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Criminal justice system

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Treatment Of People With Mental Illness In The Criminal Justice System: The Example Of Oneida County, New York, Alexander Black '19, Kylie Davis '18, Kenneth Gray '20, Connor O'Shea '18, Alexander Scheuer '18, Samantha Walther '18, Nico Yardas '18, Frank M. Anechiarico, Ralph Eannace, Jennifer Ambrose Jun 2019

The Treatment Of People With Mental Illness In The Criminal Justice System: The Example Of Oneida County, New York, Alexander Black '19, Kylie Davis '18, Kenneth Gray '20, Connor O'Shea '18, Alexander Scheuer '18, Samantha Walther '18, Nico Yardas '18, Frank M. Anechiarico, Ralph Eannace, Jennifer Ambrose

Student Scholarship

This publication is two-fold: an executive summary and the report itself. The executive summary provides a general overview of the larger report, on the criminalization of the mentally ill. It begins by summarizing three case studies from the report that concern the intersection of mental health issues and the criminal justice system in Oneida County in New York State. It then provides a brief historical overview of mental health issues and the criminal justice system before going on to discuss the current best practices in addressing the criminalization of the mentally ill, including law-enforcement mechanisms, mental health courts, and reintegration ...


Down To The Last Strike: The Effect Of The Jury Lottery On Conviction Rates, Scott Kostyshak, Neel U. Sukhatme Apr 2019

Down To The Last Strike: The Effect Of The Jury Lottery On Conviction Rates, Scott Kostyshak, Neel U. Sukhatme

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

How much does luck matter to a criminal defendant in a jury trial? We use rich data on jury selection and a novel identification strategy to causally estimate how parties who are randomly assigned a less favorable jury (as proxied by whether their attorneys exhaust their peremptory strikes) fare at trial. We find that criminal defendants who lose the “jury lottery” are more likely to be convicted than their similarly-situated counterparts, with a significant effect for black defendants. Our results are robust to alternate specifications and raise important policy questions about race and the use of peremptory strikes in the ...


The Colourful Truth: The Reality Of Indigenous Overrepresentation In Juvenile Detention In Australia And The United States, Rachel Thampapillai Dec 2018

The Colourful Truth: The Reality Of Indigenous Overrepresentation In Juvenile Detention In Australia And The United States, Rachel Thampapillai

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Criminal Justice System And Latinos In An Emerging Latino Area, Betina Cutaia Wilkinson Aug 2018

The Criminal Justice System And Latinos In An Emerging Latino Area, Betina Cutaia Wilkinson

Latino Public Policy

The topic of my study is Latinos’ attitudes and experiences with the criminal justice system in an emerging Latino area. There is an extensive amount of research on African Americans’ experiences and views of the criminal justice system yet our knowledge of Latinos’ experiences with the criminal justice system is quite scant. Still, a few studies have provided some foundation for our understanding of this topic. We know that immigrant policing is associated with Latinos’ reduced trust in government agencies and its programs (Cruz Nichols et al. 2018a). Restrictive immigration policies negatively impact Latinos’ physical and mental health (Cruz Nichols ...


Equal Protection And White Supremacy, Paul Butler Jun 2018

Equal Protection And White Supremacy, Paul Butler

Northwestern University Law Review

The project of using social science to help win equal protection claims is doomed to fail if its premise is that the Supreme Court post-McCleskey just needs more or better evidence of racial discrimination. Everyone—including the Justices of the Court—already knows that racial discrimination is endemic in the criminal justice system. Social science does help us to understand the role of white supremacy in U.S. police and punishment practices. Social science also can help us understand how to move people to resist, and can inform our imagination of the transformation needed for equal justice under the ...


Conflicting Approaches To Addressing Ex-Offender Unemployment: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit And Ban The Box, Katherine English Apr 2018

Conflicting Approaches To Addressing Ex-Offender Unemployment: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit And Ban The Box, Katherine English

Indiana Law Journal

Each year, roughly 700,000 prisoners are released from their six-by-eight-foot cells and back into society. Sadly, though, many of these ex-prisoners are not truly free. Upon returning to society, they often encounter several challenges that prevent them from resuming a normal, reintegrated lifestyle. For many, the difficulties associated with reentry prove to be too much, and within a short three years of their release, two-thirds of ex-offenders are rearrested, reconvicted, and thrown back into the familiar six-by-eight-foot cell. Recidivism might appear to be entirely the exoffenders’ fault, but ex-offenders are not solely responsible for these recidivism rates or the ...


The Idea Of "The Criminal Justice System", Sara Mayeux Jan 2018

The Idea Of "The Criminal Justice System", Sara Mayeux

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The phrase "the criminal justice system " is ubiquitous in discussions of criminal law, policy, and punishment in the United States-so ubiquitous that, at least in colloquial use, almost no one thinks to question the phrase. However, this way of describing and thinking about police, courts, jails, and prisons, as a holistic "system, " became pervasive only in the 1960s. This essay contextualizes the idea of "the criminal justice system" within the longer history of systems theories more generally, drawing on recent scholarship in intellectual history and the history of science. The essay then recounts how that longer history converged, in 1967 ...


Rethinking The Boundaries Of "Criminal Justice", Benjamin Levin Jan 2018

Rethinking The Boundaries Of "Criminal Justice", Benjamin Levin

Articles

This review of The New Criminal Justice Thinking (Sharon Dolovich & Alexandra Natapoff, eds.) tracks the shifting and uncertain contours of “criminal justice” as an object of study and critique.

Specifically, I trace two themes in the book:

(1) the uncertain boundaries of the “criminal justice system” as a web of laws, actors, and institutions; and

(2) the uncertain boundaries of “criminal justice thinking” as a universe of interdisciplinary scholarship, policy discourse, and public engagement.

I argue that these two themes speak to critically important questions about the nature of criminal justice scholarship and reform efforts. Without a firm understanding of what constitutes the “criminal justice system,” it is difficult to agree on the proper targets of critique or to determine what legal, social, and political problems are properly the province of “criminal justice thinking.” And, deciding which voices to accept and privilege in these ...


Revisiting The Voluntariness Of Confessions After State V. Sawyer, Michael Theodore Bigos Dec 2017

Revisiting The Voluntariness Of Confessions After State V. Sawyer, Michael Theodore Bigos

Maine Law Review

Every individual in our society needs confidence in our criminal justice system to know that one cannot be convicted of a crime unless a fact finder is convinced of every necessary element with the highest assurances of the truth. The process of establishing facts in a criminal trial is highly dependent upon how decision-making power is allocated between the judge and the jury and upon the fairness of that allocation. This Note discusses the areas of confession law and burdens of proof in the context of how federal criminal constitutional doctrines that affect the fact-finding process offer less than clear ...


Restorative Justice: A Look At Victim Offender Mediation Programs, Katie L. Moran Aug 2017

Restorative Justice: A Look At Victim Offender Mediation Programs, Katie L. Moran

21st Century Social Justice

This report conceptualizes the effectiveness and benefits of utilizing the restorative justice model of Victim Offender Mediation (VOM) within the criminal and juvenile justice systems to serve the rights of victims, offenders, and society more justly. Victim Offender Mediation is discussed as a possible alternative justice model which reframes the victim-offender relationship to foster and respect the dignity and worth of each participant. This restorative justice model combats victims’ feelings of helplessness by giving them back their voice, while having the potential to specifically offer relief to those secondarily victimized by the legal system in cases of simple rape. Offenders ...


The Duty To Charge In Police Use Of Excessive Force Cases, Rebecca Roiphe Jul 2017

The Duty To Charge In Police Use Of Excessive Force Cases, Rebecca Roiphe

Cleveland State Law Review

Responding to the problems of mass incarceration, racial disparities in justice, and wrongful convictions, scholars have focused on prosecutorial overcharging. They have, however, neglected to address undercharging—the failure to charge in entire classes of cases. Undercharging can similarly undermine the efficacy and legitimacy of the criminal justice system. While few have focused on this question in the domestic criminal law context, international law scholars have long recognized the social and structural cost for nascent democratic states when they fail to charge those responsible for the prior regime’s human rights abuses. This sort of impunity threatens the rule of ...


Jury Consideration Of Parole, Fernand N. Dutile Mar 2017

Jury Consideration Of Parole, Fernand N. Dutile

Fernand "Tex" N. Dutile

No abstract provided.


The French Prosecutor As Judge. The Carpenter’S Mistake?, Mathilde Cohen Dec 2016

The French Prosecutor As Judge. The Carpenter’S Mistake?, Mathilde Cohen

Mathilde Cohen

In France as elsewhere, prosecutors and their offices are seldom seen as agents of democracy. A distinct theoretical framework is itself missing to conceptualize the prosecutorial function in democratic states committed to the rule of law. What makes prosecutors democratically legitimate? Can they be made accountable to the public? Combining democratic theory with original qualitative empirical data, my hypothesis is that in the French context, prosecutors’ professional status and identity as judges determines to a great extent whether and how they can be considered democratic figures.
 
The French judicial function is defined more broadly than in the United States, encompassing ...


Punitive Compensation, Cortney E. Lollar Jul 2016

Punitive Compensation, Cortney E. Lollar

Cortney Lollar

Criminal restitution is a core component of punishment. In its current form, this remedy rarely serves restitution's traditional aim of disgorging a defendant's ill-gotten gains. Instead, courts use this monetary award not only to compensate crime victims for intangible losses, but also to punish the defendant for the moral blameworthiness of her criminal action. Because the remedy does not fit into the definition of what most consider "restitution," this Article advocates for the adoption of a new, additional designation for this prototypically punitive remedy: punitive compensation. Unlike with restitution, courts measure punitive compensation by a victim's losses ...


The Stereotyped Offender: Domestic Violence And The Failure Of Intervention [Batterer Intervention Program (Bip) Standards Data, As Of 2015], Carolyn B. Ramsey Jun 2016

The Stereotyped Offender: Domestic Violence And The Failure Of Intervention [Batterer Intervention Program (Bip) Standards Data, As Of 2015], Carolyn B. Ramsey

Research Data

These 19 comparative data tables relating to state and local certification standards for batterer intervention programs (BIPs), as of 2015, are electronic Appendices B-T to Carolyn B. Ramsey, The Stereotyped Offender: Domestic Violence and the Failure of Intervention, 120 Penn. St. L. Rev. 337 (2015), available at http://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/56/. Appendix A is not reproduced here because it simply contains citations to the state and local standards, but it is published with the journal article.


The Jurisdiction Of The Irish Courts In The Protection Of The Constitutional Rights Of A Person Accused Of A Crime., Adrian Berski May 2016

The Jurisdiction Of The Irish Courts In The Protection Of The Constitutional Rights Of A Person Accused Of A Crime., Adrian Berski

Reports

Studying the Irish Constitutional Law, requires the understanding of how the Irish Political System was evolved. Montesquieu's tripartite system, adopted by the Republic of Ireland is the judiciary[1] has a particular place in the Irish Constitution in articles 34 - 37[2].

The main purpose of this essay is to analyse the balance between the jurisdiction of the Irish Courts in the protection of the constitutional rights of a person accused of a crime and the functioning of the criminal justice system in protecting Society`s general interest. The first section presents a brief summary of the courts functions ...


From Slavery To Hip-Hop: Punishing Black Speech And What’S “Unconstitutional” About Prosecuting Young Black Men Through Art, Donald F. Tibbs, Shelly Chauncey Jan 2016

From Slavery To Hip-Hop: Punishing Black Speech And What’S “Unconstitutional” About Prosecuting Young Black Men Through Art, Donald F. Tibbs, Shelly Chauncey

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This Article, by Professor Donald F. Tibbs and third-year law student Shelly Chauncey, both from the Thomas R. Kline School of Law at Drexel University, addresses the disproportionate targeting and convictions of the African American community through the lens of the “hip-hop” generation. Tibbs and Chauncey show how the prosecutorial use of rap videos and lyrics serves to criminalize Black males within the larger context of policing Black speech in American law. The authors argue that this process is rooted in racial bias toward young Black men and serves no legitimate place in their prosecution.


Newsroom: The Jail Trap: Mass Incarceration In Ri, Roger Williams University School Of Law Dec 2015

Newsroom: The Jail Trap: Mass Incarceration In Ri, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Justice Is The Crime, James G. France Aug 2015

Book Review: Justice Is The Crime, James G. France

Akron Law Review

[R]eform suggestions are bold, sometimes to the point of brashness. Many of them are urgently needed, but few are new. They bear a curious resemblance to those offered by the National Conference on the Judiciary in its Concensus Report, and to some of the more recent reports and recommendations of state court studies, all financed by L.E.A.A. grants, some of them quite substantial. It is as if the real source of the proposals was in the Department of Justice in Washington, all for the benefit of the untutored provincials. These suggestions are of three types: Those ...


Newsroom: Horwitz On Ri Probation Reform, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jul 2015

Newsroom: Horwitz On Ri Probation Reform, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Adjudicating Cases Involving Adolescents In Suffolk County Criminal Courts, Honorable Fernando Camacho Jul 2015

Adjudicating Cases Involving Adolescents In Suffolk County Criminal Courts, Honorable Fernando Camacho

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Finding Time For Federal Habeas Corpus: Carey V. Saffold, Karen M. Marshall Jul 2015

Finding Time For Federal Habeas Corpus: Carey V. Saffold, Karen M. Marshall

Akron Law Review

This Note begins by looking at the history of the writ of habeas corpus in the United States. There is a brief overview of the background and history of the AEDPA, specifically targeting the changes the AEDPA made to the law of federal habeas corpus. Next, the habeas corpus procedure in California is reviewed. Finally, this Note explains the Supreme Court’s decision in Carey v. Saffold, focusing on the Court’s policy rationale and what the lack of support for habeas corpus means for the future of the writ.


Punitive Compensation, Cortney E. Lollar Jul 2015

Punitive Compensation, Cortney E. Lollar

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Criminal restitution is a core component of punishment. In its current form, this remedy rarely serves restitution's traditional aim of disgorging a defendant's ill-gotten gains. Instead, courts use this monetary award not only to compensate crime victims for intangible losses, but also to punish the defendant for the moral blameworthiness of her criminal action. Because the remedy does not fit into the definition of what most consider "restitution," this Article advocates for the adoption of a new, additional designation for this prototypically punitive remedy: punitive compensation. Unlike with restitution, courts measure punitive compensation by a victim's losses ...


Neuroscience And Juvenile Justice, Jay D. Aronson Jun 2015

Neuroscience And Juvenile Justice, Jay D. Aronson

Akron Law Review

Recent advances in the field of neuroscience, especially improved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, are providing scientists and decision-makers with an increasingly complex understanding of how our brains develop from birth to adulthood. While these studies are still in their infancy, they have already made it clear that the brain typically continues to develop long after the point at which an individual becomes a legal adult (i.e., at age 18), and that the slow maturation process that plays out in the social context is mirrored by a slow maturation process at the neural level. Despite the tentative nature and ...


The Duke Rape Case Five Years Later: Lessons For The Academy, The Media, And The Criminal Justice System, Dan Subotnik Jun 2015

The Duke Rape Case Five Years Later: Lessons For The Academy, The Media, And The Criminal Justice System, Dan Subotnik

Akron Law Review

The time that has since passed allows for a more comprehensive evaluation of the cultural meaning of the Duke Rape case. This is the goal of the newly released “Institutional Failures,” which constitutes a point of departure for this review. The aim of this article is first to clarify the contribution this book makes to an understanding of the case. I will describe and analyze the content of the nine essays that make up the book; I will make reference to related works, and I will offer a concluding evaluation of the book’s likely impact.


Response To "The Duke Rape Case Five Years Later: Lessons For The Academy, The Media, And The Criminal Justice System" By Dan Subotnik, Tracey Jean Boisseau Jun 2015

Response To "The Duke Rape Case Five Years Later: Lessons For The Academy, The Media, And The Criminal Justice System" By Dan Subotnik, Tracey Jean Boisseau

Akron Law Review

There are all kinds of injustices in the world—unwarranted punishments and deprivations of liberty as well as undeserved material, psychological, and emotional injuries, inequities, and wrongs. False accusations provide the basis for one of the most poignant narratives of injustice because we have the sense that someone punished for a specific, discrete act that they did not commit is entirely innocent, not only of that discrete act but in some sort of existential sense of the word. ...Tragic irony is always compelling in a narrative, but, if one can identify with that falsely accused person, either because one shares ...


What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar Jan 2015

What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar

Cortney Lollar

A new form of restitution has become a core aspect of criminal punishment. Courts now order defendants to compensate victims for an increasingly broad category of losses, including emotional and psychological losses and losses for which the defendant was not found guilty. Criminal restitution therefore moves far beyond its traditional purpose of disgorging a defendant's ill-gotten gains. Instead, restitution has become a mechanism of imposing additional punishment. Courts, however, have failed to recognize the punitive nature of restitution and thus enter restitution orders without regard to the constitutional protections that normally attach to criminal proceedings. This Article deploys a ...


Criminal Law And Procedure: An Overview, Ronald J. Bacigal, Mary Kelly Tate Jan 2015

Criminal Law And Procedure: An Overview, Ronald J. Bacigal, Mary Kelly Tate

Law Faculty Publications

Although the specific tasks of criminal justice professionals vary, a fundamental knowledge of the substantive criminal law and the essence of criminal procedure is crucial to the performance of a criminal justice professional. In simplified form, the foundation for this specialized knowledge of the criminal justice system is the subject matter of this book.


Principles For Establishment Of A Rule Of Law Criminal Justice System, William M. Cohen Nov 2014

Principles For Establishment Of A Rule Of Law Criminal Justice System, William M. Cohen

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar Nov 2014

What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A new form of restitution has become a core aspect of criminal punishment. Courts now order defendants to compensate victims for an increasingly broad category of losses, including emotional and psychological losses and losses for which the defendant was not found guilty. Criminal restitution therefore moves far beyond its traditional purpose of disgorging a defendant's ill-gotten gains. Instead, restitution has become a mechanism of imposing additional punishment. Courts, however, have failed to recognize the punitive nature of restitution and thus enter restitution orders without regard to the constitutional protections that normally attach to criminal proceedings. This Article deploys a ...