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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Mixed Messages Of Title Ix, Sherman J. Clark Dec 2000

The Mixed Messages Of Title Ix, Sherman J. Clark

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Introduction to a University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform Symposium entitled Competing in the 21st Century: Title IX, Gender Equity, and Athletics.


Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber Dec 2000

Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores what nondiscrimination means in the context of intercollegiate athletics. After reviewing the Department of Education's controversial Title IX Policy Interpretation, it critically examines the analytical framework used in Title IX athletic cases and concludes that commonly made analogies to litigation under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act are inapt. A major part of the Article is an empirical study, looking first at gender equity plans written by institutions of higher education for the National Collegiate Athletic Association and then at data collected from more than 325 institutions pursuant to the Equity in Athletics Disclosure ...


The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake Dec 2000

The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Title IX's three-part test for measuring discrimination in the provision of athletic opportunities to male and female students has generated heated controversy in recent years. In this Article, Professor Brake discusses the theoretical underpinnings behind the three-part test and offers a comprehensive justification of this theory as applied to the context of sport. She begins with an analysis of the test's relationship to other areas of sex discrimination law, concluding that, unlike most contexts, Title IX rejects formal equality as its guiding theory, adopting instead an approach that focuses on the institutional structures that subordinate girls and women ...


Pay Equity For Coaches And Athletic Administrators: An Element Of Title Ix?, Barbara Osborne, Marilyn V. Yarbrough Dec 2000

Pay Equity For Coaches And Athletic Administrators: An Element Of Title Ix?, Barbara Osborne, Marilyn V. Yarbrough

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this Article, Professors Osborne and Yarbrough address the issue of gender discrimination in the compensation of coaches and athletic administrators. They discuss the application of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII to pay inequity claims and conclude that both have proven to be inadequate as a means of addressing the problem. Professors Osborne and Yarbrough then present Title IX as a way of countering the problem of gender discrimination in the compensation of coaches. They also discuss the prospects for gender equality in compensation by considering several cases addressing the issue. Finally, they offer recommendations both ...


Equally Bad Is Not Good: Allowing Title Ix "Compliance" By The Elimination Of Men's Collegiate Sports, Donald E. Shelton Dec 2000

Equally Bad Is Not Good: Allowing Title Ix "Compliance" By The Elimination Of Men's Collegiate Sports, Donald E. Shelton

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Athletic participation is an important part of the educational process, instilling important lessons about discipline and teamwork. Title IX was intended to address the historic lack of opportunities for women and girls to participate in school athletics. Unfortunately, the current administrative interpretation of Title IX permits the elimination of male athletic opportunities as a means of complying with the statute's equality standard. This result undermines the purpose of Title IX and the role of athletics in the educational process for all students.


An "Olympics" Approach: A More Equitable Approach To Athletics Than Title Ix Offers, Marcia Federbush Dec 2000

An "Olympics" Approach: A More Equitable Approach To Athletics Than Title Ix Offers, Marcia Federbush

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

A speech from Marcia Federbush, the writer of the first comprehensive Title IX complaint against a major university - the University of Michigan.


A Unifying Theory Of Sex Discrimination, Henry L. Chambers, Jr. Jan 2000

A Unifying Theory Of Sex Discrimination, Henry L. Chambers, Jr.

Law Faculty Publications

The structure of this Article is as follows. Part I consists of a hypothetical situation which will be referenced throughout the Article to illustrate sex discrimination jurisprudence. Part II describes the Supreme Court's disparate treatment jurisprudence. Part III describes the Court's restructuring of sexual harassment jurisprudence. Finally, Part IV examines the elimination of the distinction between sexual harassment and disparate treatment and its implications, including the new hostile work environment disparate treatment claim.


Sex, Race, And Age: Double Discrimination In Torts And Taxes, Mark J. Wolff Jan 2000

Sex, Race, And Age: Double Discrimination In Torts And Taxes, Mark J. Wolff

Washington University Law Review

This Article first provides the traditional scholarly survey of legislative history, statutory analysis, and governmental and judicial interpretations. Part II reviews the history of § 104(a)(2) and offers a substantive inquiry into the Supreme Court opinions in United States v. Burke, Commissioner v. Schleier, and in the major cases leading up to these decisions. Part III then reviews the tax policy assumptions supporting § 104(a)(2) from a perspective of both before and after the 1996 amendments. Part IV chronicles the history and current status of various federally enacted civil rights statutes. This part then presents a historical ...


The Glass Ceiling In Law Firms: A Form Of Sex-Based Discrimination, Rebecca Korzec Jan 2000

The Glass Ceiling In Law Firms: A Form Of Sex-Based Discrimination, Rebecca Korzec

All Faculty Scholarship

At a certain level, women lawyers collide with a "glass ceiling," an invisible, artificial barrier which prevents women from being promoted to management and leadership positions within a business or firm. The glass ceiling 'represents a subtle form of sex discrimination - unwritten, generally unspoken, but very pervasive.' Its presence is reflected in trends and statistics which consistently reveal women's underrepresentation in executive and management positions.

This article focuses on whether the glass ceiling formed as a result of sex discrimination, blatant or subtle, or whether it formed as a result of women lawyers' differing qualifications or career choices. It ...


Sexuality And Civil Rights: Re-Imagining Anti-Discrimination Laws, Nan D. Hunter Jan 2000

Sexuality And Civil Rights: Re-Imagining Anti-Discrimination Laws, Nan D. Hunter

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In this essay, I first describe the origins and current status of anti-discrimination laws that cover sexual orientation and/or gender identity. I examine the debates over whether existing laws are underutilized, and I analyze the variations in the structures of state and local laws that contribute to an unevenness in the patterns of utilization. These factors suggest that even persons living in states or local jurisdictions that already have anti-discrimination laws may lack meaningful mechanisms for redress. Part two raises the ante in my exploration of the relationship between sexuality and civil rights laws by asking whether there are ...


Gay People, Trans People, Women: Is It All About Gender?, Chai R. Feldblum Jan 2000

Gay People, Trans People, Women: Is It All About Gender?, Chai R. Feldblum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A few gay rights theorists have long pointed out that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation can be conceived of as discrimination based on sex. But those of us who play primarily in the legislative or litigation arenas have largely ignored the practical applications of that insight. In this brief essay, I want to consider whether it makes sense for gay rights legislative advocates and litigators to continue to downplay the gender non-conformity aspects of gay sexual orientation . . . the first part of this essay reviews activities that occurred between 1993 and 2001 regarding coverage of gender identity in ENDA ...