the salient foreign policy issues of the day. The broadcast on October 7, 2016, addressed international law and art.


Falling Short For Labor: Why The Trans-Pacific Partnership Does Not Do Enough For Workers' Rights, And Evaluating Better Options, Judd Cohen Jan 2017

Falling Short For Labor: Why The Trans-Pacific Partnership Does Not Do Enough For Workers' Rights, And Evaluating Better Options, Judd Cohen

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

Using free trade agreements to increase labor standards in developing countries has not worked. Although most critics focus on lack of enforcement by the U.S., the real problem is the inherent tension between using free trade to make money, and spending money to improve labor standards. If the U.S. were to enforce labor standards, it would destroy the gains from free trade, which is why there is no incentive for developed countries to enforce the agreements. The Trans-Pacific Partnership is the latest example of a U.S. free trade agreement that does not address the tension between trade ...


South-South Cooperation On The Return Of Cultural Property: The Case Of South America, Alice Lopes Fabris Jan 2017

South-South Cooperation On The Return Of Cultural Property: The Case Of South America, Alice Lopes Fabris

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

This article challenges the notion that “south” countries fail to protect cultural property. Instead, it demonstrates that south countries have strong policies for the return of cultural property and against trafficking. This article will first analyze the international and regional policy frameworks, as well as bilateral agreements regarding the protection of cultural property against illicit trafficking. The second part of this article examines actions taken by the South American States for the return of cultural property. Finally, this article presents case studies of cultural property restituted among South American countries.


The Ethics Of The International Display Of Fashion In The Museum, Felicia Caponigri Jan 2017

The Ethics Of The International Display Of Fashion In The Museum, Felicia Caponigri

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

First, the article engages with the crucial question of how fashion is cultural heritage, or, at least, how fashion can be considered a part of the ICOM Code’s definition of heritage, and therefore within the scope of the minimum ethical standards it sets forth for its members and potentially for museums at large. Second, the article presents the ICOM Code, contextualizing it within the ICOM’s framework as a nongovernmental international public interest organization, and examines how the ICOM Code is a source of general principles of international law. As part of this section, the article also highlights how ...